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colouring and gold on carved marble by the Greeks, as specially shown by the recent discoveries on the Acropolis, the professor was led thus to comment on colouring applied to carvings both in stone and wood by medieval English artists, of which Gloucester afforded noteworthy instances. No finer example of its kind existed anywhere than the splendid reredos of the Lady Chapel of Gloucester Cathedral, which even in its sadly mutilated state ought to be protected from all injury, far more especially from "restoration," as an object of priceless value. There was the same fearless use of bright, pure colours, the same minute delicacy of painted pattern covering every detail, and above all the same richness and beauty of texture given by the use of slight but distinct relief to all the brilliantly coloured designs. With gold that was specially necessary-gilding applied to an unbroken flat surface looked at once poor and gaudy, and both the Greek and the medieval artists invariably applied their gold leaf to surfaces which were completely broken up by relief work in gesso or other material. This, by giving a varied play of light and shade, immensely enhanced the decorative value of the gold, and at the same time gave it a look of body and solidity. Any attempt to restore the reredos in the Cathedral Lady Chapel would be a disastrous failure, and would inevitably cause the destruction of one of the richest examples of medieval colour that is still left to us. He also referred in eulogistic terms to the reredos at the high altar, saying how extremely glad he was to see the spirit of the old work as far as possible carried out by colouring and gilding the whole. Subsequently Mr. John Bellows gave an interesting address on Roman Gloucester, supplementary to his description of the previous day.

On Thursday the chief business of the day was the cathedral. The dean delivered a descriptive address on the fabric in the Chapter House, and afterwards Professor Middleton read a more technical paper from the choir lectern on "The Most Perfect Example of a Benedictine Monastery in England." The Rev. A. S. Porter, F.S. A., also read a paper on the old tiles of the cathedral, a subject on which the readers of the Antiquary know him as a proficient.

In the evening a conversazione was held by the Mayor and corporation, Mr. W. H. St. John Hope discoursing on the display of civic insignia of the city, particularly the maces. The chief part of the conversazione consisted of music, vocal and instrumental. It may be difficult to make selections suitable for so grave, so erudite, and so venerable an assembly, but certainly the lay clerk of the cathedral treated the antiquarians to some curiously chosen glees, such as "The Sailor's Song and "The Dance,' whilst another gentleman sang a solo entitled "Hush! Little Baby Dear !"

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On Friday the members proceeded by rail to Cheltenham, and thence to Winchcomb in the Cotswolds, where Mr. Micklethwaite, F.S.A., described the parish church, chiefly remarkable for having been built new in the fifteenth century, without its form being in any way influenced by an older building on the same site. Subsequently the party visited Spoonley Roman Villa, where Professor Middleton acted as cicerone. This is a very interesting and perfect example of a Roman-British house, for the careful excavation and preservation of which antiquarians

are indebted to the lady of the manor, Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley Castle, who has had the work of excavation and protection carried out at her own expense. The house is built on the typical cloister-like plan; in the central block are principal rooms, such as the tablinum and triclinum, in one wing are the bath-rooms, both hot and cold, and in the other a range of unheated apartments, probably for summer use. Sudeley Castle was afterwards inspected, and was described by Mr. Wilfrid Cripps, C.B., F.S.A.-In the evening papers were read by Mr. A. Hartshorne, F.S.A., on "Hanging in Chains," and Mr. A. Watkins on "Pigeon-houses." On Saturday an excursion was made to Woodchester to inspect the fine Roman pavement which had been temporarily reopened. Afterwards the members proceeded to Prinknash Park, where the Rev. W. Bazeley read some notes on the interesting old house. Painswick church (now under restoration), Painswick Court House, where Charles I. held a Court, and the encampments round Painswick Beacon were also visited and described by Mr. Cecil Davis. Papers were read by Mr. F. A. Hyett on "A Civil War Tract," and by Mr. Cecil Davis on The Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire."

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The excursion of Monday, August 18, included Withington Church, Chedworth Roman Villa, found in 1864, described by Mr. G. E. Fox, F.S.A., and Northleach Church. The evening was occupied by the concluding meeting for the usual votes of thanks, presided over by that old friend and vice-president of the Institute, the Rev. Sir Talbot Baker, Bart. gloom was cast over an otherwise highly successful series of meetings by the very sudden death, from heart disease, early on Monday morning, of Mr. H. Ross, F.S.A., an old member of the Institute. This sad event interfered with the arrangements that had been made for Tuesday's excursions, which were suspended out of respect to the family of the deceased. の

One of the most remarkable and unusual subjects for discussion and investigation at this meeting of the Institute was the subject selected by Mr. Hartshorne, F.S.A., "HANGING IN CHAINS," which was illustrated by the veritable chains in which a pirate had been hung on the banks of the Thames. In the course of his paper Mr. Hartshorne treated of the public exposure of criminals upon gibbets among the ancient Jews, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans. It was shown that the first recorded instance of hanging in chains in England was in a case of piracy in 1241. It appears that the punishment was not legally recognised until 1752, but that it never at any time formed part of the sentence in England, though it did so in Scotland. By the Act of 1752 the judge could, in special cases, or on the application of the relatives of the murdered man, direct the body to be hung in chains. The popular notion that criminals were ever hung up alive in irons was set aside as a vain thing fondly imagined," Mr. Hartshorne stating that the statutes at large could be vainly searched for the slightest evidence of such barbarity. Passing into France, the remarkable Gibet de Montfaucon was described. The strong measures taken for the suppression of the second Northern rising in 1536 supplied many instances of gibbeting in chains, the difference between a gallows and a gibbet being


shown. It appeared from the evidence of Weever, and "The Pilgrim's Progress," that hanging in irons or chains was no uncommon practice in the seventeenth century, and that it rapidly increased in the next century, gibbets becoming very thick upon the ground after the Act of 1752, which recognised them, but rather as an engine of state, like the rack, than of law. In tracing down his subject, Mr. Hartshorne quoted numerous instances up to 1832, when gibbeting was finally abolished, and illustrated his remarks by fullsized drawings of men in chains, and exhibited some actual chains which had formerly sustained the body of a pirate on the banks of the Thames.

THE forty-fifth annual meeting of the CAMBRIAN ARCHEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION was held at Holywell on August 18 and four following days, Lord Mostyn making an excellent president. In his opening address the president gave a graphic general view of the objects to be visited and inspected during the meeting, chiefly dwelling on points of interest on his own estate, particularly naming Maen Achwynfau, a beautiful cross which he described as standing in a field near the old turnpike gate from Mostyn to Tremeirchion and St. Asaph. It is called the Stone of Lamentation: the idea is that penances were said before it. Pennant tells us there was one near Stafford, which was called a weeping cross. It is very pretty in form, 12 feet high, 2 feet 4 inches broad at the bottom, and 10 inches thick; the base is let into another stone. The top is round, and includes, in raised work, the form of a Greek cross; beneath, about the middle, is another, in the form of St. Andrew; then comes a naked figure with a spear in his hand; on the other side is represented some animal; the rest of the cross is covered with a beautiful fretwork. "Can anyone," continued Lord Mostyn, "say what age it is? I think there is no doubt it is early Christian; some say it marks the place of a great battle; perhaps it may, as there are many tumuli about containing human bones; but I am rather inclined to think that these are of an earlier date than the cross.

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The report of the association showed a most satisfactory progress since last year. The muster-roll for 1889 included 268 names, whilst that of 1890 comprised 313. Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A., Town Clerk of Flint, read a valuable and comprehensive paper on the "First Welsh Municipal Charters" (of which we have received a copy), which gave rise to some little discussion.

On Tuesday the members drove to Halkyn Church. Thence they proceeded to Moel Gaer, a famous British post, and then to Northop, to inspect the fine church erected by Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. Here are three notable effigies, supposed to be of the earlier part of the fifteenth century, and some very ancient parish registers. The next place was Mold, where there is another fine church, also erected by the Countess of Richmond. It contains a number of old stained-glass windows, and some fine remains of old painted glass windows, as well as a window recently erected to the memory of Richard Wilson, R. A., who was a native of Mold. The Tower was next visited, a remarkably ancient

building, in the large hall of which Reinault ap Bloddyn hanged the Mayor of Flint in the fifteenth century, and the visitors were shown the identical hook on which the unlucky mayor was hung. At Pentrobin, the residence of Mr. Pennant Lloyd, were some magnificent old oak carvings, and curious lodgings for travellers known as "Lletty." The last place visited was Gwysaney, the beautiful residence of Mr. P. B. Davies Cooke, which contains a splendid collection of family paintings and historical manuscripts. The members were entertained to tea by Mr. Cooke, who also read an interesting paper on the famous "Ewloe Castle," of which he is by inheritance the present owner.

On Wednesday Caerwys Church was first visited, and afterwards they proceeded to Newmarket, where the church and ancient tombstones proved most interesting. On arriving at Gop, Professor BoydDawkins delivered an address on the explorations he had conducted in the mound four years ago by the direction of Mr. Pochin, the owner of the property. The details have already been published, and also those of the cave discovered at Gop, containing the skeletons of animals which had remained there since

the glacial period. Professor Boyd-Dawkins intimated that further explorations would probably soon take place at Gop. Gwaenysgor Church, with its ancient registers and quaint porch, and Llanasa Church, were also visited, and at the latter place a rubbing of an ancient sculptured slab-stated to be a very fine sample-was taken to be reproduced in the journal of the association. The day's journey ended with a visit to Maen Achwyfan, Whitford.

The most interesting paper on Wednesday evening was by Mr. G. W. Shrubsole, F.G.S., on "Castreton of Atiscross of Hundred in Doomsday, identified with the Town of Flint." He said that local discoveries made during the last hundred years go to show that close by the present town of Flint, and for miles along the shore-line east and west, has been the seat of an extensive lead industry, dating as far back as the time of the Romans, and there was abundant evidence to show there was a Roman settlement in the immediate locality of Flint, formed with a view to the production of lead. It was possible for the interest and security of the settlers that a castrum with a wall of stone or earth, in accordance with their usual custom, would soon be built. The pigs of lead, with the well-known stamp " de ceangis," may beyond doubt be assigned as the produce of the Roman settlement of Flint, from one found in the immediate neighbourhood. If Flint was what he had sketched, it was difficult to understand how so important a site became so obliterated both in name and worth as not to find a place in later times in Doomsday. However, the appeal to Doomsday was not in vain. A Castreton there mentioned, and which had been irregularly identified with Kelsterton, he claimed related to Flint. The original etymology of Kelsterton was the town occupied by the Kelsters, who made the keels or small ships which dotted the estuary of the Dee, and were engaged in fishing or transporting the lead produced at Flint to other localities. There was no other site of a camp in Flintshire to dispute with Flint the possession of the title of Castreton. A paper was also read by the Rev. Elias Owen on "Holy Wells; or,

Waters of Veneration," and another by Mr. Shrubsole on the "Course of the Roman Road from Deva to Varis."

On Thursday the members of the association visited the borough town of Flint, and inspected the old Castle and the Town Hall under the able direction of Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A., afterwards taking train to Chester, where they were met by Alderman Charles Brown, Dr. Stolterforth, etc. St. John's Church and the Cathedral having been visited, the city charters and regalia were inspected, and a walk was taken round the walls and through the rows.

The final day (Friday) was in many respects the best of this successful gathering. The members first assembled at the Parish Church of Holywell, where they were met by the Rev. R. O. Williams, M.A., vicar, who in a short paper gave the history of the church. The vicar also exhibited the bell and kneepad and strap of the "walking steeple," and explained the mode by which the worshippers in the church residing at the higher portion of the town were formerly summoned to prayers before the erection of the cemetery chapel. St. Winifred's Well, with the beautiful building over it, erected by Henry VII. and his mother, the Countess of Richmond, was carefully inspected. Thence the party drove to the ruins of Basingwork Abbey. Mr. Thomas Hughes has recently made some excavations on the site, which he described, and also exhibited a large number of encaustic tiles and a branch of an old latten candlestick that he has found. The next halt was made at Downing Hall, the birthplace and home of Thomas Pennant, the distinguished antiquary and naturalist, and now the Welsh seat of the Earl of Denbigh. The library contains the fine Pennant collection of books and manuscripts, and there are also paintings, principally of the Pennant family, and works by Moses Griffiths, the artist who illustrated Pennant's writings. In the park below the house a critical inspection was made of a Roman inscribed stone found at Caerwys. The archeologists were next welcomed at Mostyn Hall by their president, Lord Mostyn. The walls of the hall are adorned with ancient guns of the matchlock and flint-lock type, crossbows, trophies of bills, pikes and halberds, and swords, with helmets and breast-plates, and also spoils of the chase and other curiosities. There was also shown a saddle, richly embroidered in gold, used by Sir Roger Mostyn when he defended Flint Castle. The hall is overhung by a gallery at the lower end, where also a grand collection of armour is to be seen. The manuscripts and curiosities of this house are numerous and valuable. Among those displayed in the library were the deputylieutenant's commission granted by the Marquis of Worcester to Sir Roger Mostyn; a royal deed of Charles I.; a royal deed of James I.; the commission of the lord-lieutenancy of the County of Flint (1760) granted to Sir Roger Mostyn; the patent of baronetage granted to Sir Roger Mostyn by Charles II. as a reward for his fidelity to the crown; a royal deed of Queen Elizabeth; the title-deed of Caerwys (1344); a royal seal of Henry VIII.; a pocket-handkerchief bearing the stains of the blood of Charles I. (this being one of the three dipped in his blood after he was beheaded); "The Chronicles of St. Werburgh," beautifully illuminated; an exceedingly handsome set of missals with exquisite illuminations; "The Chroni

cles of Froissart," illuminated in vellum; a royal pardon for all offences granted by Queen Elizabeth; the original letter from Queen Mary, wife of King James II., in reference to St. Winefride's Well, to Sir Roger Mostyn; a golden torque in perfect preservation, found near Harlech, and formerly worn by princes of Wales; and the silver harp given by Queen Elizabeth at the Caerwys Eisteddfod. At the evening meeting on Friday, presided over by Ven. Archdeacon Thomas, papers were read by Mr. Edward Owen, of the India Office, on "The Place of Caerwys in Welsh History," and by Mr. Willis Bund on "Monasticism in Wales."

AT the monthly meeting of the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE, held on August 27, obituary notices of Mr. C. Roach Smith and Mr. R. Spence, both deceased members of the society, were read-the former by Dr. Bruce and the latter by Dr. Hodgkin. At the same meeting a continuation of a paper on "The Materials, Printed and Unprinted, for the History of Northumberland," was read by the Rev. J. R. Boyle. On August 30 an afternoon meeting of the members was held at Jesmond Dene. The ruins of the chapel of St. Mary the Virgin were described by Mr. Boyle. They thence proceeded down the Dene to the remains of the residence of Adam de Gesemuth, commonly known as "King John's Palace," in Heaton Park.

The new quarterly number (No. 2, vol. i., fifth series) of the journal of the proceedings of the ROYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF IRELAND, is of much interest. It opens with the account of the general meetings in Dublin in March, and in Kilkenny in May, which had been already chronicled in the Antiquary. The Rev. Denis Murphy contributes a valuable paper on "The Wogans of Rathcoffy," illustrated with a west view of the ruins of the old castle of Rathcoffy, co. Kildare. The Rev. Leonard Hasse describes and illustrates certain interesting relics of bronze, iron, bone, flint, and pottery found by him during the summer of 1888 among the sandhills of Portstewart and Grangemore, on the banks of the Bann. The Rev. W. B. Wright gives an account of James Standish, of the King's Inn, vice-treasurer of Ireland, 1649-1661. Mr. Goddard H. Orpen writes a valuable and well-illustrated description of the subterranean chambers at Clady, co. Meath. Mr. W. F. Wakeman contributes some further remarks on Irish stone celts, with drawings of two examples from co. Antrim. Colonel Lunham writes two appropriate pages, "In Memoriam," of O'Donovan, of Liss Ard, vice-president of the society for Munster. The miscellanea, with which the number concludes, contains some useful notes.

The ROYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF IRELAND held their ordinary general meeting at Strabane on September 2 and the three following days, when a variety of valuable papers were read to the members, including "Suggestions for the Preparation of a Systematic Catalogue of the Ancient Monuments of Ireland," by Mr. William Gray. On the 2nd the members visited Baronscourt, the seat of the Duke of Abercorn, viewing the park and grounds and the remains of the

old castle, built in the reign of James I. On September 3 a special train took the party to Donegal, where, after inspecting the castle, the ruins of the Franciscan monastery were visited and explained by the Rev. Denis Murphy, S.J. From thence Killybegs was reached, where the tomb of Nial Mor Mac Swyne, of Banagh, was examined. The party also visited St. Catharine's Holy Well, and the remains of Bishop M'Gonigel's house, the only Irish bishop who attended the Council of Trent. On September 4 Carrick was the centre for the day, whence the members proceeded to Malinmore and Glen Columkill, examining the cromlechs and giant graves at the former place, and the souterrain under Glen churchyard. In the glen are several beautiful old crosses of Celtic work. On Friday, September 5, the stupendous cliffs of Slieve Liag were viewed, and other parts of the striking scenery of that district.

The August excursion of the LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY was made to Frodsham with the object of seeing Frodsham church and Halton Castle. At the church, Mr. T. Cann Hughes gave an account of its history and more important features. In his paper he said the tithes of Frodsham were given by Hugh Leymis and Ermentrude, by their great charter, to St. Werburgh's Abbey in 1093. King Edward I. conferred the advowson on the abbey of Vale Royal, and in their hands it remained until the Reformation. At the dissolution it was granted to the dean and canons of Christ Church, Oxford, who now present. The church is built of the red stone of the district, and has a nave, chancel, side aisles, and a tower with six bells. The screens, which formerly separated the choir from the nave and the Kingsley and Helsby chapels from the choir, do not now exist, but traces of their former position are noticeable. Other chantries formerly existed in the church, and there was a chapel in Frodsham town and another on the bridge. On the south side of the altar is a piscina and a single stall. The church formerly contained much stained glass, representing the armorial bearings of the neighbouring families. The registers begin in 1558, and are imperfect from 1642 to 1660. Many famous men, including Francis Gastrell, John Cleaver, and William Charles Cotton, have been among the forty-two rectors of Frodsham. Subsequently some of the party visited the ruins of Halton Castle, four miles distant, on which some remarks were made by Mr. Harrison. The castle was originally built by Nigel, the first baron of Halton, soon after the Norman Conquest, but probably no part of the present remains can be said to belong to the founder's structure. Its possession was traced through a line of barons, and the Dukes of Lancaster until Henry Bolingbroke became King of England. About 1579 the castle was transformed into a prison for recusants under the government of Sir John Savage, one of a family who held the neighbouring manor of Clifton and built the mansion of Rocksavage. In the Civil War the castle was garrisoned for the King, but was taken by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Brereton. It was afterwards demolished and reduced to a ruin, and there now remain only some old vaultings and a well in the cellar, a winding staircase in ruins with an arched window, a few fragments of tracery, and some mouldering walls.

The PENZANCE NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY made their annual excursion in August to Mullyon, under the guidance of their indefatigable president, Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma. The members first halted at Breage for a brief inspection of the church wall-paintings recently described in the Antiquary. On reaching Mullyon, the president read a paper on that parish, wherein he enumerated the cinerary urns and other antiquities found within its limits, and stated that the parish had formerly three ancient chapels, in addition to the parish church, namely, at Predannack, Trevance, and Clabar. The special feature of the fifteenth-century church are the old seat ends, which show the best and most varied carving of any in Cornwall.

An autumnal meeting of the SUFFOLK INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY was held on August 27, when, jointly with the ESSEX ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, they visited the principal objects of interest at Ipswich. After inspecting the maces, the oar, the symbol of authority of the water bailiff, and the mayor's sword and chain, the members proceeded to St. Matthew's Church, where a paper on its architecture and history was read by Rev. F. Haslewood, F.S.A. The font of this church is exceptionally rich in carving, and was thus described by Mr. Haslewood: "The panels are well carved with double canopies, which enclose various subjects. At each angle a human figure stands upon a pedestal, male and female alternately, beneath a niche. The subjects represented on the panels are (1) Baptism of our Lord by John the Baptist; (2) the Annunciation, an angel bearing a scroll-a dove is represented close to the Virgin's ear; (3) the wise men presenting their offerings to the babe seated on the knees of the Virgin, who is crowned; (4) the Assumption, the Virgin crowned within an aureole, with hands together, and angels on either side, as if carrying her up into heaven; (5) three figures-the centre one has her hands clasped, the one on the sinister side holds an orb, the hands of both outside figures are extended towards, and apparently crowning, the same, the central figure suggesting that the subject represents the Virgin being honoured by the Father and the Son; (6) two figures on thrones in glory, apparently the Virgin and her Son, or Christ and His Church; (7) a rose and foliage form the other two panels. Beneath the bowl are angels at each corner, their wings filling the spaces between them. The whole is supported by the emblems of the four Evangelists: at the angles are the Evangelists between them. The date is the latter half of the fifteenth century." At St. Mary-le-Tower a good paper was read by Mr. H. C. Casley. This church, though rather too liberally restored, is interesting for its brasses, parcloses, miserere stalls, and quaint_inscriptions. The plate of the two sons of John Drayle, ob. 1465, was missing for many years from the Drayle brass, but was recently restored by a conscience-smitten priest who had actually had it mounted in marble, and used as a letter weight! The interesting church of St. Margaret was next visited; the splendid double hammer-beam roof, with traceried and carved spandrels, and once richly painted, is its chief feature. It was described to the members by Mr. J. S. Corder. Mr. B. P. Grimsey read a paper at the church of St. Nicholas, and Mr. Brown

at the church of St. Peter. The last church visited was St. Mary-at-the-Quay, where the famous Pownder and Tooley brasses were examined. On Thursday, August 28, the members of the two associations made a joint excursion to Harwich, where the old Town Hall, with its insignia and charters, were inspected. Rev. H. T. Armfield read a paper on "Ancient Boulders Scattered in the District of Colne," raising the question whether the cup-shaped cuttings in them were produced by natural or artificial means. In the afternoon visits were paid to the neighbouring churches of Dovercourt and Ramsey.



The last summer excursion of the BRADFORD HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY was held on September 13, when Boroughbridge Church, and Aldborough (Isurium), with its numerous Roman remains, were visited, under the guidance of Mr. A. D. H. Leadman, F.S.A. Through the courtesy of the hon. sec., Mr. J. A. Clapham, we are able to announce the following programme of the forthcoming indoor work of this excellent society, which now bers 222 members. The annual meeting is to be held on Friday, October 10; there will be an address by the Right Hon. Geo. Shaw-Lefevre, M.P., on "Common Rights and the Preservation of Moors and Commons," some time in November, date not yet fixed. Mr. John Lester, M.A., of Shibden Hall, will continue his paper on "The Pilgrimage of Grace and its Local Adherents," he having obtained a large mass of information upon the subject from London. Mr. T. T. Empsall, the president, will continue his history of Bradford. Mr. W. Hoffmann Wood will give a paper on architecture. Mr. Wm. Claridge, M.A., will give a lecture on Some Bradford Charities." Mr. Wm. Smith, F.R.S.A., of Morley, editor of Old Yorkshire, has promised a paper, subject to be announced. Besides these, it is expected that Mr. Wm. Cudworth, editorial secretary, Mr. Wm. Scruton, writer of a local history, and others, including Mr. Geo. Hepworth, of Brighouse, will take part in the winter session.

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The KENT ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY's annual congress was held at Canterbury on Monday and Tuesday, July 21 and 22. The Dean of Canterbury presided at the business meeting, which was held in the upper room of the ancient hospital at Eastbridge by permission of the master (the Rev. T. G. Crosse). The annual report was read by George Payne, Esq., F.S.A., the hon. sec., and it was unanimously adopted. After all the annual business had been transacted the members adjourned to the chapter house of the Cathedral, some of them looking into the restored church of St. Alphage en route. At the chapter house of the Cathedral the Dean of Canterbury introduced the new president of the Society, the Earl Stanhope, Lord-Lieutenant of Kent, who took the chair. His lordship, after a few preliminary remarks, called upon Canon Scott-Robertson to deliver his address upon the architectural history of the Cathedral. This address riveted the attention of the large gathering during forty minutes. As the number present exceeded 300, the members and their friends were conducted over the Cathedral in three parties. The Dean of Canterbury led one party, Canon Scott

Robertson took another, and Mr. J. R. Hall led the third. At 2.30 the members assembled in the grounds of the Kent and Canterbury Hospital, around the ruins of the ancient chapel of St. Pancras, wherein many portions of Roman masonry are seen. Canon Routledge, who described this ruined chapel, which he had been mainly instrumental in excavating and preserving, then conducted the members to St. Martin's Church, of which he has long been a churchwarden, where he explained the discoveries of Roman walls, in the nave and chancel, which he here again had brought to light. Close to this church stands the Elizabethan mansion, called St. Martin's Priory, which Mr. H. Mapleton Chapman, the present occupant, most kindly opened to the society, and where he and Mrs. Chapman hospitably entertained the members at tea. The Earl Stanhope presided at the annual dinner, which was held in the music hall. After dinner his lordship, in the name of the society, presented to Canon Scott-Robertson a very handsome silver bowl, of large dimensions, in token of the society's appreciation of his long and active services as hon. sec. during nineteen years. From that position Canon Scott-Robertson retired last year (owing to an attack of illness), but he still acts as hon. editor of the society's Archeologia Cantiana, of which he has brought out ten volumes (vols. ix. to xviii. inclusive). After the dinner members proceeded to St. Augustine's College. They examined its various parts, and then assembled in the modern crypt beneath the new library. The warden of St. Augustine's having been voted to the chair on the motion of the Dean of Canterbury, mentioned that the modern crypt in which they were assembled was now called the Coleridge Museum; and he then read an interesting description of the restoration of the beautiful decorated gatehouse of the college, one of the finest examples now left to us of the gatehouses of the fourteenth century. Canon Routledge read a paper descriptive of the Roman work in the churches of St. Martin, St. Pancras, and Christ Church in Canterbury. Mr. Loftus Brock spoke upon the same subject. Canon Scott-Robertson read a paper respecting the burial places of the ninety-two defunct Archbishops of Canterbury. Thanks were voted to these gentlemen for their papers, and to the warden of St. Augustine's for receiving the society, and for presiding at the evening meeting. On Tuesday, July 22, the members visited Chartham Church, which was described by Mr. Loftus Brock; Chilham Church, at which Canon Scott-Robertson was the speaker; Chilham Castle, where Charles Stuart Hardy, Esq., most hospitably entertained them at luncheon in a tent upon the lawn; they sat down 280 in number. After luncheon Mr. George Payne read portions of Canon Jenkins's paper, descriptive of Chilham Castle. With hearty thanks to, and cheers for, their generous host, Mr. Hardy, the large gathering left Chilham Castle and proceeded to Godmersham Church and Waltham Church, both of which were described by Canon Scott-Robertson.

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