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Some years ago the ancient church at Haave, in Sogn, on the west coast of Norway, partly in ruins, was purchased by a Norwegian architect, a lover of ancient relics, for a sum of £23. He has since had it restored, and the interior put into its original state, so that the edifice is now one of the most interesting antiquarian sights in Norway. During the restoration some interesting antiquities were found, including several wax tablets, bearing church records.
A curious discovery has been made at Skonör, on the south coast of Sweden, in the sand a little way from the shore, consisting of the skeleton of a man in a well-preserved naval uniform. On the jacket were a number of brass buttons. On the right hand was a gold ring, but the name inside is worn away. In a purse in the jacket were found three sovereigns, three half sovereigns, and ten silver coins, struck in England in 1797 and 1800. The skull of the man was battered in. * * *
At Falsterbo, in Scania, an old boat has been found, said to be over 600 years old, and built of oak. It is 44 feet in length, 12 feet in breadth. It will be sent to the National Museum.
under a staircase, in which were found eight valuable marble statues, several feet in height, together with a petition addressed to King Christian VIII.
Dr. Sophus Müller, the well-known Danish antiquarian, has been giving a series of interesting lectures in Copenhagen on "The Bronze Age in Denmark."
A man ploughing at Pæstö the other day brought to the surface a fine gold ring, valued at £30, having semicircular ornamentations. It has been purchased by the National Museum.
The age and style of the celebrated Roskilde Cathedral, the Danish Canterbury Cathedral, and wherein all Danish kings since five hundred years lie buried, have been the subject of an interesting study by Prof. Julius Lange, the well-known architect. By Profs. Kornemp and Löfflen the edifice is considered to date from the first part of the thirteenth century; whilst a memorial lead tablet found in one part, dated 1233, would indicate that this portion was already finished then. This Prof. Lange disputes, also the opinion that the cathedral was built from east to west, as this is contrary to what was the custom in France. He considers that the cathedral was commenced at both ends, and that an old edifice, which was built at an earlier date, stood in the centre. Prof. Lange is of opinion from his studies that the prototypes of Roskilde Cathedral were the cathedrals in north-eastern France, although differing as to the pillars in the upper gallery, which are absent in the latter. However, Prof. Lange considers that the cathedral resembled that of Tournai, in southern Belgium, more than any other, a view shared by the well-known German architect, Prof. Adler. There would, indeed, also seem to be some historical foundation for this, as there existed a warm friendship between the celebrated prelate Stephen, of Tournai, and Bishop Absalom, who built Roskilde Cathedral. The former was an ardent architect, and had a share in the building of St. Denis and the Nôtre Dame, in Paris, and built the Chapelle St. Vincent, in Tournai, connecting the cathedral and the bishop's
residence, which architecturally much resembles the Roskilde Cathedral. This prelate repeatedly urged upon his Danish confrère the building of a grand cathedral, and no doubt his architectural assistants have had a share in the building of this edifice. Moreover, from the convent at Clairvaux, the church of which has since been destroyed, monks came to Essorn, in Denmark, at the request of Archbishop Eskil, and thence emanated the brick architecture adopted for many Danish churches, including Roskilde. These monks also built the convent church of Colbatz, in Pomerania, and as this edifice is identical in style with that of the Roskilde Cathedral, Prof. Lange considers that they are contemporaneous. The books of the former show that the edifice was begun in 1210, and Prof. Lange believes that the Roskilde Cathedral dates from the beginning of the same century.
The Louvre Museum has just been enriched with a valuable collection of antiquities from Carthage, brought to France by Captain Marchant. There are fifty-two columns, some thirty Greek and Roman inscriptions, 150 antique lamps, besides medals, basreliefs and heads, one of Jupiter Serapis, and one of the Emperor Hadrian.
Costume in Heraldry.
By B. F. SCarlett,
T first sight this title may seem to be inappropriate, as heraldry is more associated with a want of costume, than with it; and a mermaid or savage proper seems to fulfil all the requirements of heraldic full dress.
But I hope to be able to show that we have in our English heraldry some examples of costume, particularly of our military uniform, which is worthy of consideration; representing in some cases, as it does, our old military uniforms, many of which are now obsolete, whilst a few crests show our English countryman's dress as it was some three hundred years ago.
To begin with the first age of man, heraldry shows us the swaddled babe in the arms or crest of the following families: Lathom, Stanley, Culcheth, Hyndley and Thurland. This mode has not been used in England for nearly three hundred years, but a very fair imitation of these heraldic swaddling bands is still to be seen in the country towns of Italy.
The countryman with the ox-yoke, of the Hays, is differently described in the various branches of that family, the oldest dated costume being that of the supporters of the Earl of Erroll (granted 1453); whilst the supporters of the Earl of Kinnoull are always described as "Lowland Scotchmen," and the countryman of the Cunynghames bears a shake-fork, and is of the date of 1702.
Probably the oldest crest we can show of the kind, is the well-known crest of the Traffords, the thresher with his flail and motto, "Now thus"; but as a rule the costume is made too modern, as the crest is an early one, and the story from which the family derive it, is generally dated before the fifteenth century, some accounts even giving the date as that of the Saxon rule, but that is going back rather too early, and can hardly be considered as "proven."
A reaper with reaping-hook, in the dress of the last century, is one of the supporters of Lord Lilford, and this closes the list of our country costumes; but two examples of the dress of a miner are given one, the crest of Chambers, of London, granted in 1723, gives a copper-miner, and another, granted to a Somersetshire family, gives a miner with pickaxe and bag for ore hanging at his back.
The numerous hermits are generally attired as pilgrims or palmers, with rosary and crutch, or palmer's staff and scrip; but Grey friars and Capucin friars, in their correct dress, are given in the crest and supporters of Lord Mowbray and Stourton, of Lord Abingdon, and in the crest of Thurland.
Lord de Freyne and Lord Waveney have each for a supporter an ancient Irish chief or warrior, and though these are late grants, the costume is more correct than would have been the case had the grant been in the last century, when heraldry and accuracy of costume were at a very low ebb.
The best examples of Highlanders in full
dress, with claymore and target, are shown in the supporters and crests of Mackenzie of Coul, Mackenzie of Gairloch, and that of a Highlander in hunting-dress is the crest of Burnett (Bart.).
In some instances portraits of celebrated historical characters have been given as especial marks of favour, such as the crest of Weldon, which is a portrait of Queen Elizabeth; the bust of Louis XV. of France on a medal appears as an honourable augmentation to the arms of James Hopkins, of Maryland, 1764; and a portrait of Surajud Bowla, Subah of Bengal, in his complete dress, was granted as a crest to John Zephain, formerly the Governor of Fort William, Bengal, in 1762.
The crest of Sykes (Bart., of Basildon, co. Berks) shows a Bengalese lady in the costume of her country, as far as the waist, of the date of 1763.
The only instance of a Kaffir, with mantle and spear, is to be seen in one of the supporters of Willshire (Bart.).
A Moor in heraldry is always a negro, but a Saracen is nearly the same as our more modern "Turk." Captain John Smith, in 1623, who served under the Earl of Mildrith in Transylvania, overcame three Turks and cut off their heads, and for this exploit was granted three Turks' heads, couped ppr., turbaned, etc. Mynshull has a Turk kneeling, in full costume, turban, with crescent and feather, scimitar, and legs and arms clothed in chained mail; and the family of Cullamore have nearly the same, but the figure holds a "Turkish sceptre."
Men in armour abound, as is only natural in a science which owes its creation to the age of chivalry, but the date is only given in a few instances in the form of the armour, most of them being merely a typical figure, and the armour more or less incorrect.
Dalison, of Kent, has for a crest a man in complete armour, with battle-axe; O'Loghlen the same, with a cross-bow; also Wheeler and Cutte. The crests of Gibson-Craig and Fitz Gerald give knights in armour on horseback, but Lake (Bart.) has the most interesting crest of this description, as it represents his ancestor, who served Charles I. gallantly "A man in armour, riding on a horse, holding the bridle in his mouth, his sinister
arm hanging broken." Lord Waveney has the only instance of a knight banneret as a supporter, this is in allusion to his ancestor being the last created on the field of battle, which took place in this instance at the Battle of the Boyne.
Representations of Canadian Indians, in full war-paint and feathers (in one case with scalps hanging to the waist-belt), occur in the supporters of Lord Amherst, in Seaton, and in the Baron de Longuëil.
A Malay soldier of the East India Company is one of the supporters of Lord Harris; Lord Keane has a Beloochee and an Afghan mounted soldier of 1839; another Beloochee (infantry) is one of the supporters of Willshire (Bart.); whilst Lord Lawrence's supporters show an officer of the Oude cavalry, and one of the Sikh irregular cavalry of 1858. Lord Napier, of Magdala, has a Sikh Sirdah, and Roberts (Bart.) a Ghoorka of 1881; Lord Amherst a Malay soldier; Campbell of Genurchy (Bart.) a Burmese warrior and a Scinde soldier, which also is one of Sir Henry Pottinger's (Bart.) supporters, whilst his other is a peaceful Chinese Mandarin in full
As to the regular army, the list of knights and peers created during this century and the last give numerous examples, but in the case of knights, many are lost yearly by their death, and the costume or uniform has to be searched for amongst the older lists. A few of those given for valour in the field to our officers of both services, are noticed in the following lists:
5th Dragoons, trooper, supporter of Lord Rossmore. 3rd Light Dragoons, trooper, supporter of Viscount Combermere.
14th Dragoons, trooper, supporter of Kerrison (Bart.), 18th Dragoons (Hussars), supporter of Lord Vivian. 7th Light Dragoons (Hussars), supporter of Vivian (Bart.).
10th Hussars, 1789, supporter of Marquis of London. derry.
7th Hussars, 1821, supporter of Kerrison (Bart.). 12th Lancers, supporter of Vivian (Bart.).
2nd Foot, 1841, supporter of Willshire (Bart.). 10th Foot, supporter of McMahon (Bart.). 28th Foot, a grenadier, 1818, supporter of Johnson (Bart.).
27th Foot, supporter of Lord Clarina.
38th Foot, 1841, supporter of Willshire (Bart.). 52nd Foot, 1839, supporter of Seaton (Bart.).
A FRISIAN CHRONICLER'S ACCOUNT OF THE ABBEY OF RIPON. 243
16th Regiment Grenadier, 1805, supporter of Prevost (Bart.).
73rd Foot, supporter of Rosmore (Bart.). 92nd Highlanders, 1881, supporter of Roberts (Bart.).
The uniform of a trooper in the Northants Yeomanry Cavalry of 1797 is shown as one of the supporters of Lord Lilford, and an officer of the Queen's Royal American Rangers of 1764, in the arms of James Hopkins, of Maryland, of that date.
For the navy, Lord Aylmer shows the costume of a sailor, temp. George I.; Lord Hotham the same, in 1797; Lord Nelson in 1801; and the present date is given in one of the supporters of Lord Alcester.
The above lists might be added to largely, but I think I have given enough examples to show that our heraldry has more to study in it than the mere collection of curious or fabulous beasts and figures, which are all that attract the eye of the careless observer.
A Frisian Chronicler's Account of the Abbey of Ripon.
By REV. P. H. DITCHFIELD, M.A., F.R.H.S.
HE Dutch ecclesiastical historians love to record their grateful remembrance of the labours of the earnest and persevering Englishmen who left our shores in the seventh century to convert the heathen Frisians and Bavarians to Christianity, and who succeeded in planting the Cross amid the dreary wastes and forests of the Netherlands. The names of Wilfrid, Willibrord, Egbert, Boniface, Adelbert, and other devout Saxon missionaries are esteemed and venerated, and the monastery which sent forth these early preachers is regarded with grateful reverence.
In the year 1650, F. Willibrode Bosschaerts, canon of Antwerp, wrote a history of the conversion of Frisia, entitled "Diatribai de Primis veteris Frisiæ Apostolis," published at Mechlin; and this volume contains an interesting account of the monastery at Ripon, from which these early missionaries came to the shores of Holland. Although Bede and other Anglo-Saxon chroniclers
have told the story of Ripon Abbey, yet some additional information may be gathered from this Frisian writer's narrative, of which the following is a translation:
DE RIPENSI MONASTERIO.
"Ripas" (or "Inripum ") is a place in Northumbria where the Scotch monks had a monastery, who observed the feast of Easter in the unorthodox fashion, with such pertinacity that they preferred to leave their abode than to allow themselves to correct their errors. After their departure the place was assigned by Alfrid, the son of Oswy, King of Northumbria, to Bishop Wilfrid, who had been saved from the fury of Bathilda, Queen of the Gauls, and had taken refuge in England about the year of our Lord 660. He entirely rebuilt the monastery upon which the nobles bestowed magnificent gifts. Wilfrid was ordained priest and abbot.† He was afterwards raised to the see of York, and wonderfully added to the monastic buildings, erecting a new church, with a marvellous span of arches, a flooring of stones, and windings of porticos (porticuum aufractu).‡ The German kings, Egfrid and Elwin, who were invited to the consecration, endowed the monastery with great gifts.
After some time, when Wilfrid had been expelled from the Bishopric of York, King Alfrid, having become hostile, robbed the monastery at Ripon of its possessions, and was thinking of placing a bishop there, when just before Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, had constituted it an episcopal seat § But the see of Ripon did not last a long time, although the monastery continued. To what order this monastery belonged, I am unable to speak with certainty; but it is probable that the monks inhabiting it, either
* Compare Bede, Book III., chap. xxv. Egilbert, a foreign bishop who was visiting the Northumbrian Court, ordained Wilfrid.
This account is evidently taken from William of Malmesbury. It must have been one of the most stately structures in the island. Wilfrid brought masons from Italy, and Eddius gives a good description of the noble buildings.
§ Eadhead, Bishop of Sidnacester, was made Bishop of Ripon. Cf. Bede.
This brief statement covers a long history of the stormy events of Wilfrid's chequered life. Eddius, in his "Life of St. Wilfrid," fully describes the details of his hero's expulsion and restoration.
244 A FRISIAN CHRONICLER'S ACCOUNT OF THE ABBEY OF RIPON.
in the first foundation or subsequently, were attached to (militâsse) the rule of S. Benedict, since Wilfrid is said to have been the first who ordered the Rule of S. Benedict to be observed by monks, i.e., the monks of Northumbria. It is to be believed, therefore, that this same rule was in force in the monastery which he himself had founded. Whether, speaking accurately, we ought to call them Benedictines, it cannot be determined; for it is possible that he admitted monks from other Northumbrian monasteries, and afterwards introduced amongst them the Benedictine Rule. For it is certain that other monks who were not Benedictines have revered, and do revere, the Rule of S. Benedict such as the Cistercians, the monks of Clugny, etc., who are not Benedictines in name.
As the founder suffered various vicissitudes, so did his monastery, both from the intestine Anglo-Saxon wars and from the Danes who, from the year 787, infested Britain for many years; and frequently it was deprived of its possessions by the iniquity of the kings of Northumbria. In 692 it was taken from Wilfrid by his enemy Alfrid, the Northumbrian king, after whose death it was restored to Wilfrid in 705 A.D. In 708 or 709,* the body of S. Wilfrid, who had died, was carried hither, and buried with great reverence.
The following facts about this monastery are recorded in the first part of the annals of Roger de Hoveden :
A.D. 786. Bothwine,† Abbot of Ripon, in the sight of the brethren standing around, passed away into the heavenly fatherland, and in his place Albert was elected and ordained.
A.D. 787. Albert died, and Sigred succeeded him.
A.D. 790. Eardulf, a nobleman, was taken and brought to Ripon, having been slain near the gate of the church by King Ethelred. The brethren carried his body to the church accompanied by Gregorian harmonies, and after midnight he was found alive in the church. +
A.D. 948. Edred, King of the Angles, * This date is erroneous; Wilfrid died at Oundle, in Northamptonshire, October 12, 711 A.D.
+ The successor of Wilfrid was Tylbert (cf. "Vita Oswaldi," by Eadmer), and Bothwine succeeded him. He afterwards became King of Northumbria.
devastated the whole of Northumbria, in which devastation the monastery was burnt by fire.
Nevertheless, it was repaired and continued. to be inhabited; but not long afterwards it was almost completely destroyed by the Danes. After this destruction it does not seem to have revived, for it disappears from the pages of history. Malmesbury states in his book concerning the achievements of the English priests (Bk. I.), that about the year 956 Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, went to Northumbria to carry away the sacred ashes of the saints, formerly so plentiful in that land; that he was grieved to see the church of the most illustrious Wilfrid at Ripon completely destroyed by the Danes, and when the ruins were removed from the tomb, he reverently transferred the relics of Wilfrid to Canterbury.
These facts are recorded in gratitude to S. Wilfrid, who preached Christ to the Frisians before Willibrord, and who was the abbot and founder of Ripon, and indeed of Willibrord, a pupil of the same monastery, where he received the first foundations of holiness, learning, and Apostleship. In this place
"He was like a tree planted by the waterside which Sirius could not scorch by extreme heat, nor winter wither; but flourishing with luxuriant growth and beautiful with flowers that never fall, it soothes the happy labourer and the lord destitute of alluring hope."
In this monastery the author of the antiquities of Germania Inferior, recently published in our language, asserts that the ascetic Werenfrid, the fellow Apostle of S. Willibrord, lived. It is therefore right that the monastery of Ripon should be held in grateful remembrance by the Frisians.
It may be interesting to add a few further details to the account of our Frisian chronicler. King Athelstan granted valuable immunities to the monastery of Ripon, and the two charters granted by that monarch are printed in Dugdale's Monasticon. By one of these, which is expressed in a curious rhyming form, the privilege of sanctuary was granted to the church.
On ilke side the Kyrke a mile