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her maids of honour, Jack-o'-the-Green, Robin Hood, and the Morris-dancers. This motley cavalcade, accompanied by the inevitable crowd of hangers-on and sightseers, pause at vantage points along the line of route and go through some antics preliminary to the more serious performances that follow on the return to the fields adjoining the well. Here the customary maypole-dancing, old English sports, and amusements, such as wrestling, sack-racing, etc., are indulged in, and prizes distributed by the well-dressing committee to the various successful competitors.-Ibid.
At the village of Endon similar festivities attend the annual well-dressing-usually on May 29 or 30. The principal well in the village is most elaborately and even artistically adorned, and the smaller well-for there are two in this case-comes in for its share of floral decorations. Here the festival is under the patronage of the vicar of the parish, who opens the first day's proceedings by a service in the church and the delivery of an appropriate sermon. On the conclusion of this solemn preliminary, a procession is formed near the church of the maypoledancers and other participators in the festival, and then they proceed to the enlivening strains of a brass band to the wells, where hymns are sung, and a few suitable words addressed to the audience by the vicar. At the conclusion of this semi-religious introduction to the two days' amusements, the most important feature of crowning the May Queen is performed. The girl selected for this honour is gaily decorated with flowers, and is conducted with much ceremony to a floral throne provided for her, where, being seated, she is crowned with a wreath of flowers. Being thus invested with royal powers, she straightway signifies her pleasure that the maypole-dancers should go through their evolutions to the sounds of enlivening music. This over, the usual sports and amusements are indulged in.
Carried out as above, it is pleasant to contemplate the keeping up of such an oldfashioned custom; and it is only to be regretted that so few of our village communities retain it among their annual social relaxa
tions. It is somewhat remarkable that in the south of the county well-dressing has become as extinct as the dodo.-Ibid.
The custom of well-dressing obtains, or did obtain here.
CROXTON PENNYQUART WELL.
There is a well in a field at Croxton, in the parish of Eccleshall, called Pennyquart Well, because, it is said, the water from it, being especially pure, used to be sold at a penny a quart.-Shropshire Folk-lore, 7on.
ANDRESSY: HOLY WELL.
In a rental of the Earl of Uxbridge, written in the reign of Edward VI., it was specified that Andrew's Isle, alias Mudwin's Chapel, was let to John Hewitt at will at the annual rent or sum of three shillings and threepence. There is every reason to believe that this well and chapel were situate on the flat meadow opposite the churchyard, as this spot is still known as Annesley or Andressy, and the part of the river dividing the island from the adjacent shores is called the Modwens or Mudwens.-Ibid.
Dn the Entrenchments on the Yorkshire Wolds.
BY THE REV. E. MAULE COLE, M.A., F.G.S.
INTRENCHMENTS proper consist of a ditch and raised mound. Where there is only one ditch it is called a "single" entrenchment (A), notwithstanding the fact that there may be a mound on each side (B); but it frequently happens that two ditches are found running parallel to each other, with a mound between and on the outsides, and then it is called a double" entrenchment, or "double dikes " (C). Occasionally more than two parallel ditches are met with; e.g., at Huggate Dikes there are no less than six, with five mounds, remaining.
In giving the existing dimensions of any it must be borne in mind that the width only is
3 feet to 4 feet deep, and measuring from 8 feet to 16 feet wide at the top, and from 18 inches to 3 feet at the bottom, the excavated material from which now slightly raises the natural contour of the hill-side along their lower edge, and originally may have been sufficiently high to cover from sight a tall man while passing along the bottom."
the lower slope, present now no trace of a ditch, but only a flattened surface, whilst the mound itself has nearly disappeared. This is an additional argument for their great antiquity.
Our knowledge of these interesting old foss-ways is almost entirely due to the various sections obtained by Mr. Mortimer from digging (D). "In every case, "* he says, "they were found to be V-shaped trenches,
* Proceedings, Yorkshire Geol. Soc., vol. xi., part ii. p. 219.
On a subsequent page he offers an explanation of their use, which is worthy of consideration, though we must decidedly demur to the application of the word "forest" to any part of the wold district, believing that nothing but brushwood, thorns, and furze ever existed here, till trees were introduced at a much later date :
"In a wild and wooded district," writes Mr. Mortimer, "these narrow sunk-ways would be safe and sure guides by day and by night to a rude settlement to which they undoubtedly led. They would also protect the primitive settlers during their travels, in what was probably then more or less a forest, against sudden attacks of the wild and ferocious animals of that period, which would not choose to enter these narrow trenches. They would likewise assist the hunter to approach unobserved any animal in the vicinity he wished to capture; and any large game he might surprise and force into these narrow and deep ditches would have great difficulty in extricating itself, and might be readily driven along the ditches into the central and inhabited enclosure, where its capture would be more easily accomplished. Lastly, they unquestionably denote the fixed settlement of a rude and primitive commune in prehistoric times, earlier even than the period of double dikes (entrenchments), of which, let me remark, there is no written or oral history, and whose use is entirely forgotten."
There is certainly much to be said in favour of Mr. Mortimer's contention that the foss-ways are older than the entrenchments proper, seeing that, inter alia, the dimensions of the two classes of earthworks are so entirely different; at the same time it must be noticed that in many places there seems to be an intimate and designed connection between them, as if they were not altogether independent of each other. This may perhaps be accounted for on the supposition
that, in some cases, the entrenchments proper were thrown up subsequently to defend the ancient trackways, and prevent communication being cut off in time of
To revert again to the entrenchments proper. "Single" entrenchments are met with, mainly, running along the top of the dale sides, but only on one side, the steepest, and always a little below the brow, so that persons occupying the trench would be concealed alike from enemies moving along the dale bottoms, or passing over the level ground of the wold in the rear. As, from the configuration of the country, the steepest sides face the north-west, these entrenchments have the same aspect, not so much, in the opinion of the writer, to guard against attack from that quarter specifically (as suggested by Major-General Pitt-Rivers) as to obtain the best vantage ground over enemies advancing up the dale bottom, whether from the sea or from the Vale of York.
When a transverse dale interrupts the continuity of passage on high ground the entrenchment is carried down one side and up the other to the original level, but is not found on the dale bottom itself.
It is worthy of notice that entrenchments never run along a dale bottom. What, never? Well, scarcely ever, as the saying is. The writer only knows of two or three instances, and the exception proves the rule. The most remarkable instance occurs in the dale running from Market Weighton to Kiplingcotes, through which the railway to Beverley is carried. There, for about half a mile west of Kiplingcotes Station, on the south side of the railway, a "single" entrenchment may be seen at the base of the dale side. The material has been thrown outwards, so that the ditch is between the steep slope and the dike or mound. The mound is considerably flattened on its inner side for two-thirds of the width (E), the remaining third on the outer side being more elevated, as if a small ditch had originally been excavated and the material thrown up from the outside as well; but a modern road running by the side has obliterated all traces of it. Beyond Kiplingcotes Station the entrenchment, passing along the dale bottom, is crossed by the railway embankment, and
then develops into a then develops into a "double" entrenchment, which can be well seen, on the north side of the railway in a grass field below, making for South Dalton.
Occasionally "single" entrenchments run across the high ground, and then they are generally found to connect two sets of "double" entrenchments.
Danes Dike, which cuts off and defends Flamborough Head from the mainland, is a "single" entrenchment, but it cannot be classed with any of the foregoing. Its stupendous size and obvious purpose-a purpose only guessed at in smaller instances-mark it out as a military work sui generis.
Stretching right across the promontory from cliff to cliff, this dike, upwards of two and a half miles in length, offers an impregnable barrier to any attack from the west. This was at once recognised by two artillery officers, Colonel Maule, R.A., and Colonel G. Maule, R.A., whom the writer accompanied on a tour of inspection a year or two ago. They were greatly impressed with the formidable character of the earthwork, even against cannon of the present day. What must it have been at the time of its construction, lost in the mist of antiquity, when, as proved by Major-General Pitt-Rivers, flint weapons were the only instruments of warfare ? On the southern extremity, for nearly half its length, the dike follows the eastern brow of a natural ravine, but towards its northern extremity the ditch is wholly artificial. The summit of the mound is here 35 feet above the bottom of the ditch, as it exists at present, and must have been higher originally. There are several narrow gaps in the mound, evidently left intentionally for the purpose of sally-ports, and where these occur the ends of the entrenchment have a distinct curve inwards, or, in some cases, one inwards and the other outwards, so as to make the position stronger (F).
A similar feature may be noticed in the Huggate Dikes, suggestive of the idea that both works were constructed by the same race of people (G).
On comparing Danes Dike and Flamborough Head with Major-General Roy's plan and sections of the Burgh Head on the Murray Firth, one cannot fail to be impressed with the general similarity of design and
execution, though in the latter case, as there is no natural ravine to assist, the main mound was rendered stronger by three external entrenchments (H). These have two striking features in common both with the Danes Dike and the Huggate Dikes, viz., the abrupt termination of the entrenchments before reaching the edge of the cliff (which, be it remembered, has been wearing away by denudation), and the curve of the mounds where the central gap occurs (K). As there is little doubt that the Yorkshire earthworks were not constructed by the Romans, but by a previous race, the question arises as to whether Major-General Roy was right in assuming that Burgh Head was fortified by the Romans. The Roman station Ultima Ptoroton may have been here, just as Prætorium may have been near Flamborough Head, without necessarily involving the conclusion that the works in either case were Roman.
"Double" entrenchments are never found running along the brow of a dale side-at least, the writer is only aware of one instance -but they are frequently met with at the end of a dale running over the high ground, and connecting it with another dale-head, forming a sort of artificial col, or pass.
They are also carried for miles along the tops of the wolds, where the ground is comparatively level. Should a dale be met with in their course, they run down the sides, but leave the bottom undisturbed, as in the case of "single" entrenchments. There is one exception, however, at Fimber.
These are the entrenchments which, from their position, have suffered most from the plough since the open "fields" have been enclosed. A "field" and a "wold" were once synonymous terms, and the former word is still retained in its wider sense, though the planting of hedges has parcelled it out into a number of smaller divisions of forty or fifty acres apiece. In the modern fields, in many instances, the entrenchments have been so completely levelled that scarcely a trace is visible. The general direction may be ascertained by observing the hedgerows, which on the wolds are everywhere kept beautifully trimmed. Instead of preserving a level outline, they curve upwards over the side of a dike, because when originally
planted, about a hundred years ago, they followed the contour of the surface, and the mounds were then in existence.
Also, in a dry spring, before the springcorn clothes the brown fields with its green verdure, white lines may be seen running from hedge to hedge, which mark the débris of the chalk whereof the old mounds were composed. At a later period of the year, just before the ripening of the corn, green lines are apparent amid the golden hue, which indicate the greater depth of soil accumulated in the filled-in ditches. Similar green lines, marking the position of ancient ditches, are also observable, in the spring, where rye-grass has been sown, the grass showing a more luxuriant growth and a brighter colour here than elsewhere. In spreading manure on the land these filled-in ditches, well known to the farmer, though now level with the surrounding surface, are left from year to year unmanured, because the greater depth of soil in them encourages a spontaneous growth and obviates the necessity of artificial help.
A stranger might not notice these little details, but they are by no means unimportant to the antiquarian.
The width of "double" dikes, measuring from the top of one mound to the top of the next, varies considerably. Thus at Huggate, where there are five parallel mounds, the distances taken from south to north are 36 feet, 29 feet, 28 feet, and 33 feet respectively; at Sledmere, near the monument, the width is 48 feet and 43 feet; at Middleham plantation 35 feet and 33 feet, whilst at Fimber it is no less than 60 feet. There is no occasion to multiply instances; these may be taken as fair samples.
Doubtless the width was mainly determined by the proposed height, as all the material would naturally have to be excavated on the spot; and it would appear as if the quantity required was sometimes miscalculated, or else that the workmen began throwing up the rock in lines too far apart, for a perfectly rounded mound will, now and then, develop into one of irregular shape, one side 2 feet or so higher than the other, leaving, on the other side, a sort of level platform several feet wide (I). It may be argued that this was done intentionally for some purpose,
but inasmuch as these platforms are not continuous, but spasmodic, the writer is of opinion that they are the result of inadvertence on the part of the unskilled tribes who threw them up.
Without proper sections it is impossible to ascertain the original depth of the ditches, and consequently the height of the mounds. These latter, however, are still as much as 7 feet high, in places, above the present ditches, and in digging for rabbits a depth of 6 feet has been reached in the ditches without coming to the bottom. This is probably somewhat exceptional, but it may fairly be assumed that in all cases the ditches have been filled in from various causes to a depth of 4 feet to 5 feet. Hence it appears that these entrenchments were very formidable works, and the marvel is how they could have been constructed in such profusion, and to so great distances as 15 or 20 miles, over a hard chalk subsoil, with no better implements than those in use among men who employed flint weapons, and were only beginning to be acquainted with the use of bronze.
In claiming a high antiquity for the entrenchments on the wolds, it must be remembered that we are supported by the opinion of Major-General Pitt-Rivers, probably the best living authority on the subject, who came to the conclusion, after careful investigation in the case of one of them, Danes Dike, with which he coupled the rest, that they were the work of men using flint weapons in the early age of bronze.
(To be continued.)
A List of the Inventories of Church Goods made temp. Edward VI.
By WILLIAM PAGE, F.S.A.
(Continued from p. 79, vol. xxii.)
COUNTY OF DORSET.
3. Faringedon alias Wynterborne Germayne Stockewoode.
Holye Trynitie in Dorchester.
All Saintes in Dorchester.
Chapell of Forston.
4a. Wynterbourne Marten.
Wynterborne Omnium Sanctorum alia
Gussage St. Michaels.