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loss of his children, or drag out his existence and expiate his crime in a dungeon. Meanwhile, Berold and Geoffrey, hanging by the yard-arm over the waters, called upon God to save them, and encouraging one another, waited in fearful anxiety for the end which it should please Him to bring to their misery.

The night was bitterly cold and frosty, so that the young Geoffrey, after cruel sufferings from the severity of the weather, lost his powers of endurance, and commending his companion to God, fell into the sea and disappeared. Berold, however, who was the poorest man of all the company, and wore a sheep-skin dress, was the only one among so many who survived till the dawn of another day. In the morning, three fishermen took him to their skiff, and thus he alone reached the land. Having a little revived, he related all the particulars of the disaster to the crowd of anxious enquirers; and lived afterwards for twenty years in good health.

Roger, bishop of Coutances, had conducted on board the devoted ship his son William who had been just appointed by the king one of his four principal chaplains, with his brother and three gallant nephews, and had given them his episcopal benediction, though they made light of it. The bishop and many others who still lingered with him on the sea-shore, as well as the king and those who accompanied him, though they were a long way out to sea, heard the fearful cries of distress raised by the shipwrecked crew and passengers, but they did not learn what caused the shrieks until the next day; and marvelling what it could be, conversed about it, some saying one thing, and some another.

The melancholy news soon went abroad among the common people, and, spreading along the sea-coast,

came to the ears of count Theobald and other lords of the court; but for that day no one ventured to make it known to the king, who was in a state of great anxiety and made many enquiries. The nobles shed many tears in private, and were inconsolable for the loss of their friends and relatives; but, in the king's presence, severe as was the struggle, they concealed their grief, lest its cause should be discovered. On the day following, by a well-devised plan of count Theobald's, a boy threw himself at the king's feet, weeping bitterly; and upon his being questioned as to the cause of his sorrow, the king learnt from him the shipwreck of the Blanche-Nef. So sudden was the shock, and so sharp his anguish, that he instantly fell to the ground; but being raised up by his friends, he was conducted to his chamber, and gave free course to the bitterness of his grief. Not Jacob was more woe-stricken for the loss of Joseph, nor did David give vent to more woeful lamentations for the murder of Amnon or Absalom.


[Old English Chronicle]

The clergy were divided into those who belonged to the regula or rule of some monastic order, and those who did not; the former lived in monasteries and the latter were the parish priests; but bishoprics were often bestowed on the "regulars," of whom the "seculars" were very jealous.

An. M.C.XXIII. In this year at Christmastide, king Henry was at Dunstable; and there came envoys from the count of Anjou to him; and thence he went to Woodstock, and his bishops and all his court with him.

Then it befell on a Wednesday, which was on the 4th before the Ides of January (Jan. 10th), that the king was riding in his deerfold, and the bishop Roger of Salisbury on one side of him, and the bishop Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the other side of him; and they were riding there and talking. Then the bishop of Lincoln sank down, and said to the king, "Lord king, I am dying." And the king alighted down from his horse, and lifted him betwixt his arms, and caused him to be borne to his inn, and he was then forthwith dead; and he was conveyed to Lincoln with great worship, and buried before St Mary's altar. And the bishop of Chester, named Robert Pecceth, buried him. Then immediately after this the king sent his writ over all England and bade his bishops, and his abbots, and all his thanes, that they should come to his council on Candlemas day [Feb. 2nd], at Gloucester, to meet him; and they did so. When they were there gathered, the king bade them that they should choose them an archbishop of Canterbury, whomsoever they would, and he would consent to it. Then spake the bishops among themselves and said, that they never more would have a man of monkish order for archbishop over them. And they all went together to the king, and desired that they might choose a clerk of the secular clergy, whomsoever they would, for archbishop. And the king conceded it to them. All this was done previously through the bishop of Salisbury, and through the bishop of Lincoln, before he was dead; because they never loved the rule of monks, but were ever against monks and their rule. And the prior and the monks of Canterbury, and all the other men of monkish order who were there, withstood it two full days; but it availed

naught; for the bishop of Salisbury was strong and ruled all England, and was against it all that he might and could. Then they chose a clerk, who was named Chiche [St Osyth]. And they brought him before the king, and the king gave him the archbishopric, and all the bishops received him; almost all the monks and earls and thanes who were there opposing him. At the same time came a legate from Rome, named Henry; he was abbot of the monastery of St Jean d'Angely and he came after the Rome-scot. And he said to the king that it was against right that a clerk should be set over the monks; and therefore they had earlier chosen an archbishop in their chapter according to right. But the king would not undo it, for love of the bishop of Salisbury. Then went the archbishop soon after to Canterbury, and was there received, though it was against their will, and was there immediately blessed as bishop by the bishop of London, and the bishop Ernulf of Rochester, and the bishop William Giffard of Winchester, and the bishop Bernard of Wales and the bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then soon in Lent the archbishop went to Rome after his pall, and with him went the bishop Bernard of Wales, and Sigfrid abbot of Glastonbury, and Anselm abbot of St Edmund's, and John archdeacon of Canterbury, and Giffard, who was the king's domestic chaplain. At the same time went the archbishop Thurstan of York to Rome by the Pope's command; and came thither three days before the archbishop of Canterbury came, and was there received with great worship. Then came the archbishop of Canterbury, and was there full seven nights ere he could come to speech with the Pope. That was because the Pope had been made to understand that he had

received the archbishopric in opposition to the monks of the monastery, and against right. But that overcame Rome which overcomes all the world, that is, gold and silver. And the Pope was pacified, and gave him his pall; and the archbishop swore subjection to him in all things which the Pope enjoined him, on the altar of St Peter and St Paul, and he sent him home with his blessing.


[Old English Chronicle]

Although Henry I had made the baronage swear fealty to the Empress Maud, his daughter, on his death his nephew Stephen of Boulogne was chosen king.

An. M.C.XXXV. In this year king Henry went over sea at Lammas (Aug. 1st); and the second day, as he lay and slept in the ship, the day darkened over all lands, and the sun became as it were a three-night-old moon, and the stars about it at midday. Men were greatly wonder-stricken, and affrighted, and said that a great thing should come hereafter. And so it befell; for that same year the king died, on the day following after St Andrew's mass day (Dec. 2nd), in Normandy. there was tribulation soon in the land; for every man that could forthwith robbed another. Then his son and his friends took his body and brought it to England, and buried it at Reading. A good man he was, and there was great awe of him. No man durst say to him aught but good. In the meanwhile his nephew Stephen of Blois was come to England, and came to London, and


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