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The north wall remains to a height of some 20 feet for a length of a little over 63 feet, and is composed of poor and irregular stones. From the bottom half of the wall the facing stones have all been wrenched away, leaving the rough rubble exposed to view. The upper half of the wall is almost smothered in ivy, through which peep three heavy plain corbels, which once supported the roof. In the north-west angle the north jamb of a door, which led into the little first floor room of the northwest tower, still remains.

The west wall stands to a height of some 18 feet for a distance of about 33 feet from the north-west tower. The facing stones have all been wrenched away, and the wall is covered with ivy.

Of the east wall a solitary ivy-clad fragment, some 20 feet high, alone remains. The base of this fragment was repaired and strengthened by the late Mr. J. T. Wharton about 1884. as it was then in a dangerous condition.

The whole of this block of buildings dates from about 1214, when this part of the castle was hastily rebuilt, of old material, by Alta Ripa.

With the exception of the stabling and barracks, there do not appear to have been any other permanent structures in this, the outer part of the inner ward; but it is quite possible that wooden huts for the use of the carpenter, joiner, mason, etc., may have stood against the northern curtain just east of the stabling. This curtain, which dates from about 1205, was 7 feet thick, and would be furnished with the usual rampart walk and protecting parapet, the latter being loopholed. It may have communicated with the second floor of the northern half of the north tower, but if so, there would certainly be here a small bridge pit worked from within the tower.

The southern curtain appears to have been only 4 feet thick for the greater part of its length, although probably at least 20 feet high. It would doubtless be furnished internally with a wooden platform for the use of the defenders in case of attack, as was the light wall of the interior wall at Scarborough. The nature of the site rendered a massive wall unnecessary at this point, for no siege engines could be brought against it.

THE PALACE. This is incomparably the most interesting portion of the ruin, and before undertaking a description of it, the writer has made a careful study of the following castles

of approximately the same type, viz. Chepstow, Caergwle, Carreg Cennen, Chirk, Carew, Castroggy, Conway, Caerphilly, Caernarvon, Beaumaris, Denbigh, Grosmont, Harlech, Kidwelly, Llanfair, Manorbier, Neath, Pencoed, Pembroke, and Whitecastle; of the palace portions of Arundel, Berkeley, Durham, Newark, Porchester, and Richmond, and this special work, together with a general personal knowledge of some ninety to a hundred other castles of various dates, leads him to hazard a conjecture as to the original internal arrangements of the palace portion of Kilton.

In spite of the fact that so very little, comparatively speaking, now remains, this task is not so impossible as might at first appear, owing to the dimensions of the palace being so very clearly defined.

As completed, circa 1214, the inner ward at Kilton was open from end to end, but about 1260, Sir Marmaduke de Thweng erected a strong cross curtain, effectually severing the eastern and western parts of the ward, and practically making the palace into a castle within a castle.

The only fault in an otherwise admirable design was the fact at the basement or, rather, cellar in the northern half of the orth tower was entered from the outer part of the inner ward.

doorway, 4 feet 8 inches wide, which was evidently very strongly guarded by massive bolts and bars, the holes for the insertion of which still remain, led into this room, which measures 23 feet 6 inches from east to west by 19 feet from north to south. A flight of steps within the thickness of the wall (8 feet) led down to the inner door, as is clearly shown by the arching. An accumulation of some 3 feet of rubbish covers the floor of the cellar, which contained no windows or loops, the only light being that which came through the door when open. The roof of this cellar was of timber; it would have been better vaulted.

The palace occupied the whole of the eastern half of the inner ward, and was separated from the rest of that ward by the cross-curtain just mentioned, 6 feet thick, and possibly some 25 feet high. A door, for pedestrians only, led into a small barbacan tower, added about 1260, constructed against the south wall of the north tower. The foundations of this barbacan tower still remain. The entrance passage, 8 feet wide, would probably be defended by a meutriere at either end, and by a gate and portcullis. The tower appears to have measured 30 feet in length from east to west by 14 feet in width from

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