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Friar-Minors of Berwick-on-Tweed and Friar Preachers there. His expenses (paid March 28, 1300) for his abode at York, joining the king at Berwick-on-Tweed, and staying in London, for thirty days altogether, in November, December, January, and February, whilst the king was at Windsor, came to 72s. 31d. in bread, wine, beer, fish, for himself and company; and hay, oats, farriery, litter, for his horses, and other requirements. His black horse was sold, March 27, 1300, for six marks, and a dapple horse was bought instead for £6 13s. 4d.; and some little time after, the horses belonging to him and his companion were re-shod, when twentyfour horse-shoes and 100 nails were supplied. As to the personal expenses of the confessor and his companion (Wrotham), he had, for small necessities, 4s. May 11, at Bury St. Edmunds; on the 21st, 3s. 5d. at Spalding; May 28, 14s. 4d.; June 1, 13s. 4d. through Thomas his cook; and July 2 or 3, 6s. 8d. for sewing cloth, and for washing, to that date. In 1301 he was at Nettleham with the king, January 24, 30; and Thomas his garçon received, on the 24th, some royal alms for the Friar-Preachers of Stamford, and on the 27th some for those of Lincoln; March 12 he was at Northampton; and May 14, 16s. was laid out in providing two saddles for him and his companion. The following year saw him, in the royal company, July 18, at Westminster, and October 5, at Canterbury; and in December he had a writ to the clerk of the wardrobe to provide him and his companion with their usual winter clothing, and housings for their horses, and clothing for his clerk of the chamber and his cook. In 1303, when the king departed for Scotland, the confessor was allowed to tarry behind at London for nine weeks, and received for his expenses, till he rejoined the court in the north, 40s. through Wrotham, 3s. January 21 at Guildford, 100s. January 27 at London, and 100s. March 24 at Westminster. He and his companion were at Kingston, January 27, and stayed in London for sixty-three days from January 23 to March 25. Then they set out for Scotland with a biga to help them with their chattels and provender, and journeyed about twenty miles a day. They were at Ware, March 26; Baldock, March 27; Bedford, March 28;

Thrapston, March 29; Stamford, March 30 to April 1; Crokeston, April 2; Wytheton, April 15; Barton, April 16; then passed over the Humber to Beverley, where they stayed from April 17 to 19; and so to Donmere, and to the court. The outlay for their maintenance, from January 27 to April 19, well illustrates the friars' frugal fare. There are no items from April 3 to 14, and those days were probably spent at some hospitable mansion; but without going into daily details, the following sums were spent: bread, 16s. 11d.; fish £3 11s. 6d.; beer, and in London only wine, 6s. 8d.; fuel, is. 6d. ; candles, 1s. 5d.; litter, 2s. 2d.; hay, 2s. 6d. ; oats, 5s. 10d.; farriery, 1s. id.; hire of a horse at Thrapston, 8d.; saddle-mending, 34d.; passage of the Humber 3d.; at Beverley many little expenses, viz., 11s. 8d. for preparing woollen cloth and linen and socks; 18s. 11d. for a tent made for the horses, and cord and string, 2s. 1d.; for two barrels, 35.; for axes and sickles, etc., 3s. 2d.; for horse girths and halters, 3s.; for a leather bag, 8d., laid out "in grose

3s. 3d. for a platter and brass cruet. In Scotland 3s. 9d. for ironwork, etc., to the vehicle; 18d. for a cap; and 4s. for bread and beer closes the account. The whole journey cost £8 75. 3d., but is put down at £8 10s., 2s. 9d. being unaccounted for, so that there still remained 73s. of what had been advanced. He sent into England, with letters of state, his garçon, who, January 1, 1303-4, had 12d. given him in aid of his expenses; and at Dunfermline, January 29, he had 735. advanced to meet some outlays for himself and his companion.

In a consistory held December 18, 1303, Benedict XI. raised F. William de Macclesfield, of the convent of Chester, to the dignity of cardinal - priest of Santa Sabina. But this eminent and learned Friar-Preacher had died, about the previous August, at Canterbury, in returning from the general chapter of his Order assembled, in May, at Besançon, wherein he appears to have acted both as a definitor for England and as the ambassador of Edward I. Immediately the pope heard that the honour thus conferred had been frustrated, he granted the request of Edward I., by promoting F. Walter de Winterbourne, February 21, 1303-4, to the

vacant title of the Aventine Hill. The dean of the Sacred College was commissioned to carry the news of the appointment to the English court, and proceeded into Scotland, where Edward I., at St. Andrews, April 4, wrote to Cardinal Prato, apostolic legate, begging him to thank the sovereign pontiff for the good affection which he had thus shown towards himself and his kingdom, as he meant more fully to do by a special embassy. At Stirling the king, May 25, presented to Giovanni de Cosiène, the pope's nephew, who had brought the cardinal-elect his bull of dignity, a silver goblet weighing 12 marks 2 oz., and worth £118 13s. 6d.; and June 22, to the cardinal-elect, a ring of gold set with balass rubies, which had belonged to Geoffrey, late Bishop of Worcester, and April 21 had been deposited in the royal wardrobe. Winterbourne still continued to be confessor for some time, and at Stirling had loans of 10 marks, May 27, and 10, June 26, to meet current necessities; and there received, to the end of the year, the usual supply of tapestry, mattresses, counterpanes, bedcurtains, towels, clothing even to breeches, and altar-coverings below and above.

About this time some ecclesiastical ornaments were restored to the king through the cardinal and Walter de Langton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and were inspected by them ("in occulto secretissimo") with the utmost secrecy. The articles were as follows: a raised image of the Blessed Virgin, silvergilt, without foot or stand, set with stones of a moderate value, and with a little crown of silver filled with stones; weight, 25s.: a cross of two plates, one plate gold, with a crucifix and several precious stones; weight, 44s. 6d. the other a silver plate with a crucifix chased on it, and full of the bonerelics of saints, the name of each being graved; weight, 54s. 7d.: and a silver-gilt foot, with branches for the images of the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist (both lost); weight, 4 marks 5d.; another cross of crystal, with the images of the Blessed Virgin, St. John, and an angel, a silver-gilt foot and precious stones in it; weight, 19s. 2d.: a silver chalice gilt within with a paten not gilt; weight, 39s. 7d.: two silver feet for cups, the greater one gilt, and weighing 21s. 4d., the lesser one also gilt; weight, 21s. 4d.

All these articles were placed in a canvas pocket, and sealed in five places with the cardinal's seal, in three places with the bishop's seal, and then deposited with the inventory in the king's wardrobe.

The new cardinal prepared for his journey into Italy, and had letters of safe-conduct, dated at Stirling, June 15, to proceed to the Roman court; and at Jedburgh, on the 28th, letters of commendation were written to the sovereign pontiff for himself, F. Thomas Jorz, Otho de Grandison, and F. John de Wrotham, as ambassadors; whilst, at the same time, a letter to the pope explained how the cardinal had been delayed, as his presence could not be dispensed with in arduous affairs of state. Still he was detained at the English court: Benedict XI. died July 7, and August 23 the king again wrote, explaining the causes of delay. At length the cardinal started for Italy, and reached Perugia November 28, where the pontifical court was then abiding. He was hailed with great enthusiasm by the citizens, who went out to meet him, and led him into the city. He was received with honour and favour by the cardinals, who were sitting in conclave for the choice of another pope; and December i he proceeded to the elective scrutiny. He eventually concurred in the choice, June 5, 1305, of Bertrand de Got, who became Clement V. Bertrand was not in the conclave, and Cardinal Walter de Winterbourne, along with Cardinal Nicholas de Prato, also a Dominican, was commissioned by the cardinals to proceed into France and announce the election to him. He had reached Genoa when, on account of the great summer heats and his octogenarian infirmities, he died September 25, leaving his companion to execute the commission alone, having received from him the last rites of religion. On the day following he was honourably buried in the convent of his Order at Genoa, but in accordance with his last request his body was carried into England, and laid in the church of the Blackfriars of London. Edward I. could not have received the news of his death, October 12 following, when, at Westminster, he wrote letters to him in behalf of Thomas, Bishop of Rochester, who was sent to expedite some affairs at the Roman Court.

F. LUKE DE Wodeford. In 1304 F. Luke de Wodeford became the king's confessor. In November, being with the court at Brustwick, he received, on the 7th, some royal alms for his brethren of Beverley. He and his companion had the usual allowance of bedding and clothing, the yearly gift of cloth being, for winter, II ells of black for cappas, 11 ells of white for tunics and scapulars; in summer, 12 ells of black for cappas, and 12 ells of white for tunics and scapulars; 12 ells of black for riding cappas closed within, 4 ells of white for hose, 6 ells of white for langella, and 12 ells of linen for breeches. William de Staundone his cook, and two other garçons, had money for their clothing too. In 1305, with the king in London, he received, May 6 and 10, the king's alms for the Friar-Preachers of the city. November 10 he was at Chertsey, when William de North (here called his cook) had 18d. for the carriage of his harness; and at Wallingford, on the 14th, 2s. 9d. was paid for making up his clothing and for boots, and early in January following an alms of twelve marks was given him to buy a sumpterhorse from Sir P. de Colingborne at Kingston, in Dorset. For him and his companion were bought, June 6, 1306, two caps for 2s. 2d.; and on the 20th two palfreys for 29 marks. About the end of November he was at Lanercost with the king, who lodged there with his military tenants and troops in temporarily-erected chambers. The cost of putting up the chamber of the confessor and his companion amounted to 9s. 7d., as follows: carrying the timber, 7d. ; wattling the chamber and yard, 16d.; roofing (4 days' work), 8d.; three assistants of the roofers, for the four days, 180.; two daubers, for four days, 2S.; six men helping them, for two days, 2s.; making doors and windows, 9d.; boarding, 6d.; and nails, 3d. He was one of the four executors of the will of Edward I., the others being Walter de Langton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield; Henry de Blunteston, and Robert de Cotingham.

On the death of Edward I. F. Luke de Wodeford went to Oxford, where, as D.D., he taught in his convent schools, and in 1313 took a leading part in the great controversy respecting privileges between his brethren and the University of Oxford. In 1316 he

was summoned to the court again, being appointed confessor to Edward II. In May, 1318, he secured, on the 24th, the confirmation of some royal grants to the Friar-Preachers of Oxford. But in 1319 he was allowed to resign his onerous office on account of weak health, and July 12 had a life-pension of £10 a year, his clothing and bedding being also continued to him out of the royal wardrobe. He withdrew into the Convent of London, whence, in 1323, he retired to King's Langley, and amidst his brethren there he probably died, his annuity being paid to him for the last time January 20, 1327-8, and his last receipt for 6 ells of black cloth and 6 ells of white being given May 20 following, when he used a small vesica-shaped seal bearing a full figure, nimbed and holding a book, under a canopy, but without any lettering. Certainly the pension was not renewed to him under Edward III., and his name disappears from the records.



F. John de Lenham was confessor of the Prince of Wales, in which charge he continued after the prince had ascended the throne as Edward II. He first comes into notice June 7, 1301, when 20s. was advanced for him and his companion to proceed to Durham, and await the king there. companion was F. John de Warfeld, and his garçon, Thomas Holbode. In January, 1302-3 they received 5s. for journeying, by the prince's leave, from Warnehorne, to abide fo. some days in London. In the prince's household both of them were provided with food, clothing from cap to boot, and bedding, even to making, washing, and mending. He was at London in March, 1302-3, and Stirling about November following. When Elizabeth, Countess of Hereford, daughter of Edward I went from Stirling, July 27, 1304, to pass through her accouchement at Knaresborough, he accompanied her, and in August (?) she paid his expenses for going from Knaresborough to King's Langley, his convent. was one of the witnesses, September 29, 1307, at the Priory of Lenton, when his fellowreligious, F. Walter de Jorz, renounced those clauses of the bull of his election to the archbishopric of Armagh, which, as to temporalities, were deemed to be prejudicial to


the rights of the crown. Six silver spoons were bought for him and his companion, October 24, 1307, and cost 75.; about July, 1309, £6 was given him for going from the court on the king's affairs; at Westminster, November 13, 1310, 20s. was given him for his expenses between King's Langley and London, on business for the king; and he was at Berwick-on-Tweed, December 4 following, when he had 11s. for cutting out and sewing two cappas and tunics, for himself and companion, and for other necessaries.

On the death of Cardinal Thomas Jorz, December 13, 1310, Edward II. solicited Clement V., February 15 following, that F. John de Lenham might receive the vacant dignity. Again he urged the matter on his holiness, July 20, that his confessor or some other Englishman should be invested with the purple, and at the same time endeavoured to enlist in his favour four French and three Italian cardinals, whom he addressed as his very dear friends: Arnaud de Pelegrue, cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Portico; Bertrand des Borges, cardinal-priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo; Pietro Colonna, cardinaldeacon of S. Eustachio; Raimond de Fargis, cardinal-deacon of S. Maria la Nuova ; Guglielmo le Long, cardinal-deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere; Francisco Cajetano, cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin; and Arnaud de Canteloup, cardinal-priest of S. Marcello. But the English nomination was ineffectual; for Arnaud Felquier, archbishop of Arles, received the vacant title of St. Sabina.

Continuing in the service of the king, and without any other dignity to the close of his life, F. John de Lenham received, May 28, 1311, 75. for sewing his cloth; September 25, 55. for shoes, at London; December 28, 5s.; March 4, 1312, at York, and May 26, 3s., all three sums also for shoes. The royal pension to King's Langley was received through him, November 9, 1311; and the gift for the Provincial Chapter of the Order held at Chester, July 15, 1312. A bay horse was purchased for 10 marks, July 17, 1312, to carry his trappings; and for him and his companion 145. was paid, May 11, 1313, for two big coffers, "pro victualibus eorundem imponendis et cariandis"; and May 15, 245. for two riding-saddles. In June, Holebode

still was in his service. At Windsor, February 28, 1312-13, he received the royal grant of a tenement for his convent of London. In 1314, in June and July, he remained in London, whilst the court was absent; and on the 23rd had £9 for buying a horse for himself, and 60s. for going from London to meet the king at York. Besides being confessor he was one of the king's council of state, till about the beginning of October, 1315, when he quitted the court, and retired into the cloister of his convent at London. Five ells of cloth were given him about the end of April, 1316, to provide himself with a cappa for Pentecost, and he had a pension of 40s. a month allowed him from October 7, 1315, which was paid to him for the last time August 30, in the following year, soon after which probably he closed his life. To him F. Nicholas Trivet dedicated his treatise In Declamationes Seneca, written about the year 1307. (To be continued.)

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