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on one side St. John the Baptist standing, on the other a large fleur de lis, and it is not doubted that the French fleurs de lis took their origin from these coins. They weigh a drachm, and are no less than 24 carats fine according to Italian writers, and are worth about 12 shillings.

Geneva first began to coin money in 1129, under the government of Conrad. Those of the dukes of Savoy began in the same century. Aquileia.-Coins were issued from this city by the patriarchs, from 1204 to 1440.

Ferrara.-Coins of the Marquises from 1340. 11. French coins.-During the race of Clovis, from 490 till 751, the coins are chiefly gold trientes, with some solidi and semisses. The former are of good workmanship, with the heads of kings. The reverse has a cross with the name of the town where they were struck.

The coins of the second race begin with Pepin in 751, and continue till Hugh Capet in 987. The coins of the first race are elegant, but those of the second entirely the reverse, being almost all silver pennies, and seldom bearing the portrait of the king. Those of Charlemagne have only CAROLUS in the field; while the reverse bears R. F. or some such inscription; though one piece struck at Rome has a rude bust of him. The coins of Louis le Debonnair are better done.

The third race begins with Hugh Capet in 927, and extends to this time. The coinage did not begin to improve till 1226 under St. Louis, when the groat appears. Its name in Italian is grosso, in French grosse, in English groat, or great coin; so called from its size in comparison with the penny; and it passed from Italy to France, to Germany, and to England. After the conquest of France by the English, base coins of many kinds were introduced; and in the year 1574, in the time of Henry III. copper was first introduced into the French coinage. Besides these, the other remarkable coins of France are, the blancs or billon groats, first issued in 1348; the ecus à la couronne, or crowns of gold, so called from the crown on one side, and begun by Charles VI. in 1384: those of Aune of Bretagne in 1498; the teston, or piece with the king's head, of Louis XII.; the henri of Henry II. with Gaul sitting in armour, and a Victory in her hand. There are many coins of cardinal Bourbon, elected king in 1589; and in 1642, Louis XIV. takes the title of CATALONLE PRINCEPS. The first louis d'or made its appearance in 1640; but such was the poverty of France, if we believe certain authors, that in 1719 the duke of Orleans regent struck copper for silver.

12. Spanish coins.-The most carly series of these consists almost entirely of trientes, finely done. On one side they have the head of the king with his name, and on the other a cross, with the name of the town, commonly in Boetica, or the south part of Spain, where there were a great many Roman colonics, and which was fertile to a proverb. The Moresque coins of Spain, like those of the rest of the Mohammedan states, present us only with insipid inscriptions on both sides. Indeed the Mohanimedan religion, by its absolute refusal to allow the representation of any living creature, has prevented the progress of coinage in any degree throughout those regions which it has overspread. The inscriptions on the ancient Span. ish coins are in the Cufis or old Arabic characters. 13. Portugal.-No description of the coins of this kingdom has yet appeared.

14. Germany. No account of the German coins has been published; though it is well known

that not only the emperors, but many of the cities, particularly those called Hanse-towns, issued money; and many of the coins issued by the cities were superior in elegance even to those is sued by the emperors.

15. Denmark. Here the coinage begins with Canute the Great in 1014. The pieces are at first extremely rude, ornamented only with rings and Runic characters. These are succeeded by copper pieces, some of which have a cross, others a pastoral staff on one side, with the letter A on the other. Later coins have strokes, 1111, &c. all round them; but those of Harold, Hardicanute, and Magnus Bonus, in 1041, are of neat workmanship, and have the portraits of the princes at halflength. The coins of Nicholas or Niel, as he is called by the Danes, are rude, as well as those of Waldemar I. and the celebrated Margaret. In 1376 Olaf caused money to be struck with a grinning full face, with a crowned O upon the other side. "The Swedes (says Mr. Pinkerton) took these coins extremely ill, as they thought they grinned at them." Silver was first coined in Denmark by Philippa queen of Eric, and daughter to Henry IV. of England.

16. Sweden. The coinage of this kingdom began in 818 under Biorno, on the plan of Charlemagne. These coins are marked with a cross. Next follow those of Olaf in 1019; which Mr. Pinkerton supposes to have been the first true Swedish coins; and that the art of coinage first passed from England into Denmark in the time of Canute the Great, and from Denmark into Sweden. These coins were struck on the English model. During the time that Sweden was subject to Denmark, or miserably harassed by the Danes, the coins of both kingdoms were the same; but after the time of Gustavus Vasa many elegant pieces appear. In 1634, deliars were coined with the portrait of Gustavus Adolphus, who was killed two years before: on the reverse they have the arms of Sweden, with the chemical marks of mercury, and sulphur. In 1716, 1717, and 1718, Charles XII. being in extreme want of money, issued smal copper coins with Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, &c. upon them, to go for dollars; and on account of this scheme, Baron Goertz, the suggestor of it, was brought to the block.

17. Norway. The coins of this country begin with Olaf in 1006; after which time there are various coins of other princes; but copper was not coined till the year 1343.

Besides the coins already mentioned, there are ecclesiastic coins of France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, &c. Those of Denmark and Sweden are numerous, but the Norwegian coins of this denomination are rare. Mr. Pinkerton de scribes a silver one in his possession as having arms and a mitre, with the inscription on one side SANCTUS OLAWS REX NORVEY; on the reverse OLAWS DEI GRA. ARCEP. NID'SEN, meaning NIDROSIENSIS, or Archbishop of Nidros, now Drontheim.

18. Bohemia. The coinage of this kingdom appears at a very early date, viz. in the year 909, under duke Boleslaus I. These coins are followed by others of Boleslaus II. and Emma his wife in 970; of Boleslaus III. in 1002; Jaromir in 1020; Udalrich in 1030, and other princes. The brac teate money of Ortocar I. was coined in 1197.

19. Poland. The coinage of this country is nearly as ancient as that of Bohemia. The coins are on the German model, but no particular account of them has been published.

20. Russia. None of the Russian money appears to be more ancient than the 13th century. The first are the kopecks or silver pennies, which have upon them rude figures of animals on one side, and a man standing with a bow or spear on the other. There are likewise coins of Moscow struck by Aristoteles the architect in 1482; the roubles or dollars and their halves. There are some of the impostor Demetrius in 1605, which are very scarce. 21. Prussia.-The first Prussian coins were struck at Culm by the Teutonic knights in 1280. They were silver pennies, and upon the German plan. In the next century were struck shillings, groats, and schots; the last were the largest, and are extremely rare. They have the Prussian shield, an eagle surmounting a cross, with a roseshaped border, MONETA DOMINORUM PRUSSIÆ: on the reverse is a cross fleurie, within a border of a similar kind, having the inscription HONOR MAGISTRI, JUSTITIA M DILIGIT.-Gold coins were struck in the same century. In the time of Copernicus the money was so debased, that 12 or 13 marks were worth but one of pure silver.

22. England. The English coins are of various kinds.

1st. Heptarchic. These are only of two sorts, viz. the skeatta or penny of silver, and the styca of copper. Few of the pennies appear till after the year 700; though some are met with which bear the name of Ethelbert I. king of Kent, as old as 560. At first they had only rude figures of serpents, but in later times legends were likewise added. Most of their pennies have pagan symbols upon them. The styca was only coined in Northumberland, and was a very small piece about the value of half a farthing.

2d. Coins of the chief monarchs of England. Mr. Pinkerton denies that an end was put to the heptarchy by Egbert in 832, as is commonly supposed; though he owns he was chief monarch of the country, as several others had been before him. Edgar, who reigned in 959, according to him was the first king of England; and the coins of the chief monarchs form almost a complete series from the time of Egbert to Edgar. The only chief monarch of whom there are no coins is Ethelbald, who reigned in 857. Most of these coins bear rude portraits; but the reverses are sometimes curious and interesting. Some have views of cathedrals and other buildings; particularly one of Edward the Elder in 900; which has the cathedral of York with three rows of windows, round arched as the other Saxon and Norman buildings; the Gothic arch being quite unknown till after the 12th century. Some coins of Anlaf king of Northumberland have the famous raven, the Danish ensign: and those of other princes have frequently very curious reverses.

3d. Ecclesiastic coins appear of the archbishops of Canterbury. Wulfred, in 804, Ceolnoth in 830, and Plegmund in 839.

4th. Coins of the kings of England. The silver penny, which had begun during the heptarchy, continued to be the general coin after the kingdom had been united under one head; and extends in a continued series from Egbert almost to the present reign. The only kings wanting are Edmund Ironside, Richard I. and John. At first the penny weighed 22 grains; but towards the close of the reign of Edward III. it fell to 18 grains; and in that of Edward IV. to 12. In the time of Edward VI. it was diminished to eight grains; and in queen Elizabeth's reign to 7; at which it still continues.

Halfpennies and farthings were first struck in silver by Edward I. in 1280; the former continued to the time of the commonwealth, but the latter ceased with Edward VI. The groat was introduced by Edward IIL in 1354, and continues to this day, though not in common circulation. The half-groat or twopence is of the same date, and also continues to the present time.

Shillings were first coined by Henry VII. in 1503. At first it was called testoon, from the teste, tete, or head of the king upon it; the name shilling being derived from the German schelling; under which appellation coins had been struck at Hamburg in 1407. The crown was first coined in its present form by Henry VIII. Formerly it had appeared only in gold, whence the phrase of crowns of gold; though these indeed were the largest gold coins known for a long time in France and other countries on the continent, being worth about 10s. sterling. They had their name from the crown stamped on one side, and were first coined by Charles VI. in 1384, and continued till the time of Louis XIV. The half-crown, sixpence, and threepence, were coined by Edward VI. In 1558 queen Elizabeth coined three-halfpenny, and in 1561 three-farthing, pieces; but they were discontinued in 1582. From the year 1601 to the present time the coins of England remain the


Gold was coined in England by Henry III. in 1257 the piece was called a gold penny, and was larger than the silver one; and the execution is by no means bad for the time. The series of gold coinage, however, commences properly from Edward III. In 1344 this monarch first struck florins, in imitation of those in Italy; and it is remarkable, that though these coins at the time they were first issued bore only six shillings' value, they are now intrinsically worth 19s. so much has the value of gold increased since that time. The half and quarter florin were struck at the same time, but only the last has been found. The florin, however, being found inconvenient, gave place to the noble of 6s. 8d. value, and exactly half a mark. The latter had its name from being a limited sum in accounts; and was eight ounces in weight, two thirds of the money pound. It is sometimes also called selibra, as being one half of the commercial pound of 16 ounces. The noble had its name from the nobility of the metal; the gold of which it was coined being of the finest sort. Sometimes it is called rose noble, from both sides being impaled in an undulating circle. It continued with the half and quarter noble to be the only gold coin till the angels of Edward IV. appeared in 1465. These had their name from being stamped with the image of Michael and the dragon. The angelites of 3s. 4d. value were substituted in their place. In 1527 Henry VIII. added to the gold coins the crown and half-crown at their present value; and the same year he gave sovereigns of 22s. 6d. and royals of 10s. 3d. angels at 7s. 6d. and nobles at their old value of 6s. 8d. In 1546 he caused sovereigns to be coined of the value of 20s. and half sovereigns in proportion. His gold crown is about the size of our shilling, and the half-crown of sixpence, but thin. Ail his coins, however, gold as well as silver, are much debased; and it was not without much labour and trouble that Edward VI. brought it back to its former standard. On the union of the two crowns, James gave the sovereign the name of unite; the value continuing of 20s. as before. He coined also roseryals of 30s. value, spur-ryals of 155, angels of 108.

and angelets of 5s. Under the commonwealth, the sovereign got the name of the twenty shilling piece, and continued current till the coinage of grincas. These were so called from their being coined of Guinea gold, and were at first only to go for 20s. though by an universal but tacit consent they always passed for 21s. Half-guincas, double guineas, and five-guinea pieces, were also coined during the sane reign; which still continue. though the two latter are not in common circulation Quarter guineas were coined by George I. and likewise by his present majesty; but they were found so troublesome on account of their small size, that they were stopped within a year or two when received at the Bank of England; and thus are not to be met with at present. A few pieces of 7s. value have likewise been coined, and are known by the lion above the helmet; but none were then issued. In 1688 the guinea rose to 21s. (d. and continued to increase in value till 1696, when it was as high as 30s. but after the recoinage in 1697 and 1699, it fell by degrees, and in 1717 was at its old standard of 21s. and at that time silver was fixed at its present standard value, viz. as one to 1 in weight.

Though the first money coined in Britain, as we have already observed, was copper, yet, excepting the Northumbrian stycas, no copper coin was found in England from the time of the Saxon con quest till the year 1672. An aversion to a copper coinage, it seems, was prevalent throughout the nation; and queen Elizabeth, who withcut hesitation used base money for Ireland, yet scrupled at coining copper for England. This want of small coin occasioned such an increase of private tokens for halfpennies and farthings, that it became a serious object to government; and in 1594, a copper coinage was seriously thought of. This year a small copper coin was struck about the size of a silver twopence, with the queen's monogram on one side, and a rose on the other; the running legend on both sides being THE PLEDGE OF A HALFPENNY. Of this there are patterns both in copper and silver, but both of them soon fell into disuse. On the 9th of May 1613, king James, by royal proclamation, issued farthing tokens. They are generally of the same size with the twopence, with two sceptres in salter surmounted with a crown, and the harp upon the other; with an intention, as it would seem, that if they were refused in England they might pass in Ireland. In 1635 Charles I. coined those with the rose instead of the harp; but the circulation of these was entirely stopped by the vast number of counterfei's which appeared, and by the king's death in 1648. After this the private tokens began again to circulate, till put a stop to by the coinage of farthings in 1672. The workmanship of the tokens is quite contemptible. In 1672 the halfpeuce as well as the farthings which had been struck two years before began to circulate. They were of pure Swedish copper, the dyes engraved by Reettior; and they continued till the year 1624, when some disputes arose about the copper lately obtained from the English mines. Tin farthings were coined with a stud of copper in the centre, and inscribed round the edge as the crown picces, with NUMMORUM TAMULUS, 1685 or 1820. In 1625 halfpence of the same kind were coined; and the tin coinage continued till the year 1692, to the value of more than 65,0001; but next year the tin was all called in by government, and the copper comage recommenced. The farthings of queen Anne are all

trial pieces, excepting those of 1714, the last year of her reign. They are (says Mr. Pinkerton) of exquisite workmanship, exceeding most copper coins either ancient or modern, and will do honour to the engraver, Mr. Croker, to the end of time. The one, whose reverse is Peace in a car, PAX MISSA PER ORBEM, is the most esteemed; and next to it the BRITANNIA under a portal. The other halfpence and farthings are less valuable.

23. Scotland. Silver pennies of Alexander I. who reigned in 1107, are believed to exist; and there certainly are some of Alexander II. in 1214. There are likewise coins of David ir. 1124, but perhaps none of Malcolm IV. his successor, whose reign was very short. There are many coins of William I. in 1165, and a large hoard of his pennies was found at Inverness in 1780.

The money of Scotland continued to be of the same value with that of England till the country was drained by the vast ransom of David II. after which it became necessary to reduce its size; and so much did this diminution affect England, that Edward III. found himself obliged to lessen the English coin also. The diminution of the Scottish coin, however, continued still to go on until it became impracticable to keep par with that of England. In the first vear of Robert III. it passed only for half its nominal value in England: in 1393 Richard H. ordered it only to go for the weight of the genuine metal it contained. In 1600 it had sunk to such a degree as to pass only for a twelfth part of the English money, and continued at that low ebb till the coinage of Scotland was entirely cancelled by the union of the two kingdoms.

Of silver coins we have only pennies till the year 1293, when Edward I. having coined halfpence and farthings, Alexander III. of Scotland coin d also halfpence, of which we have a few, but no farthings are to be met with; bot there are silver farthings of Robert 1. and David II. The latter introduced the great and half-groat, which completed the set of Scottish silver. It continu.d unaltered till the time of queen Mary, when they all ceased to be coined in silver, ou account of the high price of that metal. In 1553 shillings were first coined, with the bust of the queen on one side, and the arms of France and Scotland on the other. The silver crown was first coined in 1565, which went for 30s. Scots; lesser pieces of 20s. and 10s. having likewise been struck, and marks of silver worth 3s. 4d. English, were also coined about the same time. These coins have upon them the marks xxx. xx. x. to denote their value. They are commonly called Cruickstone dollars, from the palm-tree upon them, mistaken for a remarkable vew at Cruickstone near Glasgow, where Henry Darnley resided. It is described, however, in the act as a palm, with a shell-padoc (a tortoise) crawling up. This alludes to Darnley's marriage with the queen, as the motto from Propertius. DAT GLORIA VIRES, also implies. The motto NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET first appears on the Scottish coins in 1578, and the invention is given to the celebrated Buchanan. In 1522, the crown of an weight went for 40s. Scots, and was rdingly marked XL.; in 1597, the mark was L. the Scottish money being then only one-tenth of the English: the mark was LX. in 1601, the value being then reduced to one-twelfth, at which it has ever since continued. In the time of Charles I. half marks, 40 and 20 penny-pieces, were co.sed.


In 1675 the Scottish dollars first appeared, in value 56s Scots, with halves and quarters of proportional value. In 1686 James VII. coined 60, 40, 20, 10, and 5s. pieces; but only those of 40 and 10s. are known, with these numbers under the bust. At the union of the kingdoms all the Scottish coins were called in, and recoined at Edinburgh, with the mark E under the bust to distinguish it; since which there has been no coinage in Scotland. The Scottish silver coins are in general equal, if not superior, in the workmanship to the English.

Gold was first issued by Robert II. about 30 years after Edward III. of England had coined the same metal in that country. The pieces were at first called St. Andrews, from the figure of that tutelar saint upon the cross, and who appears on the obverse with the arms of Scotland, and on the reverse a lion in a shield. The lion was another name for the largest gold coin in Scotland, from the arms of the kingdom upon it. The next was the unicorn, under James III. which were followed by the bonnet-pieces of James V. These last are of admirable workmanship, being almost equal to the ancient coins in this respect. In imitation of the French, the monarch we speak of diminished the size of the coin without lessening its weight; an improvement not adopted by the English for a whole century. The last gold coined in Scotland was the pistole and half pistole, of twelve and six pounds Scots. These coins have the sun under the head. The gold coins of Scotland fell in the same proportion with the silver.

The copper coinage of Scotland is of more early date than that of England. It was preceded by money of billon, or copper washed with silver, called black money. James III. first coined black farthings in 1466; and this is recorded by historiaus as one of his greatest faults. This kind of coinage, however, continued as late as the reign of James VI. In his time the true copper coinage began; but as the value of Scottish money was now declined almost to the utmost, the pieces suddenly assumed a form almost resembling that of the French coins. The bodle, so called from Bothwell the mintmaster, being equal in size to the liard, and worth two pennies Scottish, was struck. The billon coin, formerly called bas-piece, and worth six pennies Scots, was now coined in copper, and termed the baw bee. Thus it corresponded with the French half sol and English halfpenny, the Scots penny being now equivalent to the French denier. Some peices named Atkinsons were coined by James VI. in 1582, when the Scottish money was to the English as 1 to 8; but on its being still farther reduced, they went for eight pennies, a third more than the value of the bawbee. Besides these there were the hardie and plack, the former being worth three, and the latter four pennies Scots. This coinage continued through the reigns of Charles I. and II., but Scottish coins of the former are, perhaps, the scarcest of any.

24. Ireland. The first coins introduced into this kingdom seem to have been those of the Danes, and which have only a number of strokes around them instead of letters. In the tenth century, however, this coinage had been considerably improved; and, in 930 and 994 there are pennies struck in Dublin, with the inscription ON DVFLI or DYFLI, Duflin or Daflin being the Danish name of that city. There are likewise coins of the Irish princes themselves, and of the English monarchs, struck in Ireland as early as

the ninth century; and it is asserted by some, that Ireland even in these days had been conquered by England; of which, indeed, these coins seem to be a proof. None of the Irish coins of Henry II are to be met with, but we have some of the coins of John; and from his time to that of Henry V. the Irish coins are known by a triangle enclosing the king's head, which appears also upon the coins of other nations at this period. The harp does not appear upon the Irish coins till the time of Henry VIII. Till the time of this monarch, the English and Irish coins are the same : but the same debasement of the coin which at that time took place in England extended also to Ireland; but in 1601 copper halfpence and farthings were coined also for this kingdom. These circulated in Ireland when James VI. issued his farthing tokens of copper, the latter being of two sizes, that if they failed in England they might be sent to Ireland as pennics and halfpence. In 1635 a mint was established in Dublin by Charles I. but it was stopped by the Irish massacre, and the many disturbances which followed; since which time the scheme has not been resumed. After the massacre, St. Patrick's halfpence and farthings were coined by the papists, bearing the legends FLOREAT REX, and on the reverse ECCE GREX; on the farthing QUIESCAT PLEBS. Copper tokens were struck by towns and tradesmen, as in England and Scotland. In 1680, halfpence and farthings were issued by authority, with the harp and date. In 1689, James II. having invaded Ireland, instituted a mint, and coined shillings and half-crowns of all the refuse metal he could find, particularly some brass guns were employed, whence the coinage is commonly called gun-money. Even this metal, however, soon became so scarce, that a diminution in its size is quite apparent from June 1689 to July 1690; and as the month of their mintage is marked upon them, this decrease is easily perceived. In March 1690, pennies of lead mixed with tin were issued; and on the 15th of June the same year, crowns of white metal were coined; but these are now very scarce. In 1722, the patent for coining halfpence and farthings was given to William Wood, which excited such discontent in Ireland. From the small size allowed by the patent to these pieces, it was supposed that the patentee would have gained 60,0001. but as he caused them to be struck of a size still smaller, his gains were estimated at 100,000l. The coins, however, are of admirable workmanship, and very fine copper, bearing the best portrait of king George I. to be found any where. Sir Isaac Newton, at that time at the head of the mint, declared that they were superior to the English coins in every thing except the size. In 1737 the Irish half. pence and farthings, with the harp on the reverse, were coined, and continue to the present time. In 1760 there was such a scarcity of copper coin that some private persons applied for leave to coin halfpence, which appeared with a very bad portrait of George 11. and the words VOCE POPULI around it. No gold or silver has been coined in Ireland since the massacre of 1641,

TABLE V. Modern meals, properly so called.

1. Scottish medals.-These take the lead in the present article, the first modern medals of gold being those of David II. struck between the years 1330 and 1870. Only two of them now exist; one in the collection of Mr. Barker of Birmingham, and the other in that of Dr. Hunter

In 1478 there is a medal of James III. sent to the shrine of St. Ambroise in France. It is described as of two inches and a third in diameter; the weight near two ounces; having on the obverse a beardless king, with long hair, sitting on a throne, holding in one hand a raked sword; in the other a shield, with the Scottish arms. On the borders of the canopy above the throne is an inscription in Gothic letters, IN MI DEFFEN, being corrupt French for In my defence; a common motto in the Scottish arms. Above the canopy is VILLA BERWICI: the reverse bears St. Andrew and his Cross, SALVUM FAC POPULUM TUUM, DOMINE. There is also a medal of James IV. in the collar of St. Michael, having on the reverse a Doric pillar surmounted by a young Janus, standing on a hill, beyond which is the sea, and land on either side. This, however, is by some suspected to be a forgery.

The most remarkable Scottish medals are those of the unfortunate Mary. The first is properly French, having been issued at her coronation as queen of France, along with her husband king Francis II. On the obverse of this piece there are portraits of Francis and Mary, face to face, with three legends around them, the outermost containing their titles; the middle one the following sentence: HORA NONA DOMINUS J. H. 8. EXPIRAVIT HELLI CLAMANS; the innermost the name of the city (Paris). On the reverse are the arms of France and Scotland. Fine testoons were also coined upon the same plan, and are now so rare that Dr. Hunter gave ten guineas for one he had in his collection. The same portraits appear on the fine crown of Mary and Henry, in 1565, which is so rare as to be esteemed a medal of the

highest value; and Mr. Pinkerton imagines, that if brought to a sale it would bring 40 or 50 guineas.

Another remarkable medal of Mary represents her full faced, and weeping, with the inscription, O GOD GRANT PATIENCE IN THAT I SUFFER VRANG. The reverse has in the centre, QUIO CAN COMPARE WITH ME IN GRIEF? I DIE AND DAR NOCHT SEEK RELIEF; with this legend around, HOURT NOT THE (figure of a heart) QUHAIS JOY THOU ART. There are also many counters of this unfortunate princess, being thin silver pieces of the size of a shilling. They all appear (says Mr. Pinkerton) to have been done in France by Mary's direction, who was fond of devices. Her cruel captivity could not debar her from intercourse with her friends in France, who must with pleasure have executed her orders, as affording her a little consolation."

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The coronation medal of Charles I. struck at Edinburgh for his inauguration, June 18, 1663, is remarkable, as being the only one ever coined of Scottish gold, and the first in Britain struck with a legend on the edge. With respect to the workmanship, it is inferior to Simon's. Of these medals only three are known to exist, of which one is in the Museum. It is not uncommon in silver; in which case it sometimes wants the legend on the edge.

2. Italian medals.-These appear in the 15th century, and from that time successively in most European countries. Vittore Pisano, a painter of Verona, is celebrated as the restorer of the art; but it remains to be accounted for how the medals of king David already mentioned came to exist so long before. Mr. Pinkerton considers this artist rather as an inventor than a restorer, his medals having no resemblance to the ancient

coins, as being large, and all cast. They were first modelled in wax, then a mould taken from the model in fine sand, and other ingredients. After a good cast was procured, it was touched up, and made a model for the rest. These medals of Pisano are almost always inscribed Opus Pisani Pictoris. The portraits of a great number of illus trious men were done by him in this manner; and in the British Museum is a large brass medal of Pisano by himself.-Other artists were Boldu, Marescotto, Matthæus de Pastus, Sperandes, Misaldone, &c. Towards the end of the century, however, the medals began to assume a more elegant appearance; and the papal ones are not only the most elegant but the most ancient series of all the modern medals. The improvement began in the reign of Alexander VI. so famous for his own crimes, and those of his nephew Cæsar Borgia. His successors, Julius II. Leo X. Hadrian VI. and Clement VII. had many of their medals designed by Raphael, Julio Romano, and other eminent painters, and the engraving executed by artists of equal merit. Among these were the celebrated Cellini, and the noted Paduan forgers of Roman coins. Cavino and Bassiano. In 1644 Cormanni, a medallic artist, was imprisoned on account of a piece which represented the Pope upon one side, and Olympia Maidalchina, the relation of his holiness, on the other. The unfortunate Cormanni poisoned himself. About this time the family of the Hamerani, originally from Germany, began to engrave the papal medals; which they did with surprising merit for several generations. Each of the daughters did a fine medal, as we are informed by Venuti.

Besides the papal medals, there are many issued by the various states of Italy. There are medals of Frederic II. of Sicily in 1501, of several Venetian generals in 1509, of Alfonso duke of Ferrara in 1511, and of the celebrated Andrew Doria in 1528.

3. French medals.-Till the reign of Louis XIV. the medals of this country are neither fine nor numerous; but this monarch exceeds all modere princes in this way. Many of his pieces are well designed and executed, though objectionable co account of their falsehood.

4. Danish medals.--These appear of Christian II. in 1516, of Frederic and Sophia in 1532, of Frederic I. and Christian III. in bonnets worn in the sixteenth century. The elephant of the house of Oldenburgh is frequent upon Danish medals.

5. Swedish medals.-These begin with Gustavus Vasa; and several of Christina are likewise to be met with. There are also some curious ones of Charles XII.

6. Dutch medals. These begin in 1556; and many of them are remarkable for maps and plans, which must be very interesting to posterity. "Had the Greeks and Romans (says Mr. Pinkerton) given us maps and plans, what a fine system of ancient geography and topography a cabinet of medals must have been!'

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7. Medals of Spain, Portugal, and Germany.The Spanish medals begin with Gonsalo in 1503; many of which are curious and interesting. Under Charles V. there are many curious Spanish medals, but those in Germany begin with Frederic in 1453. They are extremely numerous; as we may easily suppose from the greatness of the empire, and the various states which compose it. There is a famous medal of Sebastian king of Portugal, famous for his unfortunate expedition into Africa in 1578; with his bust, full face, and three quarters is

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