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Norwich. They had been lying loose and forgotten in a private house, having been probably obtained from a dealer many years ago, and it was not known from what church they had been lost. Blomefield's History mentions them (iv. 151) as existing in his time. They are those to Joan Godsalff, 1511; John Banyard, and Christian his wife, c. 1500; and a small fragment of that to John Burgh, alderman, 1494.
acquired could be used to store a portion of the curious treasures that Mr. Plant has difficulty in finding room for in the Peel Park Museum. Ördsal Hall is a genuine legacy from bygone days; and a borough that dates its charter back to the reign of Edward III., and which gives its name to the Hundred, ought to be jealous of the fate of such a remarkable and interesting example of an old-world dwelling-place as Ordsal Hall."
It is to be hoped that the recent visit of the Cumberland and Westmorland Society to Lancaster, chronicled in another part of this issue, will stimulate the Lancastrians to an interest in local antiquarian matters. In Mr. Roper, Mr. Paley, and Mr. Dawson, Lancaster possesses three competent teachers, if the disciples can only be found. One thing wants immediate attention-in the vestry, or elsewhere in Lancaster Church, are an incredible number of loose brasses. Surely these should be fixed and secured at once, and competent authorities consulted on the best way of doing so.
Ordsal Hall, Salford, has a history that dates back to the middle of the thirteenth century. The Radcliffes held it for many generations. Harrison Ainsworth, in his thrilling romance, Guy Fawkes, describes the hall graphically, and marries Guy to Viviana Radcliffe of Ordsal Hall. Much of the picturesque building is of great importance from an archæological point of view, as some features are almost unique. The whole edifice is, however, gradually but surely crumbling away. If it is to be preserved it is essential that speedy and considerable remedial measures should be taken. Its owner is Lord Egerton, and its tenant Mr. Haworth, who allows part of it to be used as a workmen's club. Surely public spirit should try to acquire this noble old relic of the domestic builders of the past, if the owners cannot be induced properly to preserve it. A local plea for its preservation says with force: "Here in Salford is a building of undeniable antiquity that requires no rebuilding, and if
The report on the 'restoration' of Westminster Abbey is not yet issued, so that our comments have to be reserved. But the recent treatment of the circular north window and its glazed contents have awakened the wrath of more than one of our contributors. One of them has found relief in rhyme. Two of his epigrams, expressive of righteous wrath, will probably afford gratification to far more than the composer, and shall therefore be printed:
At Westminster until two years ago
The Twelve Apostles made a goodly show,
In ancient days Apostles ruled the Church,
Motes of the Month (Foreign).
IN demolishing a part of the fortress of St. Michael at Genoa, in order to discover the treasure of the Doge Durazzo, which according to family documents was placed there in 1573, some research on the structure of the building may have interesting results.
Near Rimini, in digging on the site of an ancient sanctuary, which appears to have been opened to worship right into the imperial age, three archaic bronze statuettes have been found of Etruscan workmanship in the fourth century B.C., and also a vase painted with red figures upon black ground of the same period,
and two marble statuettes of Roman times. * * *
At Este, excavations continue in the depository of votive offering in the Baratela plain which has already for several years past yielded valuable contributions for the history of the Euganean people. During the latest researches some bronze statuettes have been brought to light, and many votive nails, in part adorned with geometrical designs, and in part covered with inscriptions in Euganean characters. Some coins and other objects in bronze and in iron were found at the same time. * * *
At Rome, on the top of the Capitol looking towards Via Marforio, some important remains of the great Servian wall have been struck upon, while preparing the ground to receive the monument of Victor Emanuel. Near the Porta Salaria an ancient tomb has been discovered formed of large blocks of tufa. *
At Naples two inscriptions have been found, considered by Professor De Petra to be of historic importance, the one throwing new light on the Roman colony of Neapolis, the other referring to the Emperor Heliogabalus. * * *
At a place called Plan de Joux (corrupt. for Jovis), on the Great St. Bernard, just within the Italian territory which is marked by two or three stones half-way along the shore of the small lake that has to be passed in order to reach the Hospice, which is in Switzerland, at a height of 2,500 mètres
above the sea, there is known to have been a temple dedicated to the Pennine Jove. At various intervals for the last 100 years excavations have been made on this site; amongst others by Promis of Turin, and more recently by Lugon, a Black-canon living at the Hospice, during which several bronze tablets with votive inscriptions were found, which are preserved in the Black - canons' library, and also many Greek and Gallic coins. The votive tablets record the passage of the hill in Roman times from the first to the fourth century of our era, in which the ancient travellers express their gratitude to the father of the gods for having enabled them to cross the dangerous mountain. On some tablets record is made of a purse of money placed in the hands of the priests of the Temple, that the inscription might be cared for and their prayer heard.
The early snows of winter have already come to stop the work of this year. It has, however, already revealed the lines of the walls of the Temple, scooped out of the native rock. From the marks of juncture it is evident that the Temple was divided into a pronaos and a cella, and that it was only 70 mètres square in area, of rectangular form and oriented. Another year, perhaps, the mansio, or house of recovery, and its dependencies, may be found. Meanwhile it would appear that this Temple was preceded by another smaller one, dedicated to the ancient Alpine deity, Penn. For not only during former excavations, but during the most recent, many Gallic Transalpine and Cisalpine coins have been found, and several Greek ones of the third or fourth centuries B.C. Some worked bronzes seem still more ancient, and may belong to the time before coins were struck.
In Paris, the ancient Roman amphitheatre, known as Les Arènes de Lutèce, in the Rue Monge, has been excavated right under the site of the convent of the Dames de Jésus Christ, and during this month the workmen will hand over the whole ground to the city gardeners, who will transform the vast ruin into an ornamental square, running along the Rue de Navarre. Facing this street can now be seen ten broad steps leading down into
the ring, and in a few more days the tribune I will be cleared out. The rest of the arena cannot be excavated until the municipality can afford to expropriate some small and inconsiderable buildings which now cumber the ground.
Meanwhile, in a small local museum will be exposed to view the numerous objects found upon the spot, which will help to illustrate a bygone day of pagan Lutetia. Amongst these we may mention numerous fragments of sculpture, entablatures, columns, capitals, a remarkable head of a statue of good style, coins, brooches, bronze, bone and ivory pins, red pottery like that of Samos and of Arezzo, black pottery, ancient tiles, seats for the theatre bearing inscriptions, etc., etc. Το these will be added some skeletons, which have been found lying in their ancient Gaulish tombs, and which will carry back the thoughts of modern Parisians more than 1700 years.
* * * From Athens the news is confirmed that the Greek Government have presented Italy with a site behind the Military Hospital, and in close proximity to the Schools of Great Britain and the United States, for the erection of an Italian school of classical studies and archæology. But we learn from private sources that the Italian Government, owing to want of funds, has no intention at present of erecting any building.
At Pompeii, in continuing the excavations of the walls on the seaside, a fine mosaic has been found, adorned with figures of fishes.
* * *
In the neighbourhood of Soumbassi and Karademergi, in Thessaly, a great number of Hellenic coins have been found, most of them belonging to Larissa and to Chalcis; also an inscribed golden ring. It is supposed that this must be the site of an ancient necropolis, which, it is reported, will be excavated at the expense of a private individual of the Commune of Krannon.
* * * During some excavations conducted by Dr. Verneau in the Commune of Mureaux, near Meulan (Seine-et-Oise), a prehistoric sepulture has been found, consisting of a subterranean alle formed of enormous blocks of stone,
and comprising a sepulchral chamber and a vestibule. Here numerous skeletons were seen in a crouched attitude, and around them polished hatchets, scrapers, earthenware handmade vases, bodkins of bone, beads of flint, ear-drops of schist, etc. The children were buried apart against the sides of the sepul
chre. The large stone which closed the entrance had been carried away by a Roman road which crossed the tomb in the direction of Meulan. This road is again found near Dreux. A bronze lamp and a metal plate have been now found amongst the remains of a small square building of Roman times, which has been disinterred by Dr. Verneau near the road. It is made of polychrome materials and adorned with figures.
* * *
The event of the month, however, in Greek archæology, has been the splendid discovery at Rhamnous, in Attica, situated on a small rocky peninsula between Marathon and Oropos. Here there existed a celebrated temple of Nemesis, and it was while engaged in clearing the site that the Greek Archæological Society has come across the remains of the colossal statue of the goddess, attributed by some to Agoracritus, a disciple of Phidias, and by others to the great Athenian sculptor himself. It used to be related that Phidias carved this statue out of the block of Parian marble, which the Persians brought with them to erect a trophy after the battle that ended so fatally for them at Marathon. Fragments of other historic statues have been found at the same time, but we must await more detailed accounts by letter. It must be remembered that some fragments of the colossal statue of Nemesis, attributed to Phidias, were found many years ago, and are now in the British Museum; while in 1879 some statues were found on the site by peasants who secreted them through jealousy or fear.
The Greek Archæological Society are still engaged excavating at Mycenæ, at Rhamnous (along the road leading to the sea), at the Athenian Kerameikos, and the Haghia Triada; and they are erecting two new local museums-one at Epidauros, and the other at Tanagra, whence come the celebrated figurini in terra-cotta,
The remains of an old ship, built of oak, have been found in the Drammen river, in Norway. It dates, probably, from the Viking Age. * *
The director of the Tromsö Museum, Norway, has, during the summer, excavated several barrows around Bodö. In one were found a battle-axe, a knife, a scythe-blade, and some large nails, with human bones (unburned), placed in a stone chamber. They date from the Late Iron Age (800-1000 A.C.). In another barrow, oval-shaped, were found in the centre, in a thin layer of charcoal, bits of burned bones, parts of bone, and some small pieces of bronze, probably parts of an ornament placed on the body when burned, the barrow having been raised afterwards.
* * * The restoration of the famous Throndhjem Cathedral, one of the greatest and most interesting in Northern Europe, and which has occupied many years, is approaching completion. The style is mostly Gothic, and the edifice was built by English monks. Before the high altar are the graves of several Norse kings, great prelates, statesmen, etc. The principal tower having been destroyed by fire last century, a fine new one is to be erected. Hitherto only a portion of the cathedral has been used for service, but it is expected that towards Christmas the main edifice will be so far finished that it can be used, which has not been the case since the Medieval Age. When completed, the Cathedral of Throndhjem can vie with any in Europe in beauty and size. The Storthing grants a sum annually towards the work, and King Oscar, who takes great interest in it, has also given large sums.
Another interesting Norse edifice is also to be restored, viz., the so-called Haco Hall, in Bergen, formerly the residence of several Norse kings, and dating from the tenth century. The style. The style is early Gothic. Of late years it has been used as a granary. * * * An interesting discovery has been made in East Vemmenhög Church, in Sweden, consisting of frescoes in the dome, dating from the fifteenth century. They represent scenes from the Old Testament and the life of Christ. Such frescoes are very rare in Scandinavia.
A curious discovery has been made by Dr. Wibling, a Swedish archeologist. Some distance from Helga Lake, in Småland, he came upon a burial chamber, dating from the Early Bronze Age, containing a bronze ornament, three flint implements, and a petrified piece of bone. As it was the custom in that age to bury the dead close to the shore, the water in the lake has no doubt receded during the 2,000 to 3,000 years since then. The same is the case with a grave in Vernamo parish. It is now situated several hundred feet from a lake, but the soil and configuration of the land plainly indicate that the waves once washed its sides.
* * *
The restoration of the Upsala Cathedral, the oldest cathedral in Sweden, is rapidly progressing. Up to the present a sum of £40,000 has been expended upon the work, and there are still some £15,000 in hand. A donor, who wishes to be unknown, has presented the cathedral with all the stained glass windows. The great one in the gable of the central nave is to represent the birth, baptism, crucifixion, and resurrection of the Saviour.
* * * The Cathedral of Lund, in medieval times one of the most important in Northern Europe, celebrates the 745th year of its third consecration this year, which took place in 1145 with great ceremony. Two consecrations had previously taken place during the building of the edifice. The last consecration was effected by Archbishop Eskil, attended by a number of bishops and distinguished dignitaries from Sweden, Denmark, and Germany, besides two royal princes, of whom one afterwards became King of Sweden. One of the assisting prelates, Bishop Hermanns, of Schleswig, lies buried in the crypt.
covered, with curious leaning letters cut in a horizontal row, several feet long, on a stone close to the shore.
A Runic stone found some time ago in Southern Sweden has now been cleaned. The runes are cut on a scroll 7 centimetres wide, enclosing a handsome cross, and read as follows: "Shifunt R: Raisthi : stin: thina: iftir: Un C Rutur R: Sin." The literal translation is: "Shifunt R raised stone this after (in memory of) Un brother his." Curiously enough a village in the neighbourhood bears the name Unnerstad (town of Un).
An old oak altar panel has been discovered in Thisted Church, Denmark, dating from 1480. Two figures were missing, but they have afterwards been found in a tool-house. * *
A Runic stone has been discovered in Ostermarie Church, in the Island of Bornholm, having been immured over the entry. It dates from the latter Runic era, and the inscription is devoted to a departed brother and sister. * *
The excavations of the ruins of Antvorskov Cloister, in Denmark, is now taking place, and some interesting discoveries have been made. The style of the cloister was Roman, and it was built in the twelfth century for the Brethren of St. John by King Waldemar the Great. The ruins are the only ones in Denmark of a cloister built in Roman style.
During the present summer the excavations of the ancient and historical castle of Vordingborg, Denmark, has taken place, and various objects have been found-such as bones of animals, fragments of ovens of clay with green and black glazing and ornamentations, some coins, and a serpent ring of gold with four points, bearing the inscription: "Mit Haab Staar Alene Til Guh" (My hope rests alone in God). The excavations are being continued.
An exceedingly interesting archæological work has just made its appearance in Copenhagen, entitled Northern Archæology, by Herr L. Zinck. The subject is studies from the Stone Age.
A magnificent sarcophagus of cedar-wood has been exhumed at Kertsch, in Southern Russia. It is richly ornamented with wood carvings, and dates from the sixteenth century. It contained the skeleton of a young girl, remains of clothes, and some vessels of glass and clay. It is to be brought to St. Petersburg, and exhibited in the imperial château, the Eremitage.
The use of the saw is very ancient. For instance, in Germany and Denmark, saws have been found which undoubtedly date from the Bronze Age. They are made of metal, and formed like a thin stick with teeth hacked out irregularly on one side. In America, too, similar finds have been made. In Mexico, saws from the Stone Age have been found cut from lava glass. However, the Phoenicians are probably the first to have produced the saw, and it is suggested that the idea for it was taken from the jaw of a serpent, which was imitated in metal. The earliest inhabitants of Europe made saws from flint, and those of the West Indies from mussel shells cut along the edges. * * * *
Amongst the artistic losses made by the great fire at Salonica must be mentioned the Mosque of Santa Sophia, and the great Metropolitan Church. The former was originally a Byzantine Temple built under Justinian by the same architect, Anthemios, who designed Santa Sophia, of Constantinople. It contained a library, in which were several ancient MSS. which have perished in the flames. The latter was adorned with mortal remains of Gregorios Palamâs, one some ancient pictures, and contained the
of the Fathers of the Greek Church.
* * * The restoration of the ancient mosaics of the Byzantine Temple of Daphne, near Athens, has at length begun, and is in the hands of Signor Salviati, of Venice.