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times. It was usual to saturate the body with tar before it was hung in chains, in order that it might last the longer. This was done with bodies of three highwaymen about the middle of last century, gibbeted on the top of the Chevin, near Belper, in Derbyshire. They had robbed the North Coach when it was changing horses at the inn at Hazelwood, just below the summit of the Chevin. After the bodies had been hanging there a few weeks, one of the friends of the criminals set fire, at night-time, to the big gibbet that bore all three. The father of our aged informant, and two or three others of the cottagers near by, seeing a glare of light, went up the hill, and there they saw the sickening spectacle of the three bodies blazing away in the darkness! So thoroughly did the tar aid this cremation, that the next morning only the links of the iron chain remained on the site of the gibbet.
The last person gibbeted at Derby was Matthew Cokayne, who was hung in 1776 for the murder of Mary Vicars, an old woman, resident in Tenant Street. The body was afterwards suspended in chains from a gibbet, which had to be erected on the open space nearest to the scene of the crime. The gibbet-post was consequently erected where the outbuildings of the infirmary now stand, between the London and Osmaston Roads.
The last instance of gibbeting in the county of Derby took place at a much later date—namely, after the March Assizes, 1815. Anthony Lingard, aged 21, was convicted of the murder of Hannah Oliver, a widow woman, who kept the turnpike-gate at Wardlow Miers, in the parish of Tideswell. The Derby Mercury for Marcn 13, 1815, after giving an account of the crime, the trial, and the sentence, concludes with these words: "Before the Judge left the town, he directed that the body of Lingard should be hung in chains in the most convenient place near the spot where the murder was committed, instead of being dissected and anatomized."
In Rodes' Peak Scenery, first published in 1818, mention is made of the gibbet of Anthony Lingard : "As we passed along the road to Tideswell, the little villages of Ward
low and Litton lay on our left . . . Here, at a little distance on the left of the road, we observed a man suspended on a gibbet, which was but newly erected." The vanity of the absurd idea of our forefathers, in thinking that a repulsive object of this kind would act as a deterrent of crime, was strikingly shown in the case of this Wardlow gibbet. It is related of Hannah Pecking, of Litton, who was hung on March 22, 1819, at the early age of sixteen, for poisoning Jane Grant, a young woman of the same village, that she "gave the poison in a sweet cake to her companion as they were going to fetch some cattle out of a field near to which stood the gibbet-post of Anthony Lingard."
The treasurer's accouts for Derbyshire, for 1815-16, show that the punishment of gibbeting involved a serious inroad on the county finances. The expenses for apprehending Anthony Lingard amounted to £31 5s. 5d.; but the expenses incurred in the gibbeting reached a total of £85 4s. Id., and this in addition to ten guineas charged by the gaoler for conveying the body from Derby to Wardlow.*
J. CHARLES Cox, LL.D., F.S.A.
A List of
By WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A.
COUNTY OF DURHAM.
Guylde or Chauntry of our Lady in Seint Nicolas Church in Durham.
(Ex. Q. R., Anct. Misc. Ch. Gds., 15.) Chantry of Our Lady in the Chappell of Seynt Margaret in the Parish of Seynt Oswald in Durham. (Ibid.,.)
Chantry of Saint James and Saint Andrew uppon the Bridge in the Parish of Saint Nycholas in Durham.
* These Derbyshire notes are taken from a work not yet issued, entitled Three Centuries of Derbyshire Annals, which Messrs. Bemrose have in the press.
1. Guild of St. Cuthbert in the Galilee in Cathedral Church.
2. Chantry of Our Lady in Houghton Parish Church. 3. Chantry of the Trinity in St. Nicholas Parish Church in Durham.
4. Chantry in Church of North Baily in Durham. 5. Chantry of Blessed Lady in Parish of Esington. 6. Chantry of Our Blessed Lady in Bishopwearmouth.
7. Chantry of Our Lady of Piersbrig in Gainsford. 8. Chantry of Our Lady in Esington Parish Church. 9. Chantry or Guild of St. Giles in Parish of St. Giles in Durham.
10. Chantry of All thappostelles in Parish Church o Esington.
11. Chantry of the xij Apostles in Barnard Castle in Parish of Gainsforth.
12. Chantries of St. Thomas and St. Katherine in Sedgfield.
13. Chantry of the Trinity in Gateshead.
14. Chantry of Our Lady in Gateshead Parish Church. 15. Chantry of St. John the Baptist and Evangelist in St. Nicholas Parish Church in Durham.
16. Chantry of St. John the Baptist and Evangelist in Gateshead Parish Church.
17. Chantry of St. Helen in Hartlepool Parish.
18. Chantry of St. Katherine in Houghton Parish Church.
19. Chantry of Jesus of Brancepath.
20. Chantry of Our Lady in Hartlepool Parish Church.
21. Hospital of St. John in Barnard Castle.
22. Chantry of Our Lady and St. Cuthbert in the Galilee of the Cathedral Church, Durham.
The Cathedral Church of Durham.
Chantries and chapels in the County of Durham: Our Ladie in the paryshe churche of Saint Margetts in Tresgate Duresme.
COUNTY OF DURHAM (continued). Saint John Baptyste and Saint John Evaungeliste in the paryshe churche of Saint Oswalles in Duresme. Our Ladie founded within the Churche of Saint Nycholas in Duresme.
Guilde of Corpus Christi in said churche.
Saint Jeames and Saint Andrewe upon the newe Brydge of Elvet.
Saint Jeames within the church of St. Nycholas in Duresme.
Our Ladie in the said churche.
St. John Baptyste and St. John Evaungelyste within the said churche.
The Trinitie within the said churche.
The Guilde of St. Cutberte within the Cathedrall churche of Duresme.
Saint Katheryn within the churche of Northebaylie in Duresme.
The Guilde of Saint Gyles.
The Ankerhouse within the paryshe of Chester in the Streate.
The Guilde of Sainte Hughe within the paryshe of Aukelande in the Chappell of Evenwood.
The Holie Trinitie in Gatysshed.
Our Ladie within the said Churche.
Saint John Baptyste and Saint John Evaungeliste within said churche.
Saint Edmonde in Gatysshed.
Our Ladie within the chapell of Barnardcastell.
St. Ellen in Barnerdscastell within the paryshe of Gaynesforthe.
Peerstbrygge in Gaynesforth.
Stocton in the paryshe of Norton.
Saint Ellen in Hartyllpoole.
Our Ladie in Westherington in the parishe of Houghton.
Chaunterie or Guilde of Houghton.
Our Ladie in the parishe of Houghton.
Chaunterie callid Farneackers in Wyckeham.
OR many years the fishermen and dredgermen of Whitstable, while plying their calling in the neighbourhood of "Pudding-Pan Rock," have occasionally found in their dredges quantities of Roman earthenware, some of it entire, but the greater portion in a fragmentary state.
The question how it came there is a vexed one among antiquaries.
The traditional story is that a vessel, freighted with the ware, was, ages ago, wrecked on the "rock," and its contents dispersed by the waves.
Probably, where the sea now rolls, in Roman times, potteries-not less important than those which have been discovered at Upchurch Marshes existed.
Antiquarian visitors to Whitstable twentyfive years ago, and earlier, reaped harvests of spoil, enriching their collections with valuable and choice specimens for a nominal outlay.
When the dredgermen first met with these "pudding-pans" is not known. For many years, although frequently found, they were regarded as being valueless, and were thrown overboard as rubbish, or, in Whitstable vernacular, "culch." Later, some of the men began to take the more perfect specimens home. But, even then, they were thought little of, and many a stunted geranium has drained into a Roman patera.
The time came, however, when dry-as-dust curiosity-hunters discovered the whereabouts of this "Tom Tiddler's" ground of Ceramic treasure. Then prices rose. Every fragment was hoarded, as misers hoard their gold.
Let it not be supposed that because the "pudding-pans" are scattered in the locality of the Rock, which has been named after them, that they were found daily and hourly. Often weeks and months passed without either vase, patera, or other vessel, or even a fragment of one, being met with. Then suddenly, by some freak of capricious fortune, vessel after vessel-lustrous, beautiful, and perfect would be found in the dredges. Of course the whole was at once thrown on the market. For a few years boatmen did a thriving business, fleecing those who had formerly taken advantage of their rustic simplicity.
Deluded by strange stories of the abundance of the pottery, and the ease with which it was obtainable, bonâ-fide antiquarians, as well as the large class of collectors who pretend to have any intelligent craze, walked into the traps set by guileless long-shore
Whitstable was invaded by an army hungering for Samian ware. Yawls were engaged by the day, even by the week, for trips to Pudding-Pan Rock. Here, when winds were favourable, dark-visaged, hook-nosed gentlemen, of the Hebrew persuasion, would sit, watching the bronzed dredgermen, careful that no cup or bowl should be thrown overboard. Sometimes, when nothing rewarded the anxious search, these men would themselves cast the dredge, in the vain hope that success would attend their efforts. They were learners in the school of experience; disappointment taught them wisdom. Giving up sea-going, they contented themselves
ashore, waiting to purchase specimens of the dredgermen at the moment of their landing. Making a merit of necessity, they became pot-buyers instead of pot-hunters.
Prices having once risen, continued to maintain an upward tendency; notwithstanding fluctuations in other markets, they have never appreciably declined. "Pudding-pans" are everywhere prized. Ceramic connoisseurs honour them with prominent positions in well-stocked cabinets. Curators of museums adorn their laden shelves therewith; even the Geological Museum invites savants to inspect Samian pateræ dredged out of oysterhaunted seas at Whitstable.
I do not wonder at this. Many of the specimens are singularly chaste and delicate. They bear the potter's stamp; the incised patterns are sharp and clear, and the figures in relief are as perfect as when the ware left the grimy hands of the Roman workman fifteen centuries ago.
Although the recovery of entire, or only slightly damaged, specimens is not uncommon, storms and billows have played havoc with these relics of the past. It would be difficult to describe the ruin which has been wrought. Shattered fragments of graceful vases, lips and stems of incomparable cups, and marvellous pateræ, handles of amphore which never held the generous juice of the grape, portions of cinerary urns which were never sealed upon the ashes of any of the mighty dead, are brought to light, for no other purpose, apparently, but to make our science masters sigh. Nor is this all. Many specimens have been robbed of their lustrous glaze by abrasion. Some have holes worn in side or bottom by the friction from rolling sands, or by a pebble which has served as ocean's plaything.
Now let me write of that which I know, and testify of that which I have seen. Every man who has a "crockery fad considers that his own pots and pans are better than those of his neighbours. I fear I am no exception to the rule.
My "pudding-pans" are ranged before me as I write these lines. On the centre shelf of my cabinet is a vase as perfect in form as the best productions of Etruscan workmanship. Its roseate glaze is dashed with flecks of white, bright and shining as enamel. If
it were but perfect! Alas! it is not. This vase is 11 inches in height; it had originally four handles attached, but they are there no longer. The sea does not possess them. They are mine also, and lie in fragments grouped around the base of their lovely but dilapidated principal. This vase dredged up twelve years ago. Its finder, who set but little store by it, stowed it away out of sight. When next brought to light it was covered with a saline efflorescence, and the handles had fallen off. In this condition it came into my possession. For ages before it was recovered, it had been partially buried in the mud, for the rim and part of the neck are worn away.
A small Samian vase has lost its rim in a similar way. This one must have been washed out of its bed, and rolled hither and thither for some time before it was found, every particle of glaze having been scoured away.
The pateræ differ as widely in dimensions as they do in pattern; some are 10 and 12 inches in diameter, and not more than I inch in depth; while others, of the same breadth, exceed them in depth in the proportion of two to one. Others, again, are not more than 4 or 5 inches across; these are ornamented with ivy-leaf patterns in relievo.
One choice specimen is a patera 9 inches in diameter, by 1 inch in depth; a sixth of the whole is wanting. It is curiously ornamented with circular lines and geometrical figures, executed in green and white glaze; the latter colour has acquired a mother-ofpearl tint. In the centre is the representation of a Roman deity.
My rarest trophy is a bowl 16 inches across, and 4 inches in depth; it is flawless. In the centre is the maker's name as clear as though it had been impressed yesterday. The ornamentation consists of oblique markings enclosed within incised concentric lines. Many envy me this; its fellow has not yet been found.
The dredgermen never clean the "puddingpans," mistakenly imagining that collectors prize them because they have been rescued from the sea, and not for what they really are-relics of the Roman occupation of our sea-girt island.
Strange substances sometimes attach them
selves to the ware. Among the most plentiful are found the grotesque casts of serpulæ and various sea-worms. These are called-why, I cannot tell-"German writings." I trust our Teutonic kinsmen feel flattered by the compliment paid to their caligraphy. Algæ, sponges, and zoophytes also find settlements in and on the "pudding-pans." Not infrequently the oyster, for which the locality is justly famous, casts anchor, and lives, thrives, and fattens in the interior of a richly-chased vessel, which had been intended to grace the altar of a pagan divinity.
But I must say farewell to the pottery, which reminds one that the conquerors of the world once plied a peaceful craft, where now roll waves
So fit to form poetic theme,
Ercavations at Silchester. (Second Notice.)
By W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, M.A.
HE fine weather that has prevailed since I wrote my former communication on the excavations at Silchester has enabled the work to be carried forward in a satisfactory manner, both as regards the amount of excavation accomplished and the results obtained.
The ingathering of the crops having cleared the entire site within the walls, the thorough excavation of the large insula north of the forum has been proceeded with almost uninterruptedly. The large house occupying the north-east part of the insula, which was begun with somewhat disappointing results, has now been completely laid open, and proves to be a very interesting building. It follows in the main what must now be considered the typical plan of a large Romano-British house, a series of rooms opening out of corridors arranged round the three sides of an open court, with an outer series of small rooms occupying the lines of an external corridor. This house is bounded