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The peasants live chiefly on vegetable soup, and the coarsest sort of bread. The following are the ordinary wages earned in the Norman spinning mills, with which I was favoured by my friend M. Fauquet Lemaitre, one of the leading manufacturers of France:

Spinners from 15 to 20 fr. per week, working from 80 to 84 hours. Women and girls, employed at the carding and drawing operations, gain from 7 to 10 fr. The power-loom weavers earn from 12 to 16 fr. per week.

Elbeuf is the largest cloth manufactory in France, and is rapidly increasing in the extent of its trade. The weavers here are in very easy circumstances. As there are no particular results from my inquiries at Elbeuf, beyond what are contained in the following letter to me, from the Maire of Elbeuf, who is also a very large manufacturer, and a most intelligent person, it will suffice to transcribe extracts from it.

"The working classes of our town of Elbeuf, enjoy, in general, easy circumstances; they have always lived happily for two very powerful reasons; the first, because our manufacturers are constantly in their workshops, work themselves with their workmen, know their wants, and identify themselves with all that happens to them, for good or evil: the second, because the price of weaving varies very little; the proportion between times of prosperity and times of distress, being 20 per cent. at most, in the amount of wages, and that only in certain departments.

"The work people are divided into three classes,--the adults, the day labourers, and the weavers.

"The adults receive a salary which varies according to their age, their strength, their intelligence, their age, from 75 cent. to 1 fr. 50 cent.; the largest number receive the average of 1 fr. 10 cent. I class as adults, young men from 12 to 18 years of age. Children from 9 to 12 gain 50 cent. to 75 cent. per day.

The day labourers taken at large from 18 years to 60, are paid from 1 fr. 50 cent. to 2 fr. per day, 1 fr. 75 cent. being the average. This class is but little intelligent.

"The weaver gains from 2 to 3 fr. per day; the ordinary average being 2 fr. 50 cent. The women receive from 75 cent. to 1 fr. per day. The young girls from 9 to 16 years old, earn from 50 to 80 cent. The day's work begins at five in summer, and ends at eight in the evening; half an hour for breakfast, and an hour for dinner. In winter they work from 7 to 10 hours.

At St. Quentin, in the north of France, the working classes make no complaint; they seem all of them pretty well supplied with the necessaries and many of the comforts of life. They are all well clothed, and have plenty of vegetables to eat; little meat is consumed or desired by them. In the country it is a common practice, as in Normandy, for the farmers to give the use of land for setting potatoes; only in the neighbourhood of St. Quentin the farmers usually find both seed and manure, receiving half the produce as their share. This is an advantage to the labourer, or he would not avail himself of it, though I have heard it doubted.

I was at some pains to estimate the wages in the spinning factories of St. Quentin, and I found 7 fr. (5s. 10d.) rather above the average per head paid per week, taking men, women, and children collectively. In Lancashire it is 10s. 6d

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"The weavers in the country gain-Children, from 6 per day. The women, from 14 to 20 sous (7 to 10d.) to 60 sous (1s. 3d. to 28. 6d.)

to 12 sous (3 to 6d.) The men, from 30

"The work people in the town, of all ages and sexes, work 13 hours by day. In the country the hours are not regulated, but they work nearly as much as in the town, especially in winter. Nearly the whole of the artisans are paid by the piece, whether weavers or cotton spinners."

From my own investigations I am convinced that 30 sous (15d.) is rather above than below the average of the adult male weavers' earnings in the country.

Day labourers earn from 10 to 12 fr. per week. Mons. Lemaitre is further of opinion, that, though there is "very great distress" among the manufacturers and fabricans, there are very few of the working classes without employment. There is no question that the distress among the latter is confined to the weavers.

The price of food was as follows when I was at St. Quentin:-
Bread (white) 36 cent. per kilo., or 3 d. for 2 lb. avoirdupois.
Beef (common sort) 55 cent., 5d. per lb. of 18 oz.

Veal and Mutton, 65. cent. or 6d. per lb. of 18 oz.

Pork about the same price.

Rent is high at St. Quentin. A small room and closet costs 11 fr. or 9s. 2d. per month without furniture. In the country 3 or 4 fr. per month. Coal is about 2 fr. 20 cent. the hectolitre.

Roubaix, near Lille, is the most thriving manufacturing district of France. The articles chiefly manufactured there are thibets, waistcoat pieces, and thick cotton goods.

There are about 12,000 looms in this district, of which half are jacquard looms. These latter are principally in factories; the manufacturers finding it necessary to preserve the privacy of their patterns.

The demand having increased so rapidly, wages have also risen. A weaver will, on the cotton goods, earn, on an average, 30 sous (15d.) per day; on the second class work, from 30 to 40 sous (15 to 20d.); and on the jacquard loom from 2 to 5 fr. per day, the average being about 3 fr.: these are gross wages. Net earnings will be weekly about 12 or 13 fr. for the jacquard weaver, and from 6 to 10 fr. for the plain weavers. Women and children obtain plenty of employment at the mills. Wages have risen by above onethird in the last few years.

Wages in most of the other departments of labour (not manufacturing) are for men, 2 to 3 fr. per day, and for women, 1 fr. 25 cent.

Thibets of woollen weft and warp, 1100 3 shots over, chains No. 22s, weft No. 38. Wages 17 sols (84d.) per ell of 44 inches, amounting to about 20 or 22 fr. on an average per week, out of which the weaver pays for winding, weft, and every thing but winding the chains. The earnings of

the weaver, therefore, on these goods could not be less than 2 fr. 50 cent., or 28. per day, for 14 hours' work; and weavers have admitted as much to me. I inspected a woollen spinning factory belonging to Mons. Delatre. The spinners were earning from 20 to 24 fr. per week, net, as a matter of course; and I was assured that the previous week one man had received for seven days' work, no less than 60 fr., out of which he had, however, to pay 19 fr. to his piecer; and it is by no means uncommon for them to earn 30 fr. net. The girls earned about 7 fr. 50 cent. per week, and the children 3 fr. per week.

I was assured that they worked 15 hours in this mill. If so, I can only say I never saw healthier looking people in any factory, except that of Mr. Edmund Ashworth's of Egerton. The rooms were all high, clean, well ventilated; and the machinery, though not of the newest description, extremely good.

There are several weaving villages in the north of France, but none of which exhibit any features in the rate of wages worthy of particular note. At Tourcoing, for instance, the weavers gain about 9 or 10 fr. gross per week; these wages have been augmented by about a tenth during the last ten years.

The other working classes (adult males) gain from 1 fr. 75 cent. to 2 fr. 25 cent. per day.

The weavers are the most moral class in this town; they attend to the education of their children, and seem contented with their condition. The price of food was last year:

Bread, 32 cent. (3d.) per kilogramme (2} lb.)
Meat, 1 fr. 10 do.

do.

do.

Coals, 225 do. (1s. 10d.) per hectolitre of 22 gall.
Rent, average for weavers, 100 fr. (47.)

At Havre, the average amount of wages of a male labourer is in the country, 2 fr. 18. 6d., in summer; and 1 fr. 50c. = 18. 2d., in winter, without food; in towns, it is 2 fr. 50 c. to 28. a day, all the year.

A labourer's wife and four children, aged 14, 11, 8, and 5 years respectively (the eldest a boy,) earn in a year, 1000 fr. (407.), provided the two eldest children are employed.

The rent of the labourers' habitations, from 50 to 100 fr. = 2 to 41. a year.

In the south western provinces;

The wages of an able-bodied male labourer, by the year, amount to

A house and garden is found him, valued at 60 fr. per

annum,

In addition to the above sum, he receives four hogs-
heads of piquette, (a beverage made by pouring
water over the residue of the grapes and lees of new
wine), valued at
Wood, for fuel, valued at

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25 fr.

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Total for the year, 540 fr. = 217. 12s.

The wages of a day labourer are 1 fr. 50 c. (18. 4 d.)

A labourer's wife and four children can earn, by labour, about 300 fr. (127) per annum, viz.

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Dr. Bowring, in 1884, collected the following returns, which I have re

vised:

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Butchers they are boarded, and may earn from 1000 to 1200 francs

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Hatters

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Cartwrights

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Pastrycooks they are boarded, and earn from 600 to 900 francs per

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Do. They are also boarded, and get as wages 500 francs.
Turners in Metal earn per day

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With regard to the food of these workmen, the terrace-makers and labourers live very economically, not expending more than from 16 to 17 sous per day: in the morning they repair to the low eating houses, called Gargotes, where for 7 sous they get soup, and a plate of meat with vegetables; their custom is to breakfast on the soup and vegetables, and carry the meat away with them for their dinner.

Thus, these 7 sous, two pounds of bread 8 sous, and perhaps for wine 2 sous, make 17 sous.

The masons, paviers, locksmiths, &c., do not exceed 20 or 21 sous; their only addition to the above being 4 or 5 sous for supper.

Carvers, gilders, saddlers, printers, &c., spend about 30 sous per day; viz. soup and meat for breakfast 7 sous, dinner 7 sous, wine at do. 6 sous, two pounds of bread 9 sous. The higher paid artisans spend at least 35

to 40 sous.

In the iron works at Vandelesse (Nievre), the price of labour is 1 fr. 70 c. per day; at Nevers, for manufacture of iron-cables, 2 fr.; at Fourchambault, 1 fr. 60 c. is the average rate; the workmen in the potteries at Nevers gain 1 fr. 75 c. per day; at Nogent, in the manufacture of linen goods, the wages are, to men 2 fr., women 1 fr. 25 c., and children 60 to 90 c. per day; at Mouy, in the woolen manufactures, men are paid from 1 fr. to 1 fr. 50 c., and boys of fifteen 1 fr. In the Department de l'Aube, the weavers of fine cloth get 1 fr. 75 c.; stocking-makers, 1 fr.; cotton spinners, 1 fr. 50 c. per day; reelers and winders, 1 fr.; tanners, 2 fr. to 2 fr. 10 c. At St. Etienne, the wages paid to the miners are, diggers, 3 fr. 50 c.; drawers, 3 fr. per day. At Rieve de Gier, 4 fr. 25 c., and 3 fr. 50 c ; nailers receive either 7 to 10 c. per lb., or from 1 fr. to 1 fr. 50 c. per 1000. The tenders on silk worms are paid from 50 c. to 1 fr. per dry. Women employed in reeling silk receive 1 fr. per lb. At the forge of Janon (Vienne), a master founder is paid 8 fr., a founder 4 to 5 fr., a labourer 2 fr., and a boy from 1 fr. to 1 fr. 25 c. per day. At Rive de Gier, the labouring makers of coke receive from 2 fr. to 2 fr. 50 c. per day.

The "Ponts et Chaussées" pay their labourers 36 fr. per calendar month. The food varies in different districts. Throughout the district called Landes (Heath), occupying about one-third of this department, the food consists in rye bread, soup made of millet, cakes made of Indian corn, now

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