« PreviousContinue »
at Barnard is the spur which, however, is not introduced for defensive purposes but merely as a matter of convenience in order to contain a mural chamber. The interior of the tower was then examined.
BOWES CASTLE was next visited. Like the neighbouring keep of Richmond it was commenced by Conan le Petit, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, and was completed by Henry II between 1171 and 1187. It is practically contemporary with Newcastle, Richmond, Scarborough, Bridgenorth, and The Peak. Mr. I'Anson, who has personally examined every rectangular keep castle in England, and a number of those in France, remarked that Bowes Castle appeared to be unique, either in England or in France, in that it consisted, from the date of its foundation to the date of its abandonment, merely of a large rectangular tower unconnected with any other works in masonry. In the very heart of the wildest part of Wales, however, is the rectangular keep of Dolwyddelan, which would also appear to have been unconnected with any other works in Both Bowes and Dolwyddelan were probably surrounded by palisaded enclosures or barmkins. Like the fortress. of Whitecastle in Monmouthshire, Bowes Castle was a purely military structure; it was, indeed, merely a garrison castle, and was not intended either as a residence for the earls of Richmond or as a residence for an important royally-appointed constable, as were the neighbouring castles of Scarborough and Newcastle.
Although faced with ashlar, and although the workmanship is excellent, the exterior of the tower is unusually plain. There is no plinth or set-off, even the usual battering base is absent, and this base could be made very ornamental, as at Bamborough. The only ornamentation is the string-course marking the level of the upper floor, and this, as at Richmond, is carried round both walls and pilasters, a somewhat unusual arrangement. Each angle is capped by the usual broad flat pilaster buttress, and there is also a similar buttress in the centre of each façade. Everything is very plain, there is nothing, for instance, to compare with the simple, yet pleasing, effect produced by the shafts in the hollow angles at Castle Rising and Scarborough, or by the elegant cylindrical pilasters at Loches. Mr. I'Anson particularly called attention to the unusually large windows on the first floor level. At Loches, on every floor except the base
ment, is one window much larger than the others, but the windows at Loches are much smaller than are these windows at Bowes. Such windows would never have been inserted in the residential citadel of a great seigneural castle. Bowes was merely a garrison castle; the only people likely to attack it were the Scots, and they invariably travelled light, and did not encumber themselves with heavy siege engines. The entrance to the keep was on the east on the first floor level. The entrance door was usually the subject of a considerable amount of ornamentation; but here, as at Kenilworth, it is exceedingly plain, consisting merely of a round-headed doorway, composed of two plain rings of voussoirs, and 5 feet 6 inches wide. There was no forebuilding.
The arrangements of the interior of the tower were examined. The first floor, as at Castle Rising, Middleham, and Domfront, is divided into two unequal parts: the hall on the east, the solar on the west. Opening out of the hall is a small kitchen, containing a concave-backed fireplace. Mr. l'Anson remarked that rooms specially set apart as kitchens are most unusual in rectangular keeps, Castle Rising being another example. The upper floor was probably added by Henry II. The addition of an upper floor soon after the completion of a rectangular tower was quite usual, similar instances occur at Richmond, Bridgenorth, Ludlow, Kenilworth, Porchester, etc.
The Roman remains at Bowes (Lavatra) were next examined, under the guidance of Mr. Edward Wooler, F.S.A., and this forms the subject of a separate communication to the Journal at page 400.
After inspecting the interesting little moorland church of Bowes, which has two twelfth-century doors and contains several Roman inscribed stones, the party proceeded to EGGLESTON ABBEY. Mr. H. B. McCall here addressed the members on the different Orders of Monks and Canons, referring also to the Friars and the distinction between them and the monastic Orders. He then proceeded to point out the objects of architectural interest in the remains of the abbey, basing his remarks upon the article on Eggleston Abbey by the Rev. J. F. Hodgson (vol. xviii, p. 129), the general accuracy of which, he said, could not be called in question.
[The Council has decided to reserve a small space in each Number for notices of Finds and other discoveries; and it is hoped that Members will assist in making this a record of all matters of archeological interest which from time to time may be brought to light in this large county.]
YORKSHIRE PECULIAR WILLS.
In response to a further memorial from the Society, presented to the President of the Probate Division, the Richmond registers from Somerset House, London, and the documents of the West Riding Peculiars from Wakefield, have been deposited in the District Probate Registry at York.
These are small and in poor condition, most of them being fragments only of the originals. They are marked as follows:A considerable portion of this register remains. Section I is marked 1474-1485; Section II, 1503; and Section III, 1529-1551 (?). One leaf is headed, "Book of Wills in the time of William Knyg[ht], archdeacon of Richmond, proved by Mr. William Cleyton, vicar-general, from Dec. 6, 1529, to the end of . There are several other
Of this only a single leaf appears to have survived (1564). B. This is very imperfect. The wills in it appear to have been proved before the dean of the deanery of Boroughbridge (1564-1573).
C. Appears to be almost perfect. It is marked on the cover, 1544-1553, and contains an index, which includes references to wills proved down to 1564.
D. Also seems fairly perfect. It is described as containing wills proved at Richmond before Mr. Edmund Parkinson, LL.B., commissary, from the Annunciation of the B.V.M., 1573. to Jan. II, 1579.
A fragment (1576-1585). All the wills seem to have been proved before Percival Brodbent, clerk, dean of Boroughbridge.
WEST RIDING PECULIARS.
These consist of documents of the following courts :
Barnoldswick manor court, 1660-1794. An index to these is printed in the Northern Genealogist, i, 113.
Crossley, Bingley, and Pudsey manor court, 1580-1676. Index in the Northern Genealogist, i, 33.
3. Marsden manor court, 1654-1855. Index in the Northern Genealogist, ii, 102 and 168.
4. Silsden manor court, 1587-1737. Index in the Northern Genealogist, i, 37 and 110.
5. Temple Newsam manor court, 1612-1701.
Northern Genealogist, i, 34.
Index in the
"Extinct and Dormant Peerages of the Northern Counties of England," by J. W. Clay, F.S.A. It would doubtless be a very desirable thing if the attention of members could be systematically called in the Journal to all publications of historical and archæological interest as regards Yorkshire. Mr. Clay has done much for Yorkshire genealogy, but even his monumental work, "Dugdale's Visitation, with Additions," may be of lesser value to the advanced student than the present volume. The pedigrees of some 88 families are given, and they include the counties of Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, as well as Yorkshire. But almost all are families which the Yorkshire genealogist has constant need to refer to, and it is good to have a last word on the subject. The Nevilles, the Lacys, the Fitzhughs, the Marmions, and the Dacres are only a few of the important Yorkshire families whose genealogy is here given. The scions of these were summoned to Parliament" in very early times; but even comparatively recent creations are not omitted, and Mr. Clay does not begin with the peerage, but gives the antecedent genealogy. Thus Lord Wandesford's creation dates from 1707 only, and became extinct in 1784; but we have the family pedigree since 1345. The work is a most valuable one to the genealogist interested in the northern counties.
The letter "" indicates that the name is in the notes to the page.
Aldborough, 29, 36, 37, 129, 149,
Aldeburgh, Eliz., 153, 154, 155,
Almondbury Church, 1971
Alnwick, 367; Castle, 392, 394, 409
Alta Ripa, Sir Jocelin de, 71, 394n;
Altars, Roman, 402, 403, 407, 408,
Armitage, Mrs. E., 305, 310, 312,
313, 315, 329n, 33on, 331n,
Arms, Coats of, 65, 66, 70, 71, 75, 81,
87, 89, 96, 137 et seq., 154n, 162,
Armytage, Sir Geo., Bart., vi
Arnfin, Earl, 241
Artays, John, 142n
Arthington, 382; Rich., 156