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length. On the reverse is a shell-fish in the sea, with the moon and seven stars, bearing the inscription SERENA CALSA FAVENT. There is also a curious lozenge-shaped coin of the same with the arms of Portugal, and the king's name and title: On the reverse is a cross with the inscription IN HOC SIGNO VINCES, 1578.
8. Satiric medals.-These began almost as soon as the knowledge of the art of coining medals was revived. They seem to have been almost unknown to the ancients. One indeed of the emperor Gallienus is supposed to have been satiric. It has on the front the emperor's bust, with the inscription GALLIENA AUG. the reverse is Peace in a car, PAX UBIQUE; but this has been proved to be only a blundered coin. Some other ancient medals, however, are not liable to this objection. The first modern satiric medal published was that of Frederic king of Sicily in 1501 against his antagonist Ferdinand king of Spain. It has on one side the head of Ferdinand with the inscription FERDINANDUS R. AR. VETUS VULPES ORBIS; on the reverse a wolf carrying off a sheep, JVGVM MEVM SVAVE EST, ET ONVS MEVM LEVE. Many others have been struck, of which the wit would now perhaps be difficult to be found out: but of all nations the Dutch have most distinguished themselves in this way; and paid very dear for their conduct, as they brought upon themselves by one or two satiric medals the whole power of France under Louis XIV.
9. English medals.-The first of these is in the duke of Devonshire's collection. It is of a large size, and done on the plan of the early Italian medals. It has on the reverse the arms of Kendal, with the inscription TEMPORE OBSIDIONIS TURCORUM, MCCCCLXXX. On the other side is a por. trait with 10. KENDAL RHODI TVRCVPELLERIVS. It was found last century in Knaresborough forest; but Mr. Pinkerton has no doubt of its having been done in Italy. The next is that of Henry VIII. in 1545, and is of gold, larger than the crown-piece, with the king's head upon the obverse, and three legends, within each other, including his titles, &c. The reverse contains two inscriptions, declaring him to be the head of the church; the one in Hebrew, the other in Greek. It was imitated exactly by Edward VI. whose coronation medal is the first we have. There are two medals of Philip and Mary, whose execution is tolerably good; but those of Elizabeth are very poor. There are good medals of James I. and his queen; with a fine one of Charles I. and Henrietta, though the workmanship is much inferior to the antique. There are many good medals of Charles, with various devices upon their reverses. Under the commonwealth the celebrated Simon produced medals which are deservedly reckoned the most admirable pieces of modern workmanship. There are many good medals of Charles II. James II. and William III. Some are also found of James after his abdication. Some fine gold, silver, and copper medals, were issued in the time of queen Anne; the two last affording a series of all the great actions of the duke of Marlborough. About the year 1740, a series of medals was engraved in London by Dassier, a native of Geneva, containing all the kings of England; being 36 in number. They are done upon fine copper, and executed with great taste. There are besides many medals of private persons in England; so that it may justly be said, thathis country for medals exceeds almost every oth in Europe.
To this account of modern coins and medals we shall add that of another set called siege-pieces, and
which were issued during the time of a siege in cases of urgent necessity. These were formed of any kind of metal; sometimes of no metal, and Patin mentions a remarkable one struck at Leyden in 1574, when the place was besieged by the Spaniards. It was of thick paper or pasteboard, having a lion rampant, with this inscription, PVGNO PRO PATRIA, 1574; and on the reverse, LVGDVNVM BATAVORUM. There are various siege-pieces of Charles I. both in gold and silver, some of the latter being of the value of twenty shillings.
The nummi bracteati are a species of modern coins somewhat between counters and money; and have their name from the word bractea, a spangle or thin bit of metal. They are commonly little thin plates of silver, stamped as would seem with wooden dies upon one side only, with the rude impression of various figures and inscriptions. Most of them are ecclesiastic, and were struck in Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and a few in Poland. They continued to be in use in Germany till the end of the fifteenth century, and some are still used in Switzerland at this day. Table of Abbreviations used in the Legends of Medals; from Mr. Pinkerton. Greek Coins. A