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him by his great strength. The land of Normandy was naturally his, and over the county which is called Le Maine he reigned; and if he might yet have lived two years he would, by his valour, have won Ireland, and without any weapons. Certainly in his time men had great hardships and very many injuries. Castles he caused to be made, and poor men to be greatly oppressed. The king was so very stark, and took from his subjects many a mark of gold, and more hundred pounds of silver, which he took, by right and with great unright, from his people for little need. He had fallen into covetousness, and altogether loved greediness. He planted a great preserve for deer, and he laid down laws therewith; that whosoever should slay the hart or hind should be blinded. He forbade the harts and also the boars to be killed. As greatly did he love the tall deer as if he were their father. He so ordained concerning the hares, that they should go free. His great men bewailed it, and the poor men murmured thereat ; but he was so obdurate, that he recked not of the hatred of them all; but they must wholly follow the king's will, if they would live, or have land or property, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should be so proud, to raise himself up, and account himself above all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things we have written concerning him, both good and evil, that good men may imitate their goodness, and wholly flee from the evil, and go in the way that leads us to the kingdom of heaven.

5. WILLIAM RUFUS AND MALCOLM CANMORE [Old English Chronicle]

William Rufus had strife with Malcolm Canmore, king of Scots, from whom he exacted some sort of homage. He also had strife with Anselm, whom he had made Archbishop of Canterbury after keeping the see vacant and appropriating its revenues for several years.

While king William was out of England, king Malcolm of Scotland came hither into England, and harried a great deal of it, until the good men who had charge of this land sent a force against him, and turned him back. When king William in Normandy heard of this, he made ready for his departure, and came to England, and his brother the count Robert with him, and forthwith ordered a force to be called out, both a ship-force and a land-force; but the ship-force, ere he could come to Scotland, almost all perished miserably, a few days before St Michael's mass and the king and his brother went with the land-force. But when king Malcolm heard that they would seek him with a force, he went with his force out of Scotland into the district of Leeds, in England, and there awaited. When king William with his force approached, then intervened count Robert and Eadgar aetheling, and so made a reconciliation between the kings; so that king Malcolm came to our king, and became his man, with all such obedience as he had before paid to his father, and that with oath confirmed. And king William promised him in land and in all things that which he had had before under his father. In this reconciliation Eadgar aetheling was also reconciled with the king; and the kings then, with great good feeling, separated; but that stood only a

little while. And count Robert continued here with the king almost to Christmas, and during that time found little of the truth of their compact; and two days before that tide, took ship in Wight, and went to Normandy, and Eadgar aetheling with him.

An. M.XCII. In this year king William, with a large force, went north to Carlisle, and restored the town, and raised the castle; and drove out Dolphin, who previously had ruled the land there; and garrisoned the castle with his own men, and then returned south hither. And very many country folk with wives and with cattle, he sent thither, there to dwell and to till the land.

An. M.XCIII. In this year, in Lent, the king William was taken so sick at Gloucester, that he was everywhere reported dead. And in his illness he promised many promises to God; to lead his own life righteously, and to grant peace and protection to God's churches, and never more again for money to sell them, and to have all just laws among his people.

And the archbishopric of Canterbury, that had before remained in his own hand, he delivered to Anselm, who had before been abbot of Bec, and to Robert his chancellor the bishopric of Lincoln; and to many monasteries he granted land; but this he afterwards withdrew, when he became well, and abandoned all the good laws that he had before promised us. Then after this, the king of Scotland sent, and demanded the fulfilment of the treaty that had been promised him. And king William summoned him to Gloucester, and sent him hostages to Scotland, and Eadgar aetheling afterwards, and the men back again, who brought with him great worship to the king. But when he came to the king, he could not be held worthy either the speech

of our king, or the conditions that had previously been promised him; and therefore in great hostility they parted, and king Malcolm returned home to Scotland. But as soon as he came home, he gathered his army, and marched into England, harrying with more animosity than ever behoved him. And then Robert the earl of Northumberland ensnared him with his men unawares, and slew him. Morel of Bamborough slew him, who was the earl's steward and king Malcolm's gossip.

With him was also slain his son Edward, who should, if he had lived, have been king after him. When the good queen Margaret heard this-her dearest lord and son thus deceived-she was in mind afflicted to death; and with her priests went to church, and received her rites, and obtained by prayer to God that she might give up her spirit. And the Scots then chose Donald, Malcolm's brother, for king, and drove out all the English, who were before with king Malcolm. When Duncan, king Malcolm's son, who was in king William's court-his father having before given him as a hostage to our king's father, and he had so remained afterwards-heard all that had thus taken place, he came to the king, and performed such fealty as the king would have of him, and so with his permission, went to Scotland, with the support that he could get of English and French, and deprived his kinsman Donald of the kingdom, and was received for king. But some of the Scots afterwards gathered together, and slew almost all his followers, and he himself with a few escaped. Afterwards they were reconciled, on the condition that he never again should harbour in the land either of English or French.

6. RUFUS, RALPH FLAMBARD, AND ANSELM [ORDERICUS VITALIS]

This section describes some characteristic iniquities of
William Rufus.

At this time a certain clerk named Ralph gained the confidence of William Rufus, and acquired pre-eminence over all the king's officers by his subtlety in prosecutions and his skill in flattery. This man was of an acute intellect and handsome person, a fluent speaker, fond of the pleasures of the table, and addicted to wine and lust; he was, at the same time, cruel and ambitious, prodigal to his own adherents, but most rapacious in his exactions from strangers. Sprung from poor and low parents, and rising to a level far beyond that to which his birth entitled him, his arrogance was swelled by the losses he inflicted on others. He was the son of one Thurstan, an obscure priest of the diocese of Bayeux, and, having been brought up from his earliest years among the vile parasites of the court, was better skilled in crafty intrigues and verbal subtleties than in sound learning. Inflated with ambition to raise himself above the eminent men who adorned the court of the great king William, he undertook many things without orders, and of which the prince was ignorant, making impertinent and vexatious accusations in the king's court, and arrogantly over-awing his superiors as if he was supported by the royal authority. In consequence Robert, the king's steward, gave him the surname of Flambard, which indeed, prophetically suited his genius and conduct; for like a devouring flame, he tormented the people and turned the daily chants of the church into lamentations, by the new

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