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sought early relief from its labours, but more probably the king was pursuing the policy of frequent changes which he seems to have adopted in less important cases. Both Guérin of Glapion and Ralph Tesson continued to take a prominent place in Norman politics after their retirement from office. The former was especially useful in Maine, where, by reason of his origin, he

he had

had many acquaintances. In 1203 he followed the barons of Maine in deserting John.2

For a short time Philip Augustus placed him again at the head of Norman administration. He appears as seneschal in two cancelled charters issued by Philip in his favour.3 Memories of his doings are recorded in the Querimoniæ Normannorum of 1247, where like another novus homo, William Crassus, he appears as a notorious robber of other men's property.4 According to one of these complaints he had joined John again but returned to Philip. He was, however, finally deprived of his


, lands on the charge of having relations with the Emperor Otto.5 In 1208, according to Stapleton, he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, from which he never returned, and his scattered estates, which had not had time to form themselves into a single honour, 6 were divided


once more.

1. Cf. Rot. Pat,. 14, 20.

2. He turned before Michaelmas, 1203, since in the roll of that year Robert of Vieuxpont accounts for his land at Belboeuf among the escheats of the Romeis (Rot. Scacc., ii, 552). References in the other rolls begin in October (Rot. de Lib., 67).

3. Actes, nos. 117B, 825A (1204).

4. Querimoniae Normannorum, nos. 516, 522, 527, 530, 549 (Recueil des historiens de France, xxiv, part i, pp. 68–70, 72).

5. Ibid, no. 530. Guérin had spoken with Otto, Philip's adversary, “sine Hugone de Surgeriis, milite.” The confiscation seems to have resulted from double dealing during negotiations between Otto and Philip in this critical year.

6. Guérin's lands are treated as one in a privilege of February 28th, 1202 (Rot. Pat., 6b): no plea regarding any of his Norman lands was to be put forward except before the king himself.

A cryptic document enrolled on the Patent Rolls, which I add below, may possibly refer to pledges whom Guérin de Glapion had found in 1202. If this supposition is correct, the letter enables us to study the procedure of pledging. We see the person who has found pledges going the round of his pledges and procuring their sealed promises of support. It is significant that, with the

" exception of the earl of Chester, all the persons mentioned belong to Maine or Anjou.

Two objections may be raised against the view that this document preserves the procedure in binding pledges. In

. the first place, the terms are mandatory and vague; in the second place, there is no evidence that Guérin of Glapion had incurred the king's suspicion in the spring of 1202. It must be noted, however, that the practice of suretyship had become exceedingly common in John's reign on all sorts of occasions : in 1203, for example, both the Marshal and Guérin found mainpernors for the payment of the Gascon loan. Again, as regards the first objection, it should be observed that the mandatory phrases

technical commonplaces, often found in royal letters, and consequently of small value as evidence.

John's letters ran as follows:


Rex etc. R. comiti Cestrie salutem. Mandamus vobis quod de sigillo vestro apponendo scripto quod per Guarinum de Glapion vobis mittimus et de hiis que in scripto illo continentur assecurandis faciatis statim visis litteris istis quod idem Guarinus vobis dicet. Teste me ipso apud Rothomagum xxix die Marcii. [1202.]

1. Lists of pledges, with the amounts pledged, which must have been based upon some document, were sometimes copied into the rolls, e.g.. Rot. Norm., 43—Plegii Rogeri de Planes.

2. “Thomas de Sancto Walerico I. li de prestito Gasconie per plegium Garini de Glapion. Idem xl. li. pro eodem per plegium Willelmi Marescalli.” (Rot. Scace., ii, 551.)


The clerk adds the following note: -

In eadem forma mittuntur littere Rogero de Tony, Mauricio de Crohon, Willelmo de Rupibus, Episcopo Cenomanensi, Vicecomite de Bello Monte, Archidiacono Turonensi, Joello de Meduana, Guido de Walle Has litteras portavit Guarinus de Glapion et scriptum predictum, et illud scriptum debet reportare.2


The following list contains the names of those who are known to have deserted John during 1203, and whose lands are recorded among the confiscations entered on the rolls. The list is not exhaustive, for, apart from omissions due to oversight, the barons and knights whose lands were not granted away must have been numerous, and their names are not entered in the records of terra data. 3 Moreover, the inhabitants of those parts of Normandy which fell into Philip's hands were not mentioned by name except in a few cases of those who, like Roger of Portes, 4 remained with John and received compensation, or of those who, like the count of Evreux, possessed lands elsewhere which were confiscated.

The names given in the list fall for the most part into two divisions, the names of those who followed the barons


1. Roger of Tosny, though a Norman, had close connections by marriage with William des Roches and Ralph of Beaumont. See Richard, Comtes de Poitou, ii, 359.

2. Rot. Pat., 8. With the concluding note compare the note on p. 7b, after the enrollment of a charter of suretyship issued by the archbishop of Canterbury and two others in behalf of the Earl of Chester : “Missa est hec carta per Ricardum de Wilekier Radulfo Tesson senescallo Normannie custodienda in thesauro."

3. e.g., the Exchequer rolls show that the land of Guérin of Glapion in the Roméis was escheated during the summer of 1203, but there is no reference to his desertion on the rolls before October (above p. 256).

4. Above p. 253.

of Maine and Count Robert of Séez, and of those who joined Philip after the total loss of the Evrecin in May.

The men whose names are printed in italics possessed lands in England which were given away to others.

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Argences, Richard of, hardly belongs to the list. He

joined Philip apparently in 1202, having been farmer of the Honour of Evreux, and his lands were distributed in the summer (Rot. Norm., 53, 59). King John offered to pardon him on 16 Feb. 1203 (Rot. Pat., 25), but he does not appear to have availed himself of the offer. King Philip made him grants of land (Actes, 740, 935). He took part in a judgment at Rouen in 1214 (Cart. Norm., no. 230).

Argences, Calvados c. Troarn. Argences, Ralph of; lands in Lieuvin given away about

27 August (Rot. Norm., 103). Berners,' Herbert of, a follower of Count Robert; land at

Anescy’given away 28 Jan. (Rot. Norm., 71). 'Buelles,' Helyas of;1 Carevilla, in Caux, given away

10 May (Rot. Norm., 94). Boulogne, Baldwin, Constable of.

On 12 June grace given till 24 June (Rot. de Lib., 41). Confiscation of English lands 20 July, on account of defect of service

(ib., 50). Cambernon (?) (Campus Arnulfi, Champernol), Jordan of;

land in bailiwick of Tenchebrai given away, 9 May (Rot. Norm., 93).

Cambernon, near Coutances, was held by a Jordan in 1172 (Red Book of the Exchequer, ii, 636; Stapleton, II, ccxxxvii). On the other hand, the Jordan of Champernol of 1203 might belong to Campagnolles, north of Vire, which is much nearer to Tenchebrai.

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1. Buelles, possibly Bulli, near Drincourt. There is a Carville, in Caux, near to Caudebec. The unusual name Elias belonged to an “ Elias of Carville,” in England, in 1166 (Red Book, i, 231).

'Campens,' William of,' a follower of Count Robert;

land at ‘Aibri' given away 26 Jan. (Rot. Norm., 71). * Channey' [=Chenay, near Alençon?), William of.

Lands in bailiwick of Falaise at Mesnil Renard,

given away 26 June (Rot. Norm., 71). Chaunont, Geoffrey of, a knight of William Talvas,

brother of Count Robert; his land in bailiwick of Argentan ? confiscated, 28 Jan. (Rot. Norm., 72).

Chaunont, near Roche-Mabile, of which William

Talvas was lord (Stapleton, II, lxxxvi). Doucelles, Philip de; lands in bailiwick of Richard of

Fontenay (Mortain) given away 31 Jan. (Rot. Norm., 73).

Doucelles, s. of Alençon, near Beaumont-sur-Sarthe. 'Ernenville,' Matthew of. Matthew was in France in

June 1202 (Rot. Norm., 51) and held in part of St. Ouen. His lands in Robert of Vieuxpont's bailiwick given away 26 July 1203 (ib., 100).

Ernenville perhaps is Ernentruville, the old name for St. Sever, a suburb of Rouen on the left bank of the Seine. (Cf. Cart. Norm., p. 222.) Robert of

Vieuxpont was bailiff of the Roumois in 1203. Etouteville, Henry of; his English land at Kirkby given

away 8 May (Rot. Norm., 92).

Etouteville (Stuteville) in Caux, near Yvetot. Evreux, Amaury, count of; English lands forfeited before

8 May (Rot. Norm., 92.) Apparently back again in

October (ib., 110). See Stapleton, II, clxxiii-iv. Ferrand, William; lands granted by king in La Londe

and Caux (Rot. Norm., 76, 99: 11 Feb., 25 July). A very heavy forest fine may have something to

1. There are many possible equivalents of this name. Aibri is probabiy one of the Aubri's near Falaise .

2. Richard de la Tour, to whom the order is addressed as bailiff, was: bailiff of the Argentan (cf. Rot. Norm., 61, 105).

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