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title generally selected by which to characterize them. But whether it be not in some instances generated internally instead of being derived ab extra, is by no means equally well ascertained. Many luminous animals appear to shun the light of the day, and seem scarcely to expose themselves sufficiently to its influence to be able to throw forth such a quantity as we see issue from their bodies. Yet, on the other hand, it should not be forgotten that almost all substances whatever, mineral, as well as animal and vegetable, and gaseous and liquid as well as solid, absorb and contain a great quantity of latent light, a part of which may enter into the bodies of luminous animals in the form of food, and may be separated from its respective combinations by its luminous organs.
Living luminous Substances.
These are very numerous, though they have never hitherto been arranged into any distinct classification От tabular form. They consist chiefly, and almost exclusively of insects and zoophytes; molluscous worms; though instances are occasionally met with among other worms. Insects furnish nearly a dozen distinct genera, of which almost all the species are luminous. The chief are the lampyris, or glow-worm, and firefly tribes; the fulgora, or lantern-fly; the scolopendra, or centipede, the fausus sphærocenus, the elater noctilucus, and the cancer fulgens. Among the worm-class the principal are the phloas, or pholas as it is now generally but erroneously denominated, the pyrosoma, the medusa phosphorea, the nereis noctiluca, the pennatula, or sea-pen, and various species of the sepia or cuttle-fish. See these articles under their respective heads. The atmosphere in some parts of Italy appears occasionally to be on fire, in the evening, from the great quantities of one species of the lampyris that throng together. A single individual of the South-American fulgora, fixed upon the top of a cane or other staff will afford light enough to read by. The streams of light that issue from the elater noctilucus are so strong in the night that even the smallest print may be read by their lustre. The pyrosoma, when at rest, emits a pale blue lustre; but when in motion a much stronger light variegated by all the colours of the rainbow. The phloas secretes a luminous juice, every drop of which illuminates for a length of time whatever substance it falls upon or even touches; and the animal after death may be preserved so as to retain its luminous power for at least a twelvemonth. The noctilucent nereis often illuminates by its numbers, the waters it inhabits to a very considerable extent, and gives so bright a splendour to the waves that, like the atmosphere when lighted up by the lampyris italica, they appear as though they were in a full flame. The organ from which the luminous matter is thrown forth in these different animals is of a very different character, and placed in very different parts of the body: sometimes in the head, sometimes in the tail, sometimes in the antennas, sometimes over the surface generally.
Dead Luminous Substances. Light, as we have already observed, being more or less absorbed by bodies of all kinds, may be expected under circumstances which tend to unite or aggregate its particles, to flow off in a percipient form from all those which have absorbed it in a greater degree, or retain it after absorption in a looser manner than others. Thus
it exists in the shells of marine-fishes or testaceous worms, and is set at liberty and flows off in a visible form after calcination. It exists in the dead trunks of various vegetables, and hence on the commencement of a putrefactive decomposition, the particles unite together agreeably to the laws of chemical affinity and flow off in like manner whence the luminous appearance exhibited in various species of rotten-wood. It exists largely in the bodies of many kinds of animals, and more largely in some animal or gans than in others; hence we see it issuing sometimes from putrescent flesh, sometimes from bones, teeth, bezoars, nephritic and urinary calculi, and egg-shells that have been exposed to the sun.
In marine fishes it appears to be more accumulated than in the bodies of any animals, though for want of appropriate luminous organs, these are not found to secrete it (at least not aggregately and palpably) during life.
For the best experiments we possess upon thi subject we are indebted to Doctor Hulme, who while he has rectified many errors of the analysts, has confirmed the more important and more valuable. Dr. Hulme found that light is one of the first, perhaps the first elementary substance that flies off during decomposition: hence it can only be obtained from putrescent fishes, or pieces of fishes in a putrescent state or stage of incipient putrefaction: for after putrefaction is completed, light escapes no longer in a visible form, either forming new combinations with the other gases that are now escaping, or perhaps having entirely escaped already. He found also that it was in a considerable degree adhesive, and would continue attached to the surface of the body that had omitted it, or to the fingers or any other substance to which it was transferred by scraping. Thus pieces of herring were observed to continue luminous for about forty eight, and thence to sixty hours after they first discovered light, and then ceased to be luminous any longer. Having scraped off the luminous body, he mixed it with solutions of Epsom and other salts, and found that in slight solutions it shone brighter: but that in strong solutions it became apparently extinguished, though it again revived by mixing more water, and reducing the solution to its proper debility; and thus by alternately adding fresh salt, and new supplies of water he has sometimes revived the same light after ten extinctions. Great cold and heat are also found to extinguish it; yet a moderate heat renders it more brilliant: it begins to be extinguished at 96° and when the thermometer is raised to 100 it can be no more revived. It is, however, capable of being revived after being frozen by frigorific mixtures.
It is, therefore, an anomalous fact that the light of dead glow-worms continues to augment in heated water increased to 114 degrees.
Luminous appearance of the Sea.
From what has already been observed, this beautiful and brilliant phenomenon is not difficult to be accounted for in most cases: for the vast mass of the ocean contains in itself whatever has the greatest tendency to the production of such a phenomenon. It is the natural province of the greater number of those animals that secrete light from peculiar organs with which they are endowed for this purpose, of phloades, nereids, medusas, and luminous cancers; it holds in its immense bosom at all times, an
they could draw her down from heaven at pleasure by the mere force of their incantations.
LUNA (anc. geog.), a forest of German y at no great distance from the Hercynia ; below which were the Boemi: it was therefore in
Moravia, near the springs of the Marus, now March, which runs into the Danube over against Carnutum.
LUNA, or Lunna, a town of Gallia Celtica. Now Clugny in Burgundy.
LUNA, a town and port of Liguria, at the mouth of the Macra. The town was but small, but the port large and beautiful, according to Strabo. Now extinct, and its ruins called Luna Distrutta. It was famous for its quarries of white marble, thence called Lunense; and for its cheese, remarkable rather for its size than goodness, each being a thousand weight.
LUNA, in chemistry. (Luna, æ. f. so named from its resemblance in brightness to silver.) The old alchemistic name of silver. See SILVER.
LUNA Cornea. In chemistry, a white curdy precipitate of muriat of silver, which takes place when the nitrat, acetat, or any other soluble salt of silver comes in contact with the muriatic acid, either single, or in any soluble
LU'NACY. 8. (from luna, Latin, the moon.) A kind of madness influenced by the moon; madness in general (Suckling).
LU'NAR. a. (lunaire, French; lunaris, LU'NARY. Latin.) 1. Relating to the moon (Dryden). 2. Being under the influence of the moon (Brown).
LUNAR Caustic. See ARGENTUM Nitratum. LUNAR Distance, in nautical astronomy, a term applied to denote the distance of the moon from the sun, or from a fixed star lying nearly in the place of its path. The measurement of the apparent lunar distances, and the determination of the true lunar distances from thence, is of great use in determining the longitude of places on the earth. LONGITUDE.
enormous quantity of that kind of animal matter (marine fishes) which is most disposed to throw forth its latent light in an aggregate and visible form, during its first progress of decomposition; and unites the different circumstances which chiefly favour such an evolution; such, for instance, as a fluid menstruum, temperate warmth,
and a solution of muriat of soda or common salt.
If then we see occasionally in vegetable matter undergoing a slow decomposition, as in rotten wood, a certain portion of light poured forth in a visible form; if we see it issuing in a still greater degree from bones and shells that have undergone the process of calcination; if we see it still more freely at times, and under circumstances, thrown forth from the animal exuviæ of church-yards, and adhering to the surface of the spot from which it issues, in like manner as the light scraped off from the scales of pieces of putrescent fishes immersed in salt water, adberes to the knife or the fingers that are cmployed for this purpose; how much more easily may we expect to see it thrown forth, and in how much larger quantities, from different parts of the ocean under circumstances that may favour its escape, often adhering to the sides of vessels, or of their oars as they are alternately raised from the water and producing a long line or an extended sheet of wonderful brilliancy not unfrequently variegated by every playfulness of
It appears obvious, moreover, that it is not to one cause only, but to many that such phenomena are to be ascribed, at different periods and in different parts of the world. Linnéus inclined to concon fine it chiefly to vast flocks of the nereis tribe: but we have already observed that even at sea, and among living animals, medusas, sapias, pennatulas, pyrosomas, and phloades equally concur while, on other occasions, the waves appear brilliantly illuminated, and through a very extensive range, without a trace of any living substance whatever possessed of a luminous power; and can only acquire their light from the decomposition of dead animal
LUMP. 8. (lompe, Dutch.) 1. A small mass of any matter (Boyle). 2. A shapeless mass (Keil). 3. Mass undistinguished (Woodward). 4. The whole together; the gross (Addison).
To LUMP. v. a. To take in the gross, without attention to particulars (Addison). LUMP fish. See CYCLOPTERUS. LUMPING. a. (from lump.) heavy; great (Arbuthnot).
LUMPISH. a. (from lump.) Heavy; gross dull; inactive; bulky (Raleigh). LUMPISHLY. ad. With heaviness; with stupidity.
LUMPISHNESS. s. (from lumpish.) Stupid heaviness.
LUMPY. a. (from lump.) Full of lumps; fall of compact masses (Mortimer).
LUNA (the moon) was daughter of Hyperion and Terra, and was the same, according to some, as Diana. She was worshipped by the ancients with many superstitious ceremonies. It was supposed that magicians, particularly those of Thessaly, had an uncontrollable power over the moon, and that
LUNAR Month and Year. See MONTH and YEAR.
LUNARE os, in anatomy, is the second bone in the first row of the carpus. It has its name from the Latin luna," the moon," because one of its sides is in form of a crescent.
LUNA'RIA. Honesty. Satin-flower. Moon-wort. In botany, a genus of the class tetradynamia; order siliculosa. Silicle entire, elliptic, compressed, flat, pedicelled; the valves flat, equalling and parallel to the partition; calyx with two of the leaflets pouched at the base. Two species-natives of Europe.
1. L. Redivia. Leaves with mucronate teeth; silicles oblong, tapering to both ends: flowers violet coloured and odorous.
2. L. Annua. Leaves obtusely toothed ; silicles roundish, obtuse at both ends: root biennial, flowers inodorous.
Both plants will grow in almost any soil, but succeed hest in a shady situation.
LU'NATED. a. (from luna, Lat.) Formed like a half moon,
LU'NATIC. a. (lunaticus, Latin.) Mad; having the imagination influenced by the moon (Shakspeare).
LU'NATIC. 8. A madman (Graunt). LU'NATION. s. (lunaison, French.) The revolution of the moon (Holder).
LUNCH. Ls. (from clutch or clunch.) LUNCHEON.J As much food as one's hand can hold (Gay).
LUND, the most ancient town of Sweden, capital of Schonen, with an archbishopric and a university. It contains scarcely more than eight hundred houses, carries on but little trade, and is principally supported by its university, founded by Charles XI. and from him called Academia Carolina Gothorum, Here likewise is a royal physiographical society, incorporated by the king in 1778. The cathedral is an ancient irregular building. It is 20 miles south-east of Landscrona, and 225 south-west of Stockholm. Lon. 13. 26 E. Lat. 55. 33 N.
LUNDEN, a town of Lower Saxony, in the duchy of Holstein, seated near the Eyder, 36 miles north-north-west of Gluckstadt. Lon. 9. 20 E. Lat. 54. 26 N.
LUNDY, an island in the mouth of the Bristol channel, near the middle, between Devonshire and Pembrokeshire. Lon. 4. 13 W. Lat. 51. 25 N.
LUNE. See LON. LUNE. 8. (luna, Latin.) 1. Any thing in the shape of a half moon. 2. Fits of frenzy; mad freaks (Shakspeare).
LUNE, Lunula, or little moon, in geometry, is a figure, in form of a crescent, terminated by the arcs of two circles that intersect each other within.
Though the quadrature of the whole circle has never been effected, yet many of its parts have been squared. The first of these partial quadratures was that of the lunula, given by Hippocrates of Scio, or Chios; who, from being a shipwrecked merchant, commenced geometrician. But although the quadrature of the lune be gene rally ascribed to Hippocrates, yet Proclus expressly says it was found out by Oenopidas, of the same place. See Heinius in Mem. de l'Acad. de Berlin, tom. ii. p. 410. where he gives a dissertation concerning this Oenopidas. See also CIRCLE and QUA
The lune of Hippocrates is this: Let ABC fig. 11. pl. 99. be a semicircle, having its centre E, and ADC a quadrant, having its centre F; then the figure ABCDA, contained between the arcs of the semicircle and quadrant, is his lune; and it is equal to the right-angled triangle ACF, as is thus easily proved. Since AF2=2AE2, that is, the square of the radius of the quadrant equal to double the square of the radius of semicircle; therefore the quadrantal
area ADCFA is the semicircle ABCEA: from each of these take away the common space ADCEA, and there remains the triangle ACF: the lune ABCDA,
Another property of this lune, which is the more general one of the former, is, that if FG be any line drawn from the point F, and AH perpendicular to it; then is the intercepted part of the lune AGIA = the triangle AGH cut off by the chord line AG; or, in general, that the small segment AKGA is equal to the trilineal AIHA. For, the angle AFG being at the centre of the one circle, and at the circumference of the other, the ares cut off AG, AI are similar to the wholes ABC, ADC, therefore the small segment AKGA is to the semisegment AIH, as the whole semicircle ABCA to the semisegment or quadrant ADCF, that is, in a ratio of equality.
Again, if ABC (fig. 12) be a triangle, right angled at C, and if semicircles be described on the three sides as diameters; then the triangle T (ABC) is equal to the sum of the two lunes L1, L2. For, the greatest semicircle is equal to the sum of both the other two; from the greatest semicircle take away the segments S1 and S2, and there remains the triangle T; also from the two less semicircles take away the same two segments S and S2, and there remains the two lanes Ll and L2; therefore the triangle T = L1 + 1.2 the two lunes.(Hutton's Dictionary.) See also the remarks of Perks, David Gregory, Caswell, and Wallis, on the quadrature of the lunula, in Phil. Trans. No. 259, or vol. iv. p. 452, New Abridgement: and, for "the dimensions of the solids generated by the conversion of Hippocrates's lunula, and of its parts about several axes, with the surfaces generated by that conversion," see Demoivre's paper in Phil.Trans. No. 265, or New Abridge ment, vol. iv. p. 505.
LUNEL, a town of France, in the depart ment of Gard, near the river Ridourle. It produces excellent Muscadine wine, and is 16 miles east of Montpellier. Lon. 4. 19 E. Lat. 43. 38 N.
LUNEN, a town of Westphalia, in the county of Marche, situate at the conflux of the Zesick and Lippe, twenty miles southsouth-west of Munster. Lon. 7. 49 E. Lat. 51. 40 N.
LUNENBURG, a duchy of Germany, in the circle of Lower Saxony, subject to the elector of Hanover. Including Zell, it is bounded on the north by the Elbe, which separates it from Holstein and Lawenburg, on the east by the marquisate of Brandenburg, on the south by the duchy of Bruns wick, and on the west by the' duchies of Bremen and Westphalia. It is 100 miles in length and 70 in breadth; watered by the rivers Aller, Elbe, and Ilmenau. Part of it is full of heaths and forests, which abound with wild boars; but near the rivers it is pretty fertile.
LUNENBURG, a fortified town of Lower
Saxony, capital of a duchy of the same name. The chief public edifices are three parish churches, the ducal palace, three hospitals, the townhouse, the salt magazine, the ana tomical theatre, the academy, and the conventual church of St. Michael, in which are interred the ancient dukes; it also contains a famous table, eight feet long and four wide, plated over with chased gold, and the rim embellished with precious stones, of an immense value, which was taken from the Saracens by the emperor Otho, and presented to this church; but in 1698, a gang of thieves stripped it of 200 rubies and emeralds, together with a large diamond, and most of the gold, so that at present but a small part of it remains. Here are some very rich salt springs. Formerly, when there was a greater demand for the salt, upwards of 120,000 tons have been annually boiled here, and sold off: but since the commencement of the present century, the salt trade hath declined greatly. A fifth of the salt made here belongs to the king, but is farmed out. It is said to excel all the other salt made in Germany. This town is well fortified; and has a garrison, which is lodged in barracks. In the neighbourhood is a good lime-stone quarry; and along the Ilmenau are warehouses, in which are lodged goods brought from all parts of Germany, to be forwarded by the Ilmenau to Hamburgh, or by the Asche to Lubec, from whence other goods are brought back the same way. The town itself drives a considerable traffic in wax, honey, wool, flax, linen, salt, lime, and beer.
LUNETTE, in fortification, an enveloped counterguard, or mound of earth, made beyond the second ditch, opposite to the place of arms; differing from the ravelins only in their situation. Lunettes are usually made in wet ditches, and serve the same purpose as fausse-brays, to defend the passage
of the ditch.
LUNETTE, in farriery, a half horse-shoe, or such a one as wants that part of the branch which should run towards the quarter. LUNETTE is also the name of a shade, consisting of two small pieces of felt, made round and hollow, to cover the eyes of a vicious horse that is apt to bite, and strike with his fore feet.
LUNG-WORT, in botany. See PULMO
LUNGS. 8. (lungen, Saxon.) Two viscera situated in the cavities of the chest, by means of which we breathe. The lung in the right cavity of the chest is divided into three lobes; that in the left cavity into two. They hang in the chest, attached at their superior part to the neck, by means of the trachea, and are separated by the mediastinum. They are also attached to the heart by means of the pulmonary vessels. The substance of the lungs is of four kinds, viz. vesicular, vascular, bronchial, and a parenchymatous substance. The vesicular sub
stance is composed of the air-cells. vascular invests those cells like a net-work. The bronchial is throughout the lungs, having the air-cells at their extremities; and the spongy substance that connects the spaces between these parts is termed the parenchyma. The lungs are covered with a fine membrane, a reflexion of the pleura, called pleura pulmonalis. The internal surface of the air-cells is covered with a very fine, delicate, and sensible membrane, which is continued from the larynx through the trachea and bronchia.
The arteries of
the lungs are the pulmonary, which circu late the blood along the air-cells to undergo a certain change, and the bronchial artery, a branch of the aorta, which carries blood to the lungs for their nourishment. pulmonary veins return the blood that has undergone this change, by four trunks, into the left auricle of the heart. The bronchial veins terminate in the vena azygos. The nerves of the lungs are from the eighth pair and great intercostal. The absorbents are of two orders; the superficial and deepscated: the former are more readily detected than the latter. The glands of these viscera are called bronchial. They are mu ciparous, and situated about the bronchia. See PULMO.
LUNGED.a. (from lungs.) Having lungs; having the nature of lungs (Dryden).
LUNG-GROWN. a. (lung and grown.) The lungs sometimes grow fast to the skin that lines the breast; such are lung-grown (Harvey).
LUNISOLAR YEAR, in chronology, the space of 532 common years; found by multiplying the solar by the lunar cycie.
LUNT. s. (lonte, Dutch.) cord with which guns are fired.
LUNULA, in geometry. See LUNE. LU'NULATE. In botany, applied to the leaf. Subrotundum, basi excavatum, angulis posticis notatum.—(Philos. Bot.) In Delin. Pl. it is called lunate, and the explanation is somewhat differently worded— subrotundum, basi sinu divisum, angulis posticis acutis.-It is singular that Dr. Berkenhout, who seldom gives any equivalent English terms, should translate lunatum, moon-shaped; and lunula, a half-moon; though he explains it, rightly enough, shaped like a small crescent. In which sense only it is used in botany; though among the ancients lunatus is put for the shape of the moon, both when full and in a crescent.
LU'NULATE is likewise applied to the keel. of the flower in Polygala myrtifolia. Also to the stipule and spike. See CRESCENT
LUPERCALIA, feasts instituted in ancient Rome, in honour of the god Pan.The word comes from Lupercal, the name of a place under the Palatine mountain, where the sacrifices were performed. The Lupercalia were celebrated on the 15th of
the calends of March, that is, on the 15th of February, or, as Ovid observes, on the third day after the ides. They are posed to have been established by Evander. On the morning of this feast, the Luperci, or priests of Pan, ran naked through the streets of Rome, striking the married wo men they met on the bands and belly with a thong or strap of goat's leather, which was held an omen promising them fecundity and happy deliveries.
LUPIA. (Lupia, æ, f. kunta: from new, to molest.) A genus of disease, including encysted humours, whose contents are very thick, and sometimes solid, as meliceris, atheroma, steatona, and ganglion.
LUPINE, in botany. See LUPINUS. LUPINUS. Lupine. In botany, a genus of the class diadelphia, order decandria. Calyx two-lipped; anthers five of them oblong, five roundish: legume compressed, coriaceous, swelling at the seeds. Nineteen species: Europe; Asia; America; one a native of the Cape. They may be thus subdivided.
A. Herbaceous: leaves in finger-like divisions.
B. Shrubby leaves in finger-like divi
C. Herbaceous with simple leaves. They are all hardy annuals, ornamented with long whorled spikes of papilionaceous flowers, white, blue, yellow and rose-coloured. They are easily raised from seeds, and make a handsome appearance in open borders.
LU'PULUS. (Lupulus. i. m. from 277, dislike, so named from its bitterness.) The hop. It is the floral leaf or bractea of this plant, Humulus lupulus of Linnéus, that is dried and used in various kinds of strong beer. Hops have a bitter taste, less ungrateful than most of the other strong bitters, accompanied with some degree of warmth and aromatic bitter, and are highly intoxicating. The hop flower also exhales a considerable quantity of its narcotic power in drying; hence those who sleep in the hop-houses are with difficulty roused from their slumber. A pillar stuffed with these flowers was said to have laid our present monarch asleep when other remedies had failed.
We have already observed in another article that this plant has of late been introduced in the new pharmacopoeia of the London college under the forms of extract and tincture, as a valuable aromatic bitter. See HUMULUS.
LUPUS, a Roman, who, contrary to the omens, marched against the Marsi, and was killed with his army. He has been taxed with impiety, and was severely censured in the Augustan age. (Horat.).
LUPUS, in zoology. See CANIS. LUPUS, Wolf, in astronomy, a southern constellation, joined to the Centaur. cording to the Britannic Catalogue this constellation has 24 stars, numbered thus acmagnitudes, 0, 0, 2, 3, 16, 3.
LUPUS Marinus. See ANARICHAS, LUPUS, in ornithology. See MONEDULA. LURCH. 8. To leave in the LURCH. To leave in a forlorn or deserted condition (Arbuth.).
To LURCH. v. n. (loeren, Dutch.) 1. To shift; to play tricks (Shakspeare). 2. To lie in wait: we now use lark (L'Estrange).
To LURCH. v. a. (lurcor, Latin.) . To devour; to swallow greedily (Bacon). 2. To defeat; to disappoint (South). 3. To steal privily; to filch; to pilfer.
LURCHER. 8. (from lurch.) 1. One that watches to steal, or to betray or entrap (Gay). 2. (lurco, Latin.) A glutton; a gor
LURCHER.-A variety of the dog tribe, characterized by being rough and wiry haired, with ears erect, but dropping a little at the points: above the middle size, of a yellowish or sandy red colour; and of great speed courage and fidelity. They are supposed to be mules produced from a cross between the shepherd's dog and the greyhound, which, from breeding in and in with the latter, has so refined upon the original cross, that very little of the shepherd's dog is retained in its stock, its docility and fidelity excepted. They are the favourite dogs of small farmers, since they can both act the part of a sheep dog, and occasionally trip up the heels of a leveret three parts grown. They are also the constant companions of professed and notorious poachers, being admirably adapted to such a kind of service: they equal, if not exceed, any other kind of dog in sagacity; and are easily taught any thing that an animal of this description can acquire. Some of them are very little inferior in speed to wellbred greyhounds: hares they frequently run up to: rabbits they kill to a certainty, if the latter be at any distance from home: if near a warren, the dog invariably runs for the burrow, by doing which, he seldom fails in his attempt to secure his aim. His quali fications go still farther; in the nocturnal excursions of poachers, he will easily pull down a fallow deer, as soon as the signal is given for pursuit; which done, he will explore his way to his master, and conduct him to the game, wherever he may have left it. In poaching for hares however they are peculiarly serviceable, for when the wires are fixed at the meuses, and the nets at the gates, a lurcher or two despatched by a single word of command, will scour the field, paddock, or plantation, with the most perfect silence and secure an ample harvest.
LURE, in falconry, a device of leather, in the shape of two wings, stuck with feathers and baited with a piece of flesh, to call back a hawk when at considerable distance.
Hence lure signifies any enticement; any thing that promises advantage (Milton). To LURE. v. n. (from the noun.) To call hawks (Bacon).
To LURE. v. a. To attract; to entice