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cum eis ad vos venientes vobis dicent ex parte nostra vel aliquis de illis, si omnes interesse non possint, et tantum inde facientes quod vobis perpetuo teneamur obnoxiores, et quod debeamus vos merito exaudire in negociis vestris cum nos requisieritis; et certissime sciatis quod nunquam nobis ab illo auxilium fieri postulabimus qui nobis in hac tanta necessitate auxilium denegabit. Teste me ipso apud Notingham x die Februarii.
Sub eadem forma scribitur comitibus, baronibus, justiciariis, vicecomitibus, militibus, civibus, mercatoribus, burgensibus et liberetenentibus et omnibus aliis fidelibus suis per Hiberniam constitutis.
II. The Division of the Norman Baronage.
A detailed study of Philip's confiscations in Normandy and of the Terrae Normannorum in England would demand a separate volume. Its author would require to be familiar with the records and chartularies of England and France, and also to be a trained genealogist and topographer. In this appendix I have only attempted to compare the lists of 1172 with the feodaries contained in the registers of Philip Augustus, and to reduce some order out of Stapleton's valuable Observations. The justification for a tentative inquiry may be found (1) in the fact that no methodical list of the barons who followed John and Philip respectively in 1204 has ever been attempted, and (2) in the interest which such a list may possess for the general student. For example, the history of the fiefs of Eu, Harcourt, Fontenai (Marmion), L'Aigle and Tillières illustrates the survival of double tenancy in England and Normandy after 1204. The history of some families, Hommet, Préaux, Tournebu, Traci, Vernon and Vieuxpont shows how the Anglo-Norman families fell apart after 1204, just as, in so many cases, they had fallen apart in the eleventh and early twelfth centuries, into English and Norman lines.
The feodaries which are included in the Registers of Philip Augustus are exceedingly important. Register A contains a copy of the statement of knight service drawn up in 1172, with later additions; also a valuable list of Feoda Normanniæ which was compiled between 1204 and 1208.1 Register C contains a detailed list of knights' fees of the Cotentin 2; and Register E incorporates this in the most important document of all, the complete Scripta de feodis ad regem spectantibus.3 This last list presents a
1. Historiens de France, xxiii, 705–714. The entries relating to Guérin of Glapion show that it was compiled before Guérin's disgrace in 1208.
2. Ibid, 6089-612d. Register C was compiled 1211-1220. 3. Ibid, 608-681.
survey of Norman society as it was between 1210 and 1220. 1
All these documents, with several others of less interest, are edited in the twenty-third volume of the Recueil des historiens de France. Of other documents the most important are Philip's declaration of the lands added to his demesne in 1204 (Cartulaire Normand, No. 113), and the inquiry into the rights of the duke in ecclesiastical affairs, which contains a list of the Norman barons who formed the jury, and who were therefore adherents of Philip in 1205 (Ibid, No. 124). The articles of surrender which were drawn up at Rouen in 1204 (Teulet, Layettes i, 250) certain lists of pledges (e.g., Cartulaire Normand, Nos. 204-6) and the lists of barons who took part in important judgments, such as the division of the lands of Ralph Tesson in 1214 (Ibid, No. 230), are also useful. A great deal of scattered information is to be found in Delisle's Cartulaire Normand and Actes de Philippe Auguste ; also, for the period before 1204, in Round's Calendar of Documents preserved in France.
On the English side, the valor of certain lands of the Normans in 1204 (Rotuli Normanniae, p. 122), the list of fees drawn up in 1212, and the Fine Rolls are especially valuable. For the history of the English baronies, however, the student should turn to the other records of the thirteenth century, the Chancery and plea rolls, the inquisitions post mortem, the Hundred Rolls; also to the more important county histories and peerages, and to the family histories, such as Gurney's Record of the House of Gournay, and Mr. Watson's papers in the Genealogist.
In the following list I have taken the chief fiefs of 1172 as a basis, and have started as a rule from the entry in the Red Book of the Exchequer, which contains the list of 1172. I have added the fiefs of some important officials, such as Richard of Fontenai, and Geoffrey of Sai.
Delisle compiled a useful list of the more important baronies, arranged according to dioceses (Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, xi, 400). I have found this helpful in making my selection.
1. See Delisle's Actes de Philippe Auguste, pp. vi-xxv, for the Registers. In the following pages I have for the sake of convenience treated the scripta de feodis as though they presented the state of society in 1220; but it should be remembered that this is the date of the register, not of the entries.
THE LOSS OF NORMANDY
INDEX TO THE FIEFS DISCUSSED IN THIS APPENDIX. Fiefs whose lords joined John. Fiefs whose lords joined Philip. PAGE
PAGE Arundel, earl of 486 L'Aigle
- 485 Aufai 486 Alençon
• 486 | Argences, Richard of 486 Bohon
487 | Aunou Briouze
489 Baqueville (Martel) 487 Chester, earl of
491 Baudemont, see Cailly 489 Clare, earl of 491 Beaufou
487 Cleville (John du Hom Bricquebec (Bertram) 488 met) - 492 Cailly
489 Coquainvilliers, see Mont Courci
493 fort · 504 Creully
493 Colombières, Philip of 492 | Esneval
494 Giffard, * see Longueville 502 Eu
494 Gloucester, earl of 497 Ferrières
· 497 Fontenai (Marmion) 495 Grandmesnil, see Leices Fontenai, Richard of 496 ter
496 Gravenchon (Evreux)
497 La Haie-du-Puits
Gisors, John of • 499
497 Leicester, earl of
Graville (Malet) - 501
Hambye (Paynell) 502
499 Meulan, count of
Le Hommet 504
501 Montfort, Hugh of
Longchamp, Stephen of :
489 Mortain - 505 Longueville (Giffard)*
506 Mortemer, Roger of : see
508 Moutiers-Hubert (Paynell) 506
Pembroke,* earl of; see
• 507 Nonant
Longueville, Orbec 502, 509 Ollonde (Mandeville)
510 Orval, see Littehaire
510 Sai, Geoffrey of
Saint-Sauveur (Tesson) 512
Thury, see Saint-Sauveur 513
• 517 Tracy, Oliver of
514 Tracy, William of
517 Troisgots • 518 Traci, Turgil of
517 Wake, see Négreville 507
518 · 518
Vassy Warenne, see Mortemer 506 | Vieuxpont
519 * William the Marshal, earl of Pembroke, did homage to Philip Augustus for his lands, but did not join him.
H. de F.=Recueil des Historiens de France, vol. xxiii; R.N.=Rotuli Normanniae; C.N.=Cartulaire Normand; Testa= Testa de Nevill; R.B.=Red Book of the Exchequer; V.C.H.= Victoria County Histories; G.E.C.G.E.C(okayne's) Complete Peerage.
L'AIGLE. The land of Gilbert of L'Aigle in Dorsct was among
the Terrae Normannorum in 1204 (R.N., 124). The lord of L'Aigle, Gilbert, or his successor, appears in lists of pledges after 1204 in Normandy (C.N., nos. 206, 366). For their charters, compare C.N., no. 366 note, and Stapleton, II, xlviii note.
For the genealogy of the house cf. Round, Calendar, pp. 218, 225, 511. For the Norman barony, see the return of Richer of L'Aigle in R.B., ii, 629, H. de F., 709a (Crepon, Calvados, arr. Bayeux); and Ibid, 618 b.c. (L'Aigle).
The honour of Aquila in England was centred in Sussex at Pevensey. By 1212 it was confiscated (Testa, 226 b, cf. 225, 227), but Gilbert of L'Aigle is found in England in the early part of Henry III's reign (Rot. Claus., i, 369 b; ii, 160 b, 166 b). The honour was granted to Gilbert Marshal in 1234 (Cal. of Charter Rolls, Henry III, i, 191). This corrects Banks, The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England (1807), i, 4.
ALENCON. For the defection of Count Robert of Alençon or
Séez, see above, p. 233. The count played a prominent part in Norman politics until his death (Actes de PhilippeAuguste, passim). In January 1221, his heirs, the viscount of Châtellerault, Ella, the count's sister, and Robin Malet (his nephew) surrendered Alençon and other lands to Philip Augustus (Actes, no. 2028; C.N., no. 1126, p. 306).
The counts of Alençon, according to the return made by Robert III's father, John, in 1172, owed the service of 20 knights to the duke, and received the service of 11 knights (R.B., ii, 626). In the later part of the twelfth century Alençon and its castle were the seat of a bailiwick (above, p. 111), but the lordship of the counts within and without the town and bailiwick was very extensive : see C.N., nos. 122, 283, 340, 1126.