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In 1180, bailiff, Nigel fitz Robert, described in charters as the Seneschal of Mortain (Stapleton, p. lxv). He collected auxilium vicecomitis (9-11). Castles, Mortain, Le Tilleul (Teolium).

[Viscounty of Vale of Mortain]. Appears in the accounts of the auxilium vicecomitis (9). Cf. Cart. Norm., no. 412, p. 66.

[Prepositura of Mortain]. The name in Rot. Norm., 15, "prepositus" (cf. Rot. Scacc., 9). Farm of toll, ovens, mills, 160 li. Farmer, Ralph Ros (8). Le Tilleul. Farm 60 li (p. 9). Farmers, apparently inhabitants.

CERENCES, a bailiwick in 1180, and styled a ballia in 1172 (Red Book, ii. 640), but apparently only for convenience, since Cerences was a viscounty in the honour of Mortain. It disappears in the time of Richard, and re-appears in the rolls of John as a viscounty in the bailiwick of Mortain (Rot. Scacc., II. 540).

Bailiff in 1180, Stephen of Saukeville (14–5). Viscounty of Cerences, 150 li. Farmer, Stephen of Saukeville. This ancient farm seems to include a prepositura," since fixed payments out of the farm of Montmartin went to the viscount and "prepositus of Cerences respectively (30).

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Feria de Monte Martini. Farm, 300 li. (30). This valuable property, the proceeds of the great fair at Montmartin, a place on the coast of the Côtentin near Cerences, deserves special notice. It belonged to the counts of Mortain (Cart. Norm., no. 412, p. 66) and therefore only re-appears on the rolls in the reign of King John.

COTENTIN. Bailiff, Osbert de la Houze (de Hosa) (3038). See Red Book, ii, 643. Castles, Cherbourg, Valognes. Castellan, Osbert de la Houze (30).


The bailiff succeeded the earlier viscounts of the

Côtentin, and farmed a great deal of the extensive domain separately.

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Barfleur. Farm 60 li. Farmer, Robert the Ange

vin (37).

St. Marcouf. Farm 200 li. (38).

Poupeville. Farm 220 li. (38).

Varreville. Farm 200 li. (38).

Ste-Mère-Eglise. Farm 140 li. (39).

COUTANCES. Called bailiwick in 1172 (Red Book, ii. 634), and treated as such on rolls.

Bailiff, in 1180, William de Ponte, the agent of the hereditary viscount (51-2).


Viscounty of Coutances. Farm, 50 li. hereditary, William of St. John (50, cf. 12). The farm is a small one, considering the size of the city, because Coutances was divided very largely between the count of Mortain and the bishop (Stapleton, p. xcviii.; cf. Cart. Norm., no. 412, p. 66).

GAVRAI. Bailiwick in 1172 (Red Book ii. 634); in 1195 (Rot. Scacc., I. 197), and in 1198 (II. 292-294) and 1203 (II. 512-514). Omitted in 1180.

Castle, Gavrai.

The bailiff accounted for the proceeds of the honour "de exitu honoris de Wabreio cum villa de Torneor." AVRANCHIN. Bailiff, Geoffrey Duredent (11-13).

Castles, Avranches, Pontorson, St. James-deBeuvron. The castle and city of Avranches were not

farmed, and the castle had a special castellan placed there by the king. Consequently the only proceeds of the bailiwick, except the pleas of the sword, came from outside Avranches. (Inquest in Delisle, Introduction to the Recueil des Actes de Henri II, pp. 345-7; Rot. Norm., p. 87).

Viscounty of the Avranchin, or as it is sometimes called, the "prepositura " (Rot. Scacc., I. 40, 215; II. 537). Farm, 60 li. Farmer, hereditary, earl of Chester (40). The farm was really 80 li, but 20 li were allowed by the exchequer because of the manor of Vains, near Avranches, which William the Conqueror had given in free alms to St. Stephen of Caen (Delisle, op. cit., p. 345; Round, Calendar of Documents preserved in France, p. 158).

Prepositura of St. James-de-Beuvron. Farm, 100 li. Farmer, hereditary, earl of Chester (40, also II, 537). Prepositura of Pontorson. Farm 220 li. Farmer, Michael of Tessey. Castellan in 1180, William du Hommet, the constable (40). Pontorson was given outright to the earl of Salisbury in 1203 (Rot. Norm., 97).

CHANNEL ISLES. The islands were first entrusted to a custos or ballivus by King John (Havet, Les cours royales des îles normandes in Bibl. de l'école des chartes, 1877, xxxviij, 72; see Rot. Pat. 15). John, when count of Mortain, had been dominus Insularum (Havet, Série chronologique des gardiens et seigneurs des îles normandes, 1198–1461 in Bibliothèque, 1876, Xxxvii, 187; Stapleton II. lxxxvi). John became lord apparently after 1195, since he did not share in the revenues of the isles in that year (Rot. Scacc. I, 225). The first warden, Peter of Préaux, was also lord of the isles, by a reversible grant (Rot. Chart, 33 b) for the service of three knights (see Havet in Bibliothèque, xxxvii, 188; Stapleton, II, ccxxxi). In

consequence of these facts, we do not find the isles entered as a bailiwick upon the rolls. The ducal estates were farmed, and in 1198 the surplus went to Count John, not to the exchequer. In 1180 the various farms were as follows. For the names see Stapleton, I. lxxvi.

Ministerium de Groceio, in Jersey. Farm 140 li. Farmer, Roger Godel (25).

Ministerium de Crapout Doit, in Jersey. Farm 160 li. Farmer, Richard Burnulf (25).

Ministerium de Gorroic, in Jersey. Farm 160 li. Farmer, Gilbert de la Hougue (26).

Guernsey. Farm 240 li. Farmer, Gilbert de la Hougue (26. See also 225; ii, 390).

It would be rash in spite of the statements in the custumal to conclude that the ducal courts and assizes were held in each self-contained bailiwick. Early in Henry II's reign the bailiwicks seem to have had their local judges (e.g., Mortain, Stapleton, I, p. lxv), and the bailiffs may have been able to hold pleas of the sword (see the writ of Henry II quoted above, p. 87). Moreover, as John's charter for William of Briouze shows (Rot. Norm., 20), the itinerant justices, when trying the pleas of the sword, might sit specially in baronial courts. The scattered escheat of the honour of Peveril, which was not only farmed as a whole in 1180, but treated as a bailiwick for the return of the proceeds of ducal justice (105-6), must have taken its pleas for trial to some neighbouring place of assize, unless the constable, who acted as bailiff, dealt with them himself. But we must wait for Mr. Haskins' studies on the charters before an opinion can be expressed upon the relations between local administration and local justice.

It is clear from the roll of 1195 that there had been a great inquiry into the escheats of Normandy. Many


bailiffs make special returns of their escheats. measure would be necessary because of the changes wrought by the crusade, the attempt at rebellion engineered by John, and, above all, the war with Philip of France. But the inquiry had an administrative value, and is an additional proof that the Norman bureaucracy undertook in the duchy a great investigation parallel to that ordered by Hubert Walter in England. The justices of the great itinerary of 1194 were especially instructed to deal with. escheats (Select Charters, pp. 259-262). One result of these inquiries was that special officials could be appointed to collect special revenues throughout a very large area, thus relieving the bailiffs. Thus in Richard's reign tallages were levied by particular persons and accounted for from many bailiwicks. John, in the following letter, made the experienced official Richard of Villequier his escheator throughout Normandy (Rot. Pat., 37, 30 Nov. 1203):

Rex etc senescallo et omnibus ballivis etc. Sciatis quod liberavimus Ricardo de Wilek custodiam escaetarum Normannie et Judeorum praeter Judeos Rothomagi et Cadomi quamdiu nobis placuerit. Et ideo vobis precipimus quod ei sitis intendentes tanquam custodi escaetarum et Judeorum et ei escaetas per ballias vestras custodiendas habere faciatis.

A similar tendency was the concentration of bailiwicks in a few hands, and the separate distribution of the castles. This is very marked in the roll of 1203, but is also noticeable in the rolls of King Richard's reign.

The list given above shows that a viscounty survived in every ancient province, Caux, Bray, Vexin, Roumois, the district between the rivers Seine and Risle, Auge, Lieuvin, Oximin, Bessin, Vau de Vire, the Cotentin and Avranchin; also in the counties of Alençon and Mortain, with its dependent viscounty Cerences; in the cities or castles of Rouen, Lisieux (where the bishop successfully

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