« PreviousContinue »
on the north by an annex of some kind between it and the street, and on the east by another street at right angles to the other. On this side it has a corridor only, ending in a set of small rooms. The ma range on the north has a long corridor, paved with a very perfect floor of red and white tessere in bands, out of which open, to the north, a series of rooms and passages, also paved with tesseræ. The third or west wing had its corridor paved with finer mosaic in black, white, and red, and the chief series of rooms ends on the south with a remarkable chamber of considerable area with walls in the form of a horseshoe. On the west side of these rooms is a second series, some of them warmed by hypocausts.
In the large garden or open ground surrounding this ground on the west and south, a number of pits or filled-up wells were found. All these have been carefully cleared out and their contents examined. As might have been expected, they yielded various articles of domestic use chiefly pottery of various kinds, though much broken.
In clearing out one of these pits a discovery of extraordinary interest was made. At a depth of between 6 and 7 feet an open brazier or iron gridiron came to light; beneath this was a large mass of other iron objectsupwards of fifty in number-including axes, hammers, chisels, gouges, adzes, a large anvil, files, plough-coulters, a long pair of tongs, and several curious articles of unknown use. But the most valuable object of all was a large carpenter's plane, the first that has been found in England, and one of the very few, indeed, that have been found in Europe. All these tools, though of iron, are in a most wonderful state of preservation, having rusted only where in contact, and the cutting edges are still quite as sharp as when the objects were placed in the pit. As only one other such discovery of Roman iron tools has hitherto been made, the importance of this second find is easily understood.
Another pit has also yielded very interesting results. Its lower portion was square in form, and lined with courses of thick oak boarding, dovetailed together in a very singular manner. So sound was the wood that before filling up the well two of the
courses were carefully removed, to be, if possible, preserved and set up in the museum. At the bottom of the well lay the fragments of the wooden bucket and great part of its iron handle.
By the time this meets the eyes of the readers of the Antiquary all the excavations will probably have been filled in, and the ground restored to cultivation. The work of the present year, as will be seen when the full account of it is submitted to the Society of Antiquaries, has yielded results of the greatest importance, which cannot fail to increase the knowledge of our much-despised Romano-British antiquities. That the excavations, too, have roused public interest is shown by the number of people who have visited Silchester, and by the contributions to the Excavation Fund, which will, however, need considerably augmenting to allow operations to be resumed on a similar scale next year.
Proceedings and Publications of Archæological Societies.
[Though the Editor takes the responsibility for the form in which these notes appear, they are all specially contributed to the "Antiquary," and are, in the first instance, supplied by accredited correspondents of the different districts.]
The second volume of the second series of ARCHAOLOGIA, published by the Society of Antiquaries, has just been issued to the Fellows. It is a fine quarto volume of 314 pages, and is excellently illustrated. The articles are, Recent Researches in Barrows, in Yorkshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire," etc., by Rev. W. Greenwell, F.R.S.; on a "Sculptured Cross at Kelloe, Durham," by Rev. J. T. Fowler, F.S.A.; on an "Astrolabe Planisphere of English Make," by the Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson; on the "Sculptured Doorways of the Lady Chapel of Glastonbury Abbey," by W. H. St. John Hope, F.S.A.; "Roger of SalisRev. Canon Church, F.S.A.; "The Kalendar and bury, first Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1244-1247," by Rite used by the Catholics since the time of Elizabeth," by Rev. John Morris, S.J., F.S.A.; on a "MS. List of Officers of the London Trained Bands in 1643," by Hon. H. A. Dillon, sec. S. A.; on a "Newly-discovered Manuscript containing Statutes compiled by Dean Colet for the Government of the Chantry Priests and other Clergy in St. Paul's Cathedral," by Rev. W. "Bas-relief SymSparrow Simpson, D.D.; on a bolizing Music in the Cathedral Church of Rimini," by J. G. Walker, F.S.A.; a "Revised History of the Column of Phocas in the Roman Forum," by F. M.
Nichols, F.S.A.; on an "Inventory of the Vestry in Westminster Abbey, taken in 1388," by J. Wickham Legg, F.S.A.; on the "Exploration of a Barrow at Youngsbury, near Ware, Herts," by John Evans, D.C.L., president S.A.; the "Oratory of the Holy Trinity at Barton, in the Isle of Wight," by Thomas F. Kirby, M.A.
At the last monthly meeting of the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES of Newcastle, the matrix of the fine old circular seal of the Merchant Adventurers of York, recently discovered by Mr. Blair, F.S.A., at Chester, was exhibited. The seal gives now an excellent impression. Mr. S. Holmes exhibited a large sandstone boulder unearthed by the Newcastle Water Company's workmen on Rye Hill. It was marked with nine circles, in a line with the Roman numerals VIII. cut below. The attention of the society was also directed to excavations in Collingwood Street, Newcastle, where a great number of old stones, probably of Roman hewing, had been turned out. The secretary read a paper entitled "Extracts from the Eglingham Registers," by Miss Martin, of Eglingham. S ❤S The first part of the fifteenth volume of ARCHÆOLOGIA ELIANA opens with an illustrated paper by Mr. W. H. D. Longstaffe on Norton Church, co. Durham. The archæology and description of Saxon work are well done; but surely antiquarians might be spared some of this gentleman's inappropriate and jejune reflections on matters that are in no sense connected with archæology proper. There is a brief paper by Dr. Barnes on "Sessional Orders relative to the Plague in co. Durham in 1665." Mr. D. D. Dixon writes on "British Burials on the Simonside Hills," illustrated by plates presented by Lord Armstrong, and also on the "Old Coquetdale Volunteers." Mr. R. C. Healey has a paper on the "Prehistoric Camps of Northumberland," and on "" A Prehistoric Burial at the Sneep, North Tynedale." Mr. Maberly Phillips writes briefly on the Rev. John Rogers, and a seventeenth-century brass tablet at Barnard Castle. Rev. G. Rome Hall contributes an ingenious but farfetched and more improbable explanation of the meaning of cup-marked stones, arguing that "these hollows were symbolic of the expanse of the heavens and of the unseen world beyond." Mr. J. G. Waller, F.S. A., contributes valuable illustrated notes on some brasses in the counties of Northumberland and Durham. There are also other brief papers and notes, the whole forming an unusually strong number.
DS →S THE CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND ANTI. QUARIAN AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY went out of their district to hold their second meeting for 1890, being induced thereto by a cordial invita tion from Lancaster, sent through Mr. W. O. Roper, the energetic and learned Deputy Town Clerk. To that gentleman the visitors were much indebted for the careful yet vivid accounts he gave them of the various churches inspected during the two days; in this Mr. Roper was ably assisted by the Rev. W. B. Grenside, of Melling.
On Thursday, September 18, Lancaster Church and Castle were visited, the guide at the first being Mr. Roper, and at the second Mr. E. B. Dawson,
who had induced the Prison Commissioners to afford the society unusual facilities; but the keep and the rest of the old work are built about and hemmed in in a way that obscures much the antiquary would love to see uncovered. A drive to Heysham followed, and here the Rev. T. Lees, F.S.A., of Wreay, read a paper of remarkable learning, entitled "An Attempt to discover the Meaning of the Sculptures at Heysham"; this he did by reference to the Apocryphal Gospels and the Acta Sanctorum, showing that the supposed hunting scenes on the hog-backed stone really represented the death-bed of Adam, and Seth's journey to Paradise. The Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., whose monograph on the Gosforth Cross is well known, also spoke, and produced rubbings of stones bearing cognate scenes. Heysham Old Hall was next visited, and there tea was kindly provided by the Vicar, Mr. Royds.
In the evening, after dinner, the usual meeting was held, the President, Chancellor Ferguson, in the chair. A paper by Mr. Fell, of Dane Ghyll, on "Home Life in Lonsdale, North of the Sands, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries," was read, the subject being well illustrated by extracts from wills, inventories, account-books, letters, funeral bills, etc. This secluded and almost roadless district, at least roadless for wheeled conveyances, long retained a primitive simplicity of manners. A paper by the Rev. T. Ellwood, on "The Reeans of High Furness," followed. Papers by G. T. Clark, on "The Percy Connection with Cumberland," and by Miss Kuper, on "Local Heraldry," were also laid before the society. The President was authorised to take steps to secure the Bewcastle Cross, about whose stability doubts had been raised, and matters were put in train for the making of an archæological map of the district on the model of Mr. George Payne's map of Kent.
Friday was devoted to a drive up the valley of the Lune. During it three fine "burhs," or "moated mounds," at Halton, Lune Bridge, and Melling, were visited, while that at Arkholme was pointed out. On these the President discoursed at Melling, explaining what they were, and drawing attention to the numbers of them in the district, as at Black Burton, Kirkby Lonsdale, etc. At Halton Church the cross was explained by Mr. Calverley, and a hope expressed that its fragments might be collected and built up again; there is some likelihood that this will be done. Gressingham, Hornby, Melling, Claughton, and Caton Churches were all visited; of Hornby Castle the society had, perforce, to be content with a distant view from Hornby Bridge.
The visitors were indebted to Mr. Roper for a pleasant souvenir of their visit, a present of a charming little collection of pictures and plans of old Lancaster. Mr. Garnett, C.B., sent for exhibition some views of Lancaster of great value, which, unluckily, did not arrive in time. Mr. Ford also showed some maps and collections of local election placards.
The second part of the twenty-fourth volume of "Collections, Historical and Archæological, Relating to Montgomeryshire," issued by the Powys-LAND CLUB, contains an interesting illustrated article on the County Council seals of the Welsh counties; it
may fairly claim to be an archæological subject, for the seals were mostly determined upon after careful antiquarian inquiry. The first thirty pages of this number are devoted to annotated extracts from the gaol files of Montgomeryshire, that illustrate the nonconformity or recusancy of the county from 1662 to 1675. These pages are contributed by Mr. R. Williams, F.R.H.S., who proposes to continue the work. The same gentleman gives an amusing illustration of Montgomeryshire dialect. There is a brief posthumous paper on the Saxon earthworks of the district by the late Mr. H. H. Lines, who is well known to the readers of the Antiquary. A dry genealogical paper on the recent pedigrees of Pughe, of Cwmllowi, by Rev. G. R. GouldPughe, might well have been omitted. "Mytton of Garth" and "Royal Alliances of Powys-Land" are papers of a very different calibre and of some true value. The inscribed "Garregllwyd Stone, Aberhafesp," is described by Rev. W. Scott Owen; so high an authority as Professor Hubner considers it to be of early Christian date. Materials for the "History of Welshpool" and the "History of the Parish of Verny," are continued. Mr. Stephen W. Williams writes well on the Cistercian Abbey of Cwmhir. A bronze matrix, found at Loppington, Salop, is described and illustrated; its use is at present problematical.
→S The LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY visited Wilmslow on September 20. The old Registers, beginning from November, 1558, were inspected at the rectory. One of the old farm servants, now in his eighty-seventh year, pointed out trees planted in the rectory ground by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone and Mr. Powys (the latter afterwards Bishop of Sodor and Man) in 1829. They were fellowstudents under the then rector of Wilmslow, the Rev. John Mathias Turner, who afterwards succeeded Reginald Heber as Bishop of Calcutta. The members afterwards proceeded to the old parish church of St. Bartholomew, where an interesting paper was read by Mr. J. Holme Nicholson, M. A., giving an account of the early history of the manor and church. The Rev. J. H. Wade offered explanations of the present architectural features of the chancel, and Mr. George Esdaile exhibited a rubbing of the Booth-Venables brass, which lies in front of the altar. This represents Sir Robert de Booth, who died in 1459-1460, and his wife, Douce Venables, who was married as a childbride at the early age of nine years old. The brass edging containing the legend round four sides has become detached, and should be carefully replaced. It is a fact (probably unique in history) that two brothers of the gallant knight here commemorated, successively became Archbishop of York, one of them holding the Great Seal as Lord Chancellor. The ancient crypt, which lies immediately below the altar, had been cleared out, and members descended to inspect the old sedilia therein.
→→S At the annual summer excursion the members of the SURREY ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY visited Bookham, Slyfield, Stoke D'Abernon, and Leatherhead. Little Bookham Church was described by Mr. A. J. Styles, A.R.I.B. A., and Great Bookham Church by Major Heales, F.S.A. In the latter church are two
remarkably fine sculptured monuments, one of Robertus Shiers, of Slyfield, 1668, and the other of Sir Thomas More, of Polesden, 1735. The former residence of Madame D'Arblay (née Fanny Burney) was visited, and a most interesting paper read by the owner, Mr. Thomas Bensfield, giving a full account of the connection with Surrey of the talented authoress of "Evelina" and "Camilla." Slyfield Manor was very fully described by Mr. Ralph Nevill, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.; and the carved brickwork, fine oak staircase, and exquisite moulded ceilings, were the subjects of much interest and admiration. In Stoke D'Abernon Church, which is a thirteenth-century edifice, is the celebrated brass to Sir John D'Abernon, 1277, said to be the oldest in England. Mr. Mill Stephenson, the secretary of the society, read a paper on the sacred building, drawing special attention to the groined roof -sixteenth-century chantry of Sir John NorburyJacobean pulpit, and remarkable brasses. The Rev. F. P. Phillips permitted the company to inspect his unrivalled collection of Morlands, and after dining together the company dispersed at Leatherhead.
The LELAND CLUB's sixth annual London and Home Counties Excursion took place at the end of September. At Maldon, Essex, the famous triangular tower of All Saints' Church was examined, as well as the library, near the ancient tower of St. Peter's Church, founded by Dr. Plum in 1704. At Bedford the "Lelanders" were received by the Mayor, Dr. Coombs, and other members of the Corporation, and were conducted to the ancient churches and the other objects of historic and archæological interest in the borough town, the Bunyan Museum and chapel, and the fine old library of Bedford, being the most interesting and attractive. The fine Norman church of Elstow, and the famous tower standing apart from it, and said to be part of the destroyed monastery, of which nothing remains but the chapter-house, were afterwards visited, and the drive continued to the residence of General Mills, where John Howard, the philanthropist, formerly lived. On Friday, the last day, by permission of Mr. R. Bloxam, the club visited the grand hall of Eltham Palace, and the walls and other remains within the palace gardens, and afterwards drove to Greenwich Park, vid Blackheath. Here the famous tumuli or barrows near the observatory were pointed out by Mr. Wright, F.S.A., the hon. secretary of the Leland Club, who read a short paper on their supposed Anglo-Saxon or Danish origin. Mr. Wright regretted that relics so ancient and so near the metropolis should be suffered to perish almost unknown, in spite of the researches of such antiquaries as Lambarde, Douglas, and Ackerman. →S もの «OF
On September 27 the CLIFTON ANTIQUARIAN CLUB made an excursion into North Wilts, under the guidance of their president, Bishop Clifford, when they visited the monastic remains at Malmesbury and Lacock. A paper was read in the Abbey Church at Malmesbury by Mr. Thomas S. Pope, in which he gave a brief history of the building, and called attention to some of its leading architectural features. In the magnificent south porch-perhaps the finest Norman doorway in England-a discussion took place over the details of the sculptured groups of subjects from the
Bible which decorate the upper portion of the outer arch. The porch is beautifully engraven in vol. vi. of Vetusta Monumenta, and is fully described by Professor Cockerell in his work on Wells Cathedral. Bishop Clifford and others doubted the correctness of some of Professor Cockerell's identifications, and suggested others which seemed more probable. The very archaic-looking figures of the Apostles on the north and south walls of the porch are probably relics of the Saxon Church, and if so, are amongst the oldest ecclesiastical sculptures in England. They have a decidedly Byzantine look, and resemble some of the ninth or early tenth century work in the most ancient churches of France and Germany. As King Athelstan is known to have been a great benefactor to the Abbey, it is possible that these sculptures may date from his era, A.D. 925-940. After a visit to the fine fifteenth-century market cross, and the remains of St. John's Hospital (Norman work rebuilt in the fifteenth century), the members returned by rail to Chippenham, and drove thence to the very picturesque village of Lacock. At the Abbey they were received by the owner, Mr. C. H. Talbot, who read a short paper on its history, and then conducted the party round the monastic buildings now incorporated in his residence. With the exception of the church, of which only the wall remains, Lacock still presents one of the most perfect remaining examples of conventual arrangement, though the various buildings were much altered after they came into the possession of Sir W. Sherrington in the sixteenth century. Some of this early Renaissance work is of great interest and beauty, especially the octagonal tower, which contains the muniment room, where, among other treasures, is preserved the original copy of Magna Charta sent by Henry III. to the foundress, Ela, Countess of Salisbury, as sheriff of the county. She founded the Abbey for Augustinian canonesses in 1232, and was made abbess shortly afterwards. A brief visit was then made to the parish church, dedicated by St. Cyriack, where the monuments and church plate, including a fine pre-Reformation ciborium, were looked at. Mr. Talbot called attention to an architectural puzzle, a figure of a man smoking a pipe, which appeared to be not later in date than Henry VIII., say about A.D. 1520. The effigy, which does not seem to have been in any way altered or restored, appears on the north side of the exterior of the church, between the clerestory windows. It has been suggested that smoking, in some form, may have been indulged in before the introduction of tobacco from America, but if so we should certainly have evidence of the practice in the writings of Shakespeare and others. There is said to be a pipe in Somersetshire with the name of the owner, John Hunt, and the date 1561. Tobacco is supposed to have been introduced into France by Nicot, in 1560, and into England by Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1586. S
The following is the programme of the winter session of the BRADFORD HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY for 1890-91 : November, "Commons' Rights and the Preservation of Moors and Commons," by Right Hon. G. Shaw-Lefevre, M.P.; December 12, "Roman Roads in Yorkshire," by Mr. Percival Ross; January 9, "The Pilgrimage of Grace and its Local Adherents (2nd part), by Mr. John Lister, M.A. ;
February 13, "Old Bradford Records," by Mr. W. Cudworth; March 13, "Notes on some Old Local Families and Institutions," by Mr. T. T. Empsall; and April 10, "The Growth of a House," by Mr. W. Hoffman Wood.
The third quarterly number of FOLK-LORE, in which is incorporated the defunct Archæological Review and the Folk-Lore Journal, affords continued evidence of the activity of the Folk-Lore Society. It contains English and Scotch Fairy Tales,' collected by Andrew Lang; a continuation of "Magic Songs of the Finns," by Hon. J. Abercromby; the "Riddles of Solomon in the Rabbinic Literature," by S. Schechter; "Notes on Chinese Folk-Lore," by J. H. Stewart Lockhart; "Report on the Campbell MSS. at Edinburgh," by Alfred Butt; "Recent Research in Comparative Religion," by Joseph Jacobs; and also the report of the annual meeting of the Folk-Lore Society, correspondence, miscellaneous notes, and reviews. But the most practical and useful paper of this issue is one from the pen of Miss C. Burne, entitled "The Collection of English Folk-Lore." Our own experience in different parts of the country entirely confirms this lady's conclusions that the time for summarizing on English folk-lore, or for merely counting the gain, has not yet come, for much that is unpublished, or but poorly noted, yet remains to be collected. The writer of this notice has obtained three quite different versions of children's Clementing songs, when they go apple-begging on St. Clement's Day, from three adjacent parishes in South Staffordshire-a custom to which Miss Burne here alludes. He has also noticed village enmity and nicknames in the three hamlets of a small parish not numbering 400 inhabitants, which is another characteristic of country-folk noted in this paper. Moreover, he has had the strangest varieties of ghost, and particularly witch stories, poured into his ears in Somersetshire, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire. Some of these more lately told remain firmly in his mind, others have altogether, or in part, evaporated. Yet he has never been a folk-lorist from
lack of time and instruction. A paper such as this of Miss Burne's should be widely circulated; it would probably fire not a few, who have the knack of "getting on" with the poor, into becoming collectors, or at least imparting the information they have gleaned to those capable of using it well and producing it.
S ❤S The fourth number of the second volume of the journal of the GYPSY LORE SOCIETY is as interesting and comprehensive as ever. Its contents are: Gypsy Acrobats in Ancient Africa," by Bu Bacchar; "Tinkers and their Talk," by John Sampson; "Love Forecasts and Love Charms among the Tent Gypsies of Transylvania," by Dr. H. von Wlislocki; "Notes on the Gypsies of South-Eastern Moravia," by Professor Rudolf von Sowa; "Scottish Gypsies under the Stewarts," by David MacRitchie; "Notes on the Gypsies of Poland and Lithuania," by Vladislaw Komel de Zilhirski; a continuation of the "SlovakGypsy Vocabulary," and reviews, notes and queries.
DS 08 The report of the HARLEIAN SOCIETY for 1890, which has just reached us, gives evidence of the satisfactory
progress that this society is making, as well as of the good work that it has recently accomplished. During the past year, twenty-four new members have joined, which brings the roll up to 391. Two volumes of Shropshire pedigrees, containing the Visitation of 1623, with additions, edited by Mr. Grazebrook, F.S.A., and Mr. Rylands, F.S.A., forming vols. xxviii. and xxix. of the ordinary publications, have been issued to the members. The registers of Mayfair Chapel, kept by Rev. A. Keith between 1740 and 1754, are printed, and are now being indexed. The ordinary subscription to this society, so invaluable to genealogists and local historians, is a guinea, and another guinea entitles the member to the publications of the Register section. Further particulars as to membership can be obtained from Mr. Frank Rylands, F.S.A., Heather Lea, Claughton, Birkenhead, one of the hon. secs. もの
The NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE NATURALISTS FIELD CLUB visited Penkridge, Pillaton Hall, and Cannock Chase, on Saturday, September 20. Mr. C. Lynam, and the Hon. and Rev. C. J. Littleton, vicar of Penkridge, described the parish church, an ancient collegiate foundation, the fabric of which was remodelled in the fifteenth century. Originally a Royal Free Chapel of the Mercian kings, it was granted by King John to the then Archbishop of Dublin, and to such of his successors as were not Irishmen ! Irish influence is, however, traceable in many details of the building, such as capitals and bases of piers and mouldings of arches. The church contains a fine series of monumental effigies of the Winnesbury and Littleton families, owners of Pillaton Hall, the remains of which Tudor mansion were next visited. They consist chiefly of the quadrangular moat, now dry, the gate-house, and the domestic chapel. The stone quern preserved in the quadrangle is an interesting feature. Driving through Cannock the party ascended Castle Ring, the highest point of the Chase, and indeed of South Staffordshire, 900 feet above the sea-level. The entrenchment encloses about twenty acres, and on the south east side, which was the most easy of access, there were no fewer than five raised mounds, with four intervening ditches. In the middle are the remains of a plain square building, as to which many theories have been suggested. Mr. Lynam favoured the idea that it was a hunting-lodge of some of the Plantagenet kings, and pointed out the bases of some pillars in situ, suggestive of having sustained the roof of the great hall, and also some stones grooved for a portcullis towards the south-east. The party continued their way through Beaudesert Park to Rugeley, whence they returned to Stoke.
We have received the October issue of the quarterly journal of the BERKS ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHI. TECTURAL SOCIETY. In this number there is an interesting account of an excursion made by the society to the Vale of the White Horse, together with the papers then read by the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield and Rev. E. R. Gardiner on the "Battle of Escendune"; Lady Russell continues "Swallowfield and its Owners ; the Rev. B. C. Littlewood writes a short paper on the "Parish of Warfield," and Mr. J.