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side, and the section of the string under the windows changes on the north side at the west side of the north doorway. There are also some variations in the base mouldings of the arcade piers which may possibly have some bearing on
the precise order in hich the parts of the nave were built.
Some points of similarity may be noted between the nave of Howden and the aisles of the nave of York Minster which were begun in 1291. The alternate bays of the north aisle of Howden (first, third and fifth from the east), and the second bay (from the east) of the south aisle have a crochet cornice of French inspiration, which may be compared with that of the nave aisles of York. The crocketted gable moulding over the west window of Howden occurs over the aisle windows at York, and the wall-arcade inside the west end of Howden has mouldings which are very like those of the internal wall-arcade of the nave aisles of York.
The nave of Howden may have been begun somewhere about 1280,1 and in 1281 the canons of Howden were working a quarry in Tevesdale, near Tadcaster. The lower part of the west front may be attributed to the last decade of the thirteenth century, and the nave would seem to have been finished within the first decade of the fourteenth century. This is indicated by the arms of Anthony Bek (bishop of Durham, 1284-1311, and patriarch of Jerusalem, 1306), now placed in a window on the east side of the south porch; this shield was formerly in the west window of the north aisle, 4 whence it was most unfortunately removed to make way for some modern glass. Bek died in 1311, and a window in this position would scarcely be glazed until the fabric of the nave was finished.
The south porch was a nearly contemporary addition to the south aisle of the nave. It is beautifully vaulted in two bays. Its doorway has a crocketted gable mould over the arch, and on the apex of the arch is the head of a king, which may be a representation of Edward II, who was at Howden in 1312.
Immediately after the completion of the nave, the small eastern arm which had been built some half-century before was replaced by the magnificent choir, the ruins of which show that it must have been one of the finest things of its time in England. Like the nave, it is of six bays, and of much the same length, but unlike the nave, it possessed the great merit of being vaulted throughout. In the aisle windows, the tracery moulds are similar to those of the nave aisles, but the tracery is more advanced. As in the windows of the nave aisles of York, there are three quatrefoils, not enclosed in circles, but here the upper quatrefoil has its lower foil of ogee shape, and the trefoiled head of the middle light is also ogeed at its apex. On the outside, these windows have crocketted gable moulds. The character of the work indicates c. 1310-1315 as probable for its beginning, but its completion must have extended well into the second quarter of the fourteenth century-nearly contemporary, in fact, with the later part of the choir of Selby, which had been begun while the nave of Howden was being built. The bay-design of the choir of Howden, too, resembled that of the choir of Selby; no triforium stage, but a wallpassage below the clearstory windows, with a quatrefoiled parapet in front of it. This and the splendid east elevation can be well studied in the drawings in Sharpe's Parallels. His restoration (on paper) shows flowing tracery in the three-light windows at the ends of the aisles, and the flowing tracery of the great east window, of seven lights, still retains something of geometrical character. All three windows have crocketted gable moulds, and the niches which flank the upper window in the great gable, with the remarkable “ finial,” and the great flanking turrets, combine to give rare distinction to this rich elevation.
1 The passage in the Chronicle of Lanercost quoted above would seem to imply a rather earlier date.
* Yorkshire Inquisitions (Yorks. Arch. Soc., Record Series), i, 219.
3 The dexter half of the shield bears the patriarchal staff of Jerusalem, and
the sinister half the cross moline of Bek dimidiated.
* W. H. D. Longstaffe records that he saw it there in 1859, and he gives an illustration of it in his paper on The Old Heraldry of the Percies (Archæologia Eliana, iv, 167).
The alteration of the aisle on the east side of the north transept closely followed the choir, and consisted in the extension of the central chapel eastward. The window in the westernmost bay of the north aisle of the choir is of two lights (the others have three lights), in order to clear the eastern wall of the transept aisle, before this extension was carried out.
We come now to the works with which the name of Walter Skirlaw is connected. William de Chambre tells us that Skirlaw built the very beautiful (perpulchram) chapter - house attached to the church of Howden.2 Skirlaw only became bishop of Durham in 1388, and the building of the chapter - house must have been contemplated, at any rate, before that time, for in 1380 Henry of Snaith, canon of Lincoln, Beverley, and Howden, bequeathed £10 to the chapter - house of Howden. Skirlaw, who was one of his fellow-canons at Beverley, was one of his executors. The chapter - house, which is octagonal and was vaulted, is approached from the south aisle of the choir, through a short passage. Its position is usual for churches of secular canons (Beverley, York, Southwell, Lichfield, Wells, Manchester). The windows are of three lights, with ogee crocketted hoodmoulds externally, and with a wall arcade below them internally, the back of which is richly panelled with quatrefoils below the ogee heads of the arcade. The stone rings for the rain water pipes are noteworthy. The niches in the upper parts of the angle buttresses contain shields, one of which bears the Nevill saltire.
1 The cells of the aisle vaults were built of brick (as in the slightly later vault of the nave of Beverley Minster).
2 Hist. Dunelm. Script. Tres (Surtees Soc. ix), p. 144.
The small chapel to the east of the passage between the chapter - house and the south aisle of the choir, was added afterwards, and was probably the chapel of the chantry of St. Cuthbert, founded by Skirlaw. His arms can (or could) be seen in the parapet of the east gable, 4 and on the stop of the hood-mould on the west side of the south window. The staircase and the small chamber over the passage to the chapterhouse are also additions to the original design.
Another work with which Skirlaw's name is associated is the fine central tower. William de Chambre says that Skirlaw built the tower (campanilis) of Howden, of great height, which he made for a refuge for the inhabitants if a food chanced to happen (!). This refers to the tall and stately stage above the roofs, but it was evidently not finished when Skirlaw died here in 1406. In his will of 1403 he left £40 to the fabric of the bell - tower of Howden church. On the inside, the hoodmoulds of the windows stop on angels; each pair of angels in the middle of each side holds a shield, with the following arms : east, Skirlaw ; south, Metham; west, Langley?; north, Nevill.8 The upper stage of this fine tower is a later addition, probably of the end of the fifteenth century.
1 Test. Ebor., i, III.
2 On the buttress between the eastern and south-eastern faces. R. Nevill, son of Ralph earl of Westmorland, held the Laxton (or Skelton) prebend at Howden in 1416 (Hutchinson's Durham, iii, 453). Another shield, now very indistinct, may possibly be Pollington. See also De la Pryme's Diary (Surtees Soc., liv), p. 194.
3 Confirmation by the Chapter of Durham, 1 Sept., 1404. See also Yorkshire Chantry Surveys (Surtees Soc. xcii), ii, 559
* Noted by me with the then vicar, the Rev. W. Hutchinson, in 1887.
Hist. Dunelm. Script. Tres, p. 144. 6 Test. Ebor., i, 306.
? Cardinal Langley (Skirlaw's succes. sor), bishop of Durham, 1406-1437.
8 See note 2 supra,
Two other works of the latter part of the fifteenth, or early part of the sixteenth, century, close the story of the fabric. One was the alteration of the aisle on the east side of the south transept, by extending the two chapels eastward. The south window of this extension is a modern copy of the adjoining thirteenth-century window. The other was the addition of the school, on the south side of the two western bays of the south aisle of the nave, to the west of the south porch. Its basement is vaulted, and the upper room is still used as a school.
THE INSTITUTION OF
THE PREBENDAL CHURCH AT HOWDEN.
BY WILLIAM BROWN, F.S.A.
THE recent meeting of the Yorkshire Archæological Society at Howden gives an opportunity of placing on record the way in which the church there became converted into a prebendal church in the third decade of the thirteenth century. Up to that time the church had been an ordinary parish church governed by a rector, in the patronage of the prior and convent of Durham. In a Durham MS., now in the British Museum,2 from which most of the information in this paper is derived, a list of the rectors as far as then known is given. They are as follows:
PETER SON OF THEOBALD, instituted by Archbishop Geoffrey Plantagenet, 1191-1212. He was a contemporary of Philip of Poitiers, Bishop of Durham, 1197-1208, and of his successor, Richard de Marisco, 1217-1226.
SIMON DE FARLINGTONA,4 instituted, on the presentation of the prior and convent of Durham, in the fifth year of Archbishop Walter de Gray, 1219-1220.5 He was Archdeacon of Durham.
JOHN DE HAUTAIN, called, more correctly, in Gray's Register (p. 151), John le Hauteyn, a nephew of the Archbishop; was instituted before Sept. 27, 1224.6
FULK BASSET, Provost of Beverley. There is a very full account of this person in the second volume of the Beverley
1 Mr. Burton, from the History of Peterborough, sets forth that "in the days of Edward the Confessor the manor church and lands of Howden were wrested from the monastery of Peterborough; and being in the king's hands, King William the Conqueror gave the said church of Howden, with all its chapels, lands, and appurtenances, to William Karilepho, Bishop of Durham, who immediately after conferred the same on the monks of Durham for ever. The manor and its privileges the prelates retained, and it still belongs to the See. (Hutchinson's History of Durham, iii, 447.)
in the Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis (Surtees Soc., lviii, p. 254)
4 He derived his name from Farlington, a small village in the North Riding, 5 miles south-east of Easingwold. In the list of archdeacons of Durham in Le Neve's Fasti (iii, 302), S. de Farlington is said to have held this dignity in 1290 but S., who was also parson of Howden, was Archdeacon of Durham on St. Hilary's Day before the arrival in England of Pandulph the legate (Gray's Register, p. 136), no doubt referring to his second visit in 1218 (Nicholai Triveti Annales, p. 203).
2 Stowe MS., No. 930, fo. 79.
3 Called Petrus Theobardi' in the Stowe MS. and 'Petrus Theberti'
Gray's Register (Surtees Soc, Ivi), P. 150. See also the Feodarium, p. 254. 6 Gray's Register, p. 151n