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himself and companion and the valets' clothes. When Edward III. died, June 21 following, his charge ceased. He had then received, June 5, 10 of his pension, though an advance of £33 6s. 8d. had been made January 16, so that there were due to him £23 35., and 69s. oąd. He was paid, October 14, 19 15s. 3d. for pension after his office ceased, by order of the royal council, and gave up the patent of his grant. He had £20, July 20, 1383, for certain services rendered to the late king; but it was not till April 23, 1390, that the settlement of £32 2s. 6d. discharged the balance due to him.
On leaving the royal court, Siward remained in London, and became prior of the convent there; and in the great provincial synod of 1382, held at his house May 21, he subscribed the condemnation of the twenty-four conclusions of Wyclif. In the chapter of 1382 he was elected Provincial of England; and on All Saints' Day, in the same year, he preached before the king at Eltham, and received a fee of 13s. 4d. He was released from his supreme office April 2, 1393, by the master-general of the Order. On the Nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24), 1396, he preached before Richard II. at Havering, and is mentioned for the last time at the end of the following July.
F. THOMAS RUSHOOK.
For some years F. Thomas Rushook was prior of Hereford, and in 1352 was governing there a community of eight priests and three lay-brothers. Afterwards he was elected provincial. In 1374 a council was called at Westminster by the king to decide the question of the pope's dominion over ecclesiastical temporalities, and his feudatory claim to England. Rushook sat, with three other masters of theology, on a form in front of the Prince of Wales and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Being the first called upon to give his opinion, he begged to be excused such a difficult matter, and counselled that, according to the custom of his Order in arduous questions, the Veni Creator Spiritus, or a Mass of the Holy Ghost, should be said. The debate took up two days, and after much tergiversation and recrimination, in
which the prince called the bishops asses, a negative answer was returned.
In his provincial duties, Rushook fell into grave dissension with F. Elias Raimundi, master-general of the Order; and the general chapter at Carcassonne, in June, 1378, removed him and all his supporters from every office, and deprived them even of private cells and native convents, and appointed successively four vicars-general of England, of whom F. William Siward became one. The matter was carried before the English Parliament and the Roman court. A royal inhibition, November 10, forbade any of the Order to hinder him unduly in his appeal to the Holy See, and in the exercise of his office of provincial. Urban VI. committed the matter to Cardinal Nicholas Caraccioli, who, solemnly hearing both sides, pronounced, August 25, 1379, the deprivation of Rushook to be unjust and null, and that all his acts were canonical, reinstated him and all his supporters, decided that the four vicars-general, including Siward, were intruders, and took effective measures to carry his sentence into execution.
At the royal court Rushook soon rose into favour. Edward III. gave him, as provincial, an order for a new habit, July 14, 1376. Richard II., ascending the throne in 1377, made him his confessor, and at this time he was a professor of theology. The king, October 6, 1380, put him in the office of chirographer of the common bench, till otherwise provided for; January 25, 1380-1, granted him a pension of £40 a year; and June 9, 1382, presented him to the archdeaconry of St. Asaph. Through the royal influence he was promoted by the pope, January 16, 1382-3, to the bishopric of Llandaff. He had the temporalities restored, April 2; made his profession of obedience at Otford, April 18; and was consecrated, May 3, in the church of the Blackfriars of London, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the bishops of Winchester, Exeter, and Ely. But in 1385 he was translated to Chichester (the bull of provision being dated October 16), of which he had the custody of the temporalities, December 6, and they were fully restored March 26 following. He was retained as the king's confessor, and although his pension of £40 ceased April 30, 1383, he and his
companion or chaplain (F. John Burghill) were still provided with winter and summer habits, etc., as before, and were attended by the four valets. In June, 1384, he had a royal gift of £6 13s. 4d. for small expenses at court; and in September, 1385, cloth for cappa and capuce against the burial of the king's mother.
Coerced by parliament, Richard II., in 1386, put the administration of the state into
the hands of commissioners; but in a council at Nottingham, in August of the following year, he got the judges to declare the commission to be prejudicial to the regal prerogatives, and stopped its execution. Thereupon the parliament assembled, February 3, 1387-8, and condemned the judges as traitors, though they pleaded that they had been overawed; and March 6 the sentence was repeated. On the same day the Bishop of Chichester was impeached for being present when the questions were put to the judges, for threatening them into their answers, concealing the object of the traitors, and by his connivance exposing the whole realm to danger. The bishop denied the charge, declaring that no threats had been used, that he was under secrecy as to the answers, and that he had taken care no evil should arise from the transaction. Still, he was found guilty of treason, and banished into Ireland for life, the city of Cork, or within two leagues, being assigned as his residence, with permission to receive 40 marks a year from any friend who would allow him so much. The safe conduct, July 8, 1388, suffered him to take 40 marks for the first year, one bed, clothing, a book for saying his hours, and two English servants; and he was required to be at the port of Bristol by August 1, and at Cork by Michaelmas Day. As a consolation in exile Pope Urban VI. translated him to the see of Triburna (Kilmore); but the revenues were wholly inadequate, so his friends petitioned parliament, that, for God's sake and as a work of charity, a subsistence might be assigned to him for life. And so an exchequer pension of £40 a year was granted him March 10, 1389-90. His pension was regularly paid to him, and for the last time January 25, 1392-3. Unable to separate himself from the scenes of his former greatness, he was hovering on the out
skirts of the royal court, when death overtook him, heart-broken at his political disgrace. He was buried within the church of Seal, in Kent. (To be continued.)
Discovery of the
BY REV. CHARLES KERRY.
HE recent visit of the Derby Archæological Society to The Oakes at Norton, responsive to the kind invitation of Francis Westby Bagshawe, Esq., has led to the discovery of a most important manuscript-the Register of the ancient Guild of the Holy Trinity, in Foss Gate, York. When Drake wrote his Eboracum about the commencement of the last century, this record was among the archives of the Merchants' Company in an old chest in their hall in Foss Gate. From a book-plate engraven about 1730, within the first cover, it would seem that the volume has been in private possession for at least 160 years; but how "Mr. Samuel Dawson, of York," a merchant, who died in 1734, obtained the right to insert his book-plate therein, there is nothing to show. One Thomas Denison appears to have claimed the book about 1750, but how or when it came into the Oakes Library is not known. The Mercers' Company may be congratulated on the discovery of this valuable record, and we must express our great obligation to the present owner for permitting the nature of its contents to be made known to the antiquarian world.
The book consists of about 150 leaves of vellum, strongly bound in bevelled oak boards, covered with whitleather, and once secured by a clasp, which fastened on a stud in the middle of the second cover. The volume measures about 11 inches by 8 inches, and is about 2 inches in thickness.
Guilds would seem to have been of Anglo
Saxon origin, and were in use in this country long before any formal licenses were granted for them; and it is probable that the Merchants' Guild at York is of very early foundation. Certain it is that they were an important and wealthy community in 1370, when a great movement was made among them for the promotion of their spiritual interests. It was then that a hospital and chantry were established for the relief of their decayed brethren, and the benefit of the souls of the living and departed members. For this purpose a royal charter was granted, dated 12 February, 44 Edward III., 1370. The deed of settlement and organization of the hospital was drawn up by John Thoresby, Archbishop of York, shortly afterwards, and is dated August 4, 1373. Its provisions are as follows: There shall be an hospital for ever in Fossgate to be endowed with houses, possessions, and goods, and be called "The Hospital founded in honour of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Blessed Mary the Virgin." In the hospital there shall be a fit and worthy chaplain, who shall have the cure, administration and government of the same, receiving the rents and profits in person for the use of the poor, faithfully to dispense the same and when the goods are not so discharged, it must be presumed that they do not exist. The presentation to be vested in the heirs of John de Roucliff, who shall present within eight months of a vacancy; in case of failure, then the right to lapse into the hands of the archbishop, or, the chair being vacant, into the hands of the dean and chapter, or, in case of neglect, the mayor and citizens of York.
The master, on his appointment, shall take a corporal oath, and shall perform every useful thing for the men of the hospital, and shall eschew everything not advantageous. Of all goods he shall make an inventory, and reside in the hospital.
In the said hospital there shall be thirteen poor and feeble persons continually dwelling, and two poor clerics, scholars, at the choice and election of the warden, who shall pay them 4d. of silver every week. In the election of the poor, all partiality and carnality must be avoided, and the choice made with piety, justice, and judgment. If any of the inmates fall from virtue, and sin habitually, another shall be chosen in his place.
The master shall receive ten marks yearly for his own victual and sustenance; nor must he convert any more of the goods to his own use; but that which is left beyond the said sum, and beyond the money paid to the poor, shall be applied to the augmentation of the funds of the hospital, and faithfully preserved. And when the funds shall attain six marks beyond the sums recited, then another fit chaplain shall be nominated by Mr. John de Roucliff and his heirs for the said warden, and he shall receive the said six marks yearly for four years, by equal portions quarterly. The said chaplain shall reside with the warden in the hospital, and bodily there abide, etc. If the funds of the hospital increase, the number of the poor shall be proportionately increased.
The warden and chaplains shall say everyday the suffrages for the departed, and three times a week the seven penitential Psalms with the Litany. Masses shall be celebrated very frequently with all due devotion within the said hospital for the good estate of our lord, Edward, King of England, and for John de Roucliff while they shall live, the mayor of the city of York, and the officials of the Court of York for the time being, the brothers, sisters, and benefactors of the said hospital, and the poor and needy therein. Also for the souls of Philippa, late Queen of England, of our lord the king, and of John de Roucliff when they shall have departed this world, and for the souls of the mayor, officials, brethren, sisters, the poor and needy, and for the souls of all the faithful departed. The chaplains shall be removed for incontinency.
Given at Thorpe, near York, 27 day of August, A.D. 1373, in the twenty-first year of our translation, and in the forty-seventh of Edward III.
The advowson of the Hospital passed from John de Roucliff, the founder of the chantry, to Agnes his daughter, wife of William Wacelyn; and from Wacelyn to Nicholas Warthill, whose son, John Warthill, in 1430, alienated it to John Branthwayt, John Bery, Will. Ledall, and Thomas Swynburn, chaplains. In 1436 the advowson seems to have reverted to John de Warthill, "clericus," by whom it was granted to Robt Yarum and Thomas Kyrke. In 1512 the presentation for one life only was given to
268 REGISTER AND CHARTULARY OF MERCERS' COMPANY, YORK.
John Norman, merchant, and it would seem that then the right had passed to the master and members of the Guild.
The chauntry was further endowed by William Grundall, Rector of St. Mary the Elder, in York, "not only with divers lands and tenements, but also with 10 in silver for the sustentation and relief of the hospital, and for the provision of two chaplains to celebrate masses daily." Grundall became a member on St. Luke's Day, 1488, the day the deed was made.
The volume commences with the Register of the Guild-a yearly chronicle of officials elected and members admitted, interspersed with regulations inserted at the time they were severally instituted. The first entry gives us the names of the Brethren of the Hospital of "The Holy Trinity and the Blessed Virgin Mary, in Fossgate, in the time of WILLIAM OTTLEY, "Chapel Master," in the year 1420. At the head of the list is Robert Yarum, senior, mentioned above in connection with the advowson. Twenty-nine
members are recorded. The Masters and Constables of the Guild would appear to have been elected every year from an early period. The latter officials do not occur in the lists until 1471, but as there is a distinct mention of them in the chartulary in a deed of 1439 their office was of earlier originanno 17 Hen. VI.
THOMAS KIRK, Master.
Thomas Crathorn, Constables.
The next list of members is dated 1443, in the time of Thomas Scanceby, master. There are 102 names in the list, but as eighty-eight
of these members have wives who are also sisters of the guild, the society must have then consisted of at least 190 persons. The following list is headed: "The names of brethren and sisters admitted in the time of
John Gyllot, Master of the said fraternity, and John Ffereby and William Vescy, Constables of the same fraternity, A.D. 1459. The remaining lists are only of admissions under the successive Masters, and are not so comprehensive as that of 1443. The following is a catalogue of the masters, officials, etc., as subsequently recorded:
THOMAS SCANSBY (no date: 4 admissions).
JOHN KENT (no date: among the admissions are Robert Craythorn, "gentyllman," Ric: Asper, gentylman, et ux' eius).
THOM. SCANSBY (no date: 12 admissions).
JOHN FFERYBY (no date: 2 admissions). ROBERT WALKER (no date: 4 admissions). ROBERT WAUKER (second year of office: 4 adm3).
THOMAS WRANGWIN, Master, and William Tod and John Lowne, Constables, 1471; 7 admissions. inter alia Rob. Johnson, "Spicer," 3s. 4d. fine of entry. 1472—seven admitted: inter alia, Sir John Pyllyngton and Joan his wife.
JOHN TONGE, Master, and William Tod and Thomas Satton, Constables, 1473. Alanus Wilbefosse and Katerina, uxor eius, admitted.
JOHN FFERIBY, Master, and Nicholas Lancastre and Ric. Cokerill, Constables, 1474. Thomas Dawson, Capellanus, one of the 12 admitted this year.
RICHARD YORKE, Master. William Tod and Thomas Gaunt, Const., 1475. JOHN GYLIOT, Master. John Skelton and John Harpur, Constabs., 1476.
Robert Proctor, Chaplain, admitted.
Temp'e WILLI. COK, Vicecomitis Ebor: Magister" (1477). John Besiby and Rich Abbot, Constables. Among the admissions, twenty-two in number, are John Wayk, 'Prior de Marton," Sr Thomas Clyfe," prest,' and St John Warngyll, "prest."
WILLIAM TOD, Master, 1478. John Beseby and Richard Abbot, Const. Master John Topclyff, Rector of All Saints, admitted. "Nicolas Palmer hath pmysed ije ffreght of ffish from Iseland for his entresse (admission fee).
WILLIAM BROUNFLETE, Master, 1480 and 1481. Rob. Tubbat, Alexander Dauson, Con
stables: 13 admissions.
JOHN HARPUR, Master, 1482. Thom. Baker and John Elwald, Constables.
Magister Willielms Cleveland, Magister Hospitalis, and Dñs Cristoferus Ffisher, Capellanus.
THOMAS SCOTTON, Master, 1483. John Stokdale and Nich. Ffisher, Constables. Sir THOMAS BEVERLAY (no date: 2 admis- John Ruste, capellanus. (He died in the
JOHN HAG, "Meistre," 1484. John Peghaw and John Dogeson, Constables. Sir Rich. Loncastre, Preste, admitted.
HENRY WILLIAMSON, Master, 1479 (sic). John Shaw and Will. Jackson, Constables.
JOHN GYLIOT, Master, 1485. John Lame and John Cator, Constables. William Marshall and Elizab. his wife. In lieu of his fee Marshall undertook the office of common Searcher, in order that he might not be "Pageaunt Meistr." Gyliot was master in 1486 when "Dñs Johes Con," Capellanus was admitted.
"Itm. the forseid John Gylliot hath gyfne vnto the Halter in Chapell of ye Holy Trinite in ffosgate one alter cloth with the ffrontell of Russett Sattayn wt iij. sheilds of white sylu' and powderd wt xxxvi. letters of gold of Venysse and two Kyettyns (curtains) of Russet sairsnet p'tenyng to ye same." He also gave a "Corporax," with the case of black velvet, "with one ymegge of ye Trinite of golde." "Itm. ye seid John haith made a glasse wyndow at ye alter of Saynt Kateryn, wt two ymages of Sant John and Sant Thomas."
THOMAS FFYNCHE, Master, 1487. Richd Williamson and Thomas Davett, Constables. John Byrkhede, William Jakeson, "Seyrchours."
This is the first mention of these officials. One of their offices was to "search" for faulty yard wands, weights, and measures "thurgh all ye craft of mercere." In Finch's second year of office, William Grundall, Rector of the church of St. Mary the Elder, a great benefactor to the guild, was admitted into the community.
"Thomas Ffynch haith gyfen in his yer vnto the alt of Saint Kateryn A ffruntell of streipt satane frenget wt white red and grene sylk, a scheild of sylver in the mydst." He also gave a corresponding one to St. Thomas's altar.
The same Thomas Finch, "Maist" William Cleveland, and the wyeffe lait of John Ince, haith made a glasse wyndow next vnto the alter of the sowith sied of yare owne costis."
"Also the executor of Maister Carre haith made a glasse wyndow next of the same, and as it a-perith."
"Alsso John Gilliott, Alderman, paid for glassyng the wyndow of the north sied next vnto the hye alter."
"Also the seid Thomas Ffynch haith gyfen the couer of sylke in the Knepie (canopy) of the sacrament box."
The following regulation with regard to the Pageant or Mystery Plays, for which York was so famous in the Middle Ages, must not be omitted:
"Its ordaind and acorded by pe assent of pe hole ffeloship in pe Trinite Hall on pe election daye, Thomas Scansby being mister, Will. Bluefront, Willm. Gaing, Constables, yt pay with pe assent off pe ffelship sall chuse iiij. pagent masters on pe Ffriday next after Wissonday of pe Mercres and Merchants of pe citte, and pay iiij. shall bring forth p PATRNOSTER PLAY, and recyve all pe ornements thatt belang p'to (thereto) by Indento', and so deliu'. over to paym þat shall com after, and pay sall be countable to pe maister, constables, and ffelowship of all pair receyts and expencs resonable, and pe iiij. pagant maisters being shall bring forth be pagants, and have them in againe w'in iiij. days next after Corpus Cristi day. Which of them pt doth contrary shall pay vis. viijd. to pe ffeloship without any fforgivness."
THOMAS SHAWE, Master, 1488.
Edward Kyrkbe and Thomas Jonnyson, Constabs. Rich. Blakburne and Nich. Mayland, "Seyrchours."
Will. Russel, Rob. Thorne, John Thomson, Wm. Middylton,
Pagent maist (the first record of these officials).
New brothers: Dñs John Jakson, capellanus; John Steyll, of London, draper. Robert Plumpton, of York, gentleman,
GEORGE KYRK, Master, 1489.
"Pagent Maistres ": Thom. Taillour, Wm. Staveley, Rich. Charlesby, Rob. Bast.
New brothers: John Mannforth de Kyrtlyngton, Esq., and Jane his wife. Robert Clyffe, of York, merchant.
Second year of office, 1490: Rob Levesham and Thomas Taillour, Constables. "Pagent maistars": Myghell Qwharton, Rob Persson, John Goll.
Brethren made (inter alia): Roger Aske