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October 29 last, several gentlemen visited this dolmen, under the guidance of Mr. Benjamin Harrison, of Ightham. One of the visitors investigated a large hollow beneath a great stone on the west side. Within it they found several portions of human bones. Some of these disappeared down the burrow of a rabbit; but those which were so far brought to light that they could be examined were: (1) The lower half of a left humerus; (2) the left femur; (3 and 4) right and left tibiæ, nearly perfect; (5) fragments of the corresponding fibula; (6) a fragment of another femur. The vicar of Shoreham, near Sevenoaks (Rev. R. A. Bullen), took charge of these fragments. Probably they formed portions of that ancient personage whose skull was found under the same dolmen several years ago. That skull was subsequently buried in Wrotham churchyard. Other fragments of bones were found with the skull. It seems highly probable that these discoveries have disclosed the remains of the ancient chief or personage in whose memory the dolmen was erected.

In rebuilding Cumrew Church, in Cumberland, the effigy of a lady in wimple and coverchief was found buried under the floor, costume of about 1320. This synchronizes well with Joane, heiress of Benedict Gernet, the great Lancashire heiress, who brought to her husband, William de Dacre, the manors of Halton, Fishwicke, and Eccleston. He was of Dunwallocht Castle, in the parish of Cumrew, and had a license to crenellate it. Possibly it may be his first wife, Anne de Derwentwater.


Two neglected effigies, long in the gardens at Nunwick Hall, have recently been identified as those of Anthony Hutton and Elizabeth his wife, cast out of Penrith church when it was rebuilt in 1721. Anthony was a Master in Chancery, and died in 1637, when his wife put a monument to him in Penrith church with his and her effigies in marble thereon. Ruined as they now are, they are fine examples of costume of the period-he in legal gown and falling collar, she in ruff.

The navvies employed on the Manchester Waterworks were recently fired by ill-directed

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The Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archæological Society have suffered a severe loss by the sudden death of Mr. W. Jackson, F.S.A., a member of the society from its foundation, and a constant contributor to the pages of the society's transactions. He was a first-rate all-round antiquary, and was the discoverer and excavator of the Roman villa at Ravenglass, in South-west Cumberland. But his forte was genealogy-north-country genealogy, particularly of Cumberland and Westmorland-with regard to which he had accumulated vast masses of material for pedigree-making. friends often urged him to publish a volume of Cumberland and Westmorland pedigrees, but a diffidence in his own powers and a straining after an almost impossible perfection held him back from a task for whose successful completion no man was ever better equipped both by natural turn of mind and years of labour. He had, however, lately promised to edit a volume of local wills for the period between 1650 and 1750, so as to take up the pedigrees when the Visitations end. He edited Memoirs of the Gilpin Family for the Cumberland and Westmorland Society, in which were worried out to the present day the descents of the most remote collateral branches. This pedigree is believed to be the largest sheet pedigree ever printed. To the pages of the local society's transactions he contributed (besides papers on other

subjects) pedigree-papers on the Richmonds of Highhead, the Curwens of Workington, the Orfeurs of Plumbland, the Laws of Buck Crag, the Dudleys of Yanwith, the Threlkelds of Threlkeld, Yanwith, and Crosby Ravensworth, and the Threlkelds of Melmerby. At the time of his death a pedigree-paper on the Hudlestons of Hutton (John and Millom) was passing through the press. The society hoped that these would have been followed by pedigree-papers on the Lowthers, the Fletchers, and the Vauxes of Catterlen; but that hope can hardly now be realized unless the work is well advanced.


Maxwelton Braes are bonnie Where early fa's the dew, Where I and Annie Laurie

Made up the promise true.

So sang the Dumfriesshire beauty's lover neary two hundred years ago, but sang in vain- Annie Laurie was destined to be another's bride. But Maxwelton Braes are still bonnie; the stanzas which entwined their beauty with the charms of Annie are not forgotten; and the song, though somewhat retouched, lives on-wedded to a simple but touching and expressive air-as one of the truest and sweetest of "the auld Scots songs." Maxwelton, too, is still in the Laurie family, and the present baronet has lately obtained a well-authenticated painting of the much besung lady, who was born on December 16, 1682. Of course, the Annie Laurie of the canvas is not as ideal as the heroine of the song. "Winsome, but not of striking loveliness," that is the verdict of a judicious A slim and graceful figure, apparently tall, long oval face, delicately cut features, dark eyes, cheeks and lips well coloured, high forehead, generally a pleasant smiling face, surmounted by a profusion of dark hair combed back and decorated with clusters of pearls. This is she for whom, with infinite variety of melodious note, thousands of voices -wherever the Scottish accent is heard— have declared the willingness of their owners "to lay them doon and dee." Sir Emilius Laurie should have the immortal fair one's picture reproduced and published.

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the mouth of the Nith, on its Galloway bank

is a very interesting compass-sundial. It was the property of James Maxwell, of Kirkconnel, who not only fought for Prince Charlie, but after the failure of the '45, wrote a history of the expedition, published by the Maitland Club in 1841. Family tradition asserts that this sundial was worn by Maxwell throughout the rebellion. As described in a local newspaper, it is in silver, of Parisian manufacture, and of highly skilful workmanship. It carries "Butterfield, Paris," as the maker's name. The dial is marked with four lines, to indicate the time at latitude 52, 49, 46, and 43 degrees respectively, and a table engraved upon the back shows the latitude of various places on the continent and of London. The gnomon is of artistic design, ornamented with the figure of a bird, and it can be elevated or laid flat at pleasure, the spring being still in capital working order. The combined instrument is not more bulky than an old verge watch, and can easily be accommodated in the pocket. Its type is very rare though not unique. A dial closely similar is figured in Mrs. Gatty's Book of Sundials as the property of the Rev. J. Sayce, of Sheffield. The traditional associations of the Kirkconnel dial add to its intrinsic interest.

In the current issue of the transactions of the Cambridge University Association of Brass Collectors is a remarkable correspondence between the officials of the society and the vicar of Godmersham, near Canterbury. We desire to direct attention to it, although it is painful still further to expose the rudeness of any beneficed clergyman, because the action of the vicar is not only vulgarly uncivil but distinctly illegal. It would be rare, indeed, to find an imitator of the discourtesy of this vicar; but brasses, alas ! are still frequently disappearing through the incumbent fancying he is at liberty to remove them to the parsonage. Hence, though this may be done from a good motive, these memorials get hidden, lost, or even at a removal or death sold for old metal or to an unscrupulous collector. In July of this year, Mr. R. W. M. Lewis, of Corpus Christi College, the hon. secretary of the society, wrote a most civil letter to the vicar

of Godmersham, drawing his attention to the fact of a palimpsest brass being loose in the vestry of his church, and suggesting a good way in which it could be fixed. ရာ

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The letter was returned with an insolent message written on it, recommending the society "to amalgamate with another, called The Anti-poking the Nose into other People's Business Society.'" The secretary answered in the best possible taste, and another official also wrote as a gentleman should, but the vicar (Rev. Joshua Wilkinson) repeated his uncivil statements, adding declarations as to his own illegal proceedings and intentions. Here are two sentences: "I shall take very good care that the brass is taken from the church and kept elsewhere in safe custody." "No one is ever allowed to go to the church alone at any time." As his diocesan has requested his clergy to see that their churches are open for private prayer, this last statement is in defiance of the constituted ecclesiastical authority, as well as contrary to the common law of the land; but it is the former statement that concerns us as antiquaries. Mr. Wilkinson-we are not surprised to find that he has no degree-has no more power, although vicar, to walk out of the church with a memorial brass, or part of one, than has any sacrilegiously-inclined burglar, provided always that he has not obtained a faculty. The case should be represented to the archdeacon, and, in case of inaction, to the archbishop. We sincerely hope, for the sake of others, that the Cambridge Association will not allow this matter to drop.

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We notice in the West Surrey Times of October 4 an inquiry respecting two small brasses that are missing from St. Mary's Church, Guildford. We have had occasion before in our columns to notice this interesting old church, and to comment upon a certain want of care bestowed upon its fabric by the wardens. We trust, however, that the two valuable memorials, to which allusion is made, may be speedily returned to the church. Within the last three years they were certainly in the vestry, and we cannot understand the carelessness that permits of the alienation or loss of treasures of so national a character as early sepulchral

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An inscription has been found nailed face to the wall on the premises of Messrs. Geldart and Co., wine merchants, Norwich, over the mantelshelf of whose offices it now hangs. It measures 13 inches by 3 inches, is in black letter, and reads thus:

"Orate p' aia Johis kuppyng qui obiit XXII° die Junii A° dni M° de XIII° cui aie ppiciet des Amen."

If anyone can prove what church it came from, Messrs. Geldart and Co. are willing to return it to its former resting-place on condition of its being relaid.

In the midst of not a little evil work still being done to our old parish churches, it is pleasant to chronicle another praiseworthy restoration. The old church of St. John Baptist, Padworth, Berks, was re-opened on November 7, after careful and necessary reparation. In the rubble walls are many fragments of Roman brick and tile. The fabric of the small Norman church has undergone few material changes since its first erection, save in the way of mutilations and modern disfigurements, which are now removed. The church consists of nave, chancel, with apse, and wooden tower on the west gable. During the restoration a piscina and aumbry have been discovered and opened out in the apse. The original stone altarslab was found amid the paving-stones of the nave, where it had been placed for deliberate desecration at the time of the Reformation. It has now been restored to its proper position and use, being supported on solid oak standards. Many traces of wall-paintings were found. Some old tiles have been relaid in the floor of the sanctuary, and a mediæval stone coffin-lid has found a safe place in the porch. The architects were Messrs. Middleton, Prothero, and Phillott.

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be able to state that Sir Henry Halford, chairman of the Leicestershire County Council, was so strongly supported by all parties in the Council in his opposition to the scheme, that the railway company have consented to abandon this part of their plan.

The directors of the disused Potteries Railway, which is about to be reconstructed, have been considering the matter of removing the well-known old stone pulpit, which stands in their station yard at Shrewsbury, on the site of the refectory of the Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, Salop. It has been suggested that it should be removed from its present situation, and re-erected on some part of the Abbey churchyard. This is much to be regretted; and every antiquary must hope that the greatest pains will be taken, both by the directors and by the authorities of the Abbey church, to preserve this most interesting relic. The pulpit is described and figured in Owen and Blakeway's History of Shrewsbury.


An interesting and judicious restoration of a fine old timbered house has taken place in Godalming, Surrey. The work has been carried out by Mr. Welman, a local architect, and the utmost care has been taken to preserve and uphold all the best of the old work. The massive oak timbers and richly-ornamented tie-beams of what was originally a hall some 18 feet square, are all retained in situ. The window of eight lights behind the hall is of unusual size, being nearly 15 feet wide, and much of the oak work is of rich colour and in splendid order. The house must have been one of considerable importance in its time.

tance of about 30 mètres from the Aurelian Wall, and at the depth of 4 mètres below the level of the modern road, where a sewer is being constructed. The chief of these consists of an important sepulture of the Republican epoch of very large dimensions, and constructed entirely of tufo. Its front runs along the left line of the ancient Via Salaria, and is composed of a base about a palm and a half high, and of a parallelopiped body, formed of two courses of square blocks, reaching altogether to the height of 115 mètres, around the top of which is a cornice. * *

In the interior of the city have been found a fragment of marble frieze, like that of the forum of Nerva; remains of brick constructions and a marble capital near the convent of St. Susanna; and in the bed of the Tiber (while dredging) an ancient bronze kitchen-utensil, turned on a lathe in simple and elegant form.

* *

In the researches recently made near Rovigno, in Istria, by the Austrian Rear-Admiral Kinke, more than 20 mètres below the level of the Adriatic, have been discovered the remains of streets, houses, and walls, and which seem to be the ancient submerged city of Cissa. Divers will be sent to explore the buildings.


At Saint-Dié, in France (Vosges), important Celtic remains have been found, consisting of a square mass of masonry like a fortress, of which the walls are in some places 2 mètres thick and 2 mètres high, all built of blocks of unhewn stone. On the east side of these Cyclopean remains is a cube-shaped rock, supposed to have been a sacrificial altar, and having plainly marked on it the figure of a cross. Other cross-marked Celtic monoliths have occurred before, and are treated of by

Motes of the Month (Foreign). M. de Mortillet, in his essay, Le signe de la

IN Rome excavations have continued around the large funereal monument discovered in the Via Salaria last July. It bears the name Quintus Terentilius Rufus, and in its neighbourhood various fragments of sepulchral stones have come to light. Outside the walls similar discoveries have been made between the Salarian and Pincian gates, at the dis

Croix avant le Christianisme.

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ago, in Thorikos, a Greek inscription, which appears to have been placed as a boundarystone on the land of an ancient temple of Zeus Auantêr, a name that is new to us. Mr. Polites has made an interesting communication to the Athenian Hestia on the subject, showing that the epithet Auanter is given to Jove as the deity of summer heat, corresponding to the epithets already known of Seirios and Aithiops.

In the prehistoric section of the Ethnological Museum at Berlin, near the skeletons first exhibited in the beginning of the year from the barrows of Klein-Rössen, near Merseburg, two other examples have now been placed. One is the skeleton of a woman, surrounded by her ornaments of pearl and stone and food for the dead, just as it was found in Klein-Rössen. The other is from the excavations at Lenguel, in Hungary, described by Pfrarrer Wolsinsky at the Vienna Anthropological Congress held last year. This skeleton lies with the knees raised up higher than the head, and with the hands pressing against the face. Of the double set of skeletons found on this site in Hungary, in the first all rest on the left side and turn towards the south; in the other, all rest on the right side and turn towards the east. This peculiarity may denote differences of date at which the burials took place, and the difference of ornaments found in the interment bears out the theory that one set is older than the other. One of these Hungarian skeletons of still further interest will, it is thought, be forwarded to Prof. Virchow. Others are being prepared for exhibition by Herr Konservator Krause.

The Historical Society of Dillingen has begun to excavate near the village of Faimingen, on the Brenz, in Würtemberg, the site of an ancient Roman camp, the largest hitherto found in Germany, since it measures 58.700 square mètres in area (some 15 acres).* The tower of the porta prætoria, and both of the towers that flanked the porta principalis dextra, and part of the circuit wall were laid bare last year. At the distance of 116 mètres from the north end of the western wall, and The largest Roman camp hitherto known in Germany, that of Niederbieker, is 920 mètres in circumference, representing an area of 50,925 mètres


110 mètres from the south end, the foundations of a tower have now been found, which is without doubt one of the two towers that flanked the porta principalis sinistra, 1 mètre high and 6 mètres wide. During the last few years the Roman road leading from Faimingen, past Sachsenhausen, to Heidenheim, has been discovered, running in a width of 230 mètres, made of limestone chips from the neighbouring quarry of Wittislinger.

* *

The museum of the Society of Christian Archæology at Athens has lately received so large an augmentation from private gifts that it will soon take a high rank among European collections of Christian antiquities, especially in the Byzantine period and of the regions under the Turkish domination. The latest additions consist of some ornamental terracottas from the medieval metropolis of Calamata, in Messenia.

Père Delattre has discovered at Carthage an ancient Punic necropolis, consisting of several small tombs, all of vaulted masonry, in which silver, bronze, and glass, besides painted he has found many precious objects of gold, vases dating from ancient Carthaginian times. All these valuable and highly-interesting objects have been deposited in the museum of Carthage, founded by Cardinal Lavigerie, to whose French mission at Carthage Père Delattre belongs.

Dr. Jón Thorkalson, of Iceland, who during last summer visited this country in connection with the issue of Diplomatarium Islandicum, has made some interesting discoveries of Norse MSS. In the British Museum he came upon the original MS. parchment of a Norse archbishop, Eilif Arnason, hitherto unknown, dating 1331, and giving much valuable information of affairs in Norway in the fourteenth century. He also found a large collection of MSS. by the Icelandic poet and ecclesiastic, Gottskalk Jonsson, written between 1543-93. The contents vary greatly, and there are many texts from the Sagas, hitherto believed to be lost; but the most interesting find is a MS. by Sæmund Frode, who died in 1133, which gives an account of the productions of this gifted scald.

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