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soldier.** When the two armies were drawn up and confronting each other in order of battle, Lord Bury was sent forward to reconnoitre something that looked like a battery, and advanced to within one hundred yards of the rebels, when they opened fire upon him, and this was the beginning of the battle. He was selected to carry the news of the victory to the King, who immediately ordered him a thousand pounds.

On the Duke's departure for London (July 18th), Lord Albemarle succeeded him as Commander-in-Chief in Scotland. The intervening three months between the victory and the departure, were employed by the royal boy,' as Mr. Carlyle terms him, in a manner that has left an indelible stigma on his name. 'Great intercession,' writes Walpole, is made for the two Earls (Kilmarnock and Cromarty). The King is much inclined to some mercy, but the Duke, who was not so much of a Cæsar after a victory as in gaining it, is for the utmost severity. It was lately proposed to present him with the freedom of some Company: one of the Aldermen said aloud, "Then let it be of the Butchers." Yet he rather fell behind than outran the popular call for blood. The nation had been terribly frightened, and no passion is more prone to cruelty than fear. Amongst Lord Albemarle's correspondents was the notorious General Hawley, who writes from London, August 16th, 1746

• His Majesty looks very sour, and only asked me if I had been at the bathe. What was in his head I don't know; but they plague him to death for pardons for all those rascalls. This total defeat in Italy has put him a little into humour again. . . . I wish you not only out of camp, but out of the country, which I wish on fire, and nothing but the blood of the natives to quenche it. I am purely ill with them all. They say every act of rapine, cruelty, and murder that the Duke ordered was by my advice. My answer is, that I never offered to give him any advice, but if he had asked it, I would have advised ten times more. The citty are in a flame upon marty's being pardoned.'


Colonel the Hon. George Howard, Governor of Carlisle Castle, writes thus to Lord Albemarle from Carlisle, Sept. 11th, 1746:

"MY LORD, The Judges came back here last Monday; the tryals are begun, and will be very tedious. The Scotch lawyers, who are come here as Rebell Council, are playing all the game already, even so far as to try to suborn the king's evidence.

"We have erected a fine new gallows, which will hold fifteen at a time. God send it may be made a proper use of."'

On the 10th of January, 1747, Hawley writes to announce that

Chambers History of the Rebellion,' p. 247. William Augustus Duke of Cumberland; being a Sketch of his Military Life and Character, &c., &c.' By A. N. Campbell-Maclachlan, M.A., &c., &c. Page 104.


Lord Albemarle is to be of the Flanders staff, under the Duke of Cumberland, and, referring to the despatch of Hamilton's Scotch regiment to Ireland, he adds

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""Hamilton's affair has made rare work here. There's a certain Duke (Newcastle) takes all sorts of pains to tell everybody there's nothing in it, and it has been wrong represented. His Majesty flames. The Duke swears, and the Scotch dare not speak. I am glad you are quitt of them. Give 'em your curse at parting from the highest to the lowest.' Another of this gallant officer's epistles throws light on the military arrangements as well as the military orthography of the period. He was in command of the Life Guards:

"I have moved my camp, and have pitched fronting Grosvenor Park gate. You muste remember a single chattau that fronts the gate, where the Duke has been twice by seven o'clock about his dragoons cloathing, horses, &c. He is so full of them, I thinke he has forgott the Guards; however, I am reducing the size of my men and horses; I have sold him 12 of my men above six foot highe for six guineas a man, with their own consent tho'. I am trying to recruit the Horse Guards with my tall horses, and then I'm sure you'll laughe, but pray keep that a secret. Crawfurd's troop does bite if they can find the money, and I hope Charley (Lord Cadogan) and Tyrawley will bite too. Dell (Lord Delawarr) won't, tho' they are all crowded with pipers and blind ones."

Two officers under Lord Albemarle's command, Ensign Campbell and Lieutenant Ferguson, quarrelled, and Campbell knocked Ferguson down. In reference to the ensuing courtmartial the Secretary for War (Henry Fox) writes to Lord Albemarle, November 27, 1746:

'Mr. Ferguson is justly acquitted of the charge against him; but his complaining to a court-martial instead of resenting in another manner the usage he had received from Campbell, it must be supposed will necessarily prevent the officers of his regiment from rolling with him. H. M. particularly asked if they had not their swords on when this happened, and bids me tell your Lordship that as an officer, not as king, it is his opinion that if Campbell is pardon'd, a hint should be given to Ferguson that he must fight him or be broke.'

George II. gave the strongest sanction to duelling which could well be given by royal example, when he challenged his brother-in-law, Frederic William of Prussia, to a hostile meeting, which was with difficulty prevented.*

The crowning event of the campaign of 1747 was the battle of Laufeld, in which the Duke of Cumberland was defeated by

* It has been made a question whether this formal challenge was actually sent, but terms of defiance were interchanged, and the names of the proposed seconds were made known.-Lord Hervey's 'Memoirs,' vol. i. p. 127. Carlyle's 'History of Frederic the Great,' vol. ii. ch. 7.


Marshal Saxe. The British infantry, commanded by Albemarle, bore the brunt, and, as at Fontenoy, were left unsupported by their allies. The Duke, who had no one quality of a general besides courage, was also out-generalled as before. Walpole, in his satirical way, has hit the truth :-'We would fight when the French did not intend. We gave them, or did not take advantage of the situation. What part of our army was engaged did wonders, for the Dutch ran away, and we had contrived to post the Austrians in such a way that they could not assist us.'

In 1748 Albemarle was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British forces serving in the Low Countries, and being senior in rank to nearly all the allied Generals, he came not infrequently in the temporary command of all the whole confederate army.' This alternation of command was not uncommon. At the commencement of the campaign of Blenheim, Marlborough and the Margrave of Baden commanded on alternate days; but the inconvenience and risk were obvious, and we cannot blame Prince William of Orange, the newly-elected Stadtholder, for putting an end to such a state of things, by raising a Dutch officer to the full rank of general, although this promotion gave so much umbrage to Lord Albemarle as to induce him to tender his resignation. Matters were still in suspense when hostile operations were suspended, and peace was formally proclaimed in the autumn.

In 1749 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and appointed Ambassador to Paris, where he remained in that capacity till his death. His munificent mode of living is described by Walpole ::-'Everybody goes to Paris. Lord Albemarle keeps an immense table there, with sixteen people in his kitchen. His aides-de-camp invite everybody; but he seldom graces the banquet himself.' It would seem that his hospitality was confined to his countrymen, for Lord Chesterfield, assuming that was less anxious to partake of it on that account, writes, Jan. 14, 1750:

his son


However, I would have you show no shyness to Lord Albemarle, but go to him, and dine with him oftener it may be than you may wish, for the sake of hearing him speak well of you when he returns. He is a good deal in fashion here, and his puffing you (to use an awkward expression) before your return here, will be of great use to you afterwards.'

Lord Albemarle is one of the examples which Lord Chesterfield was con ly impressing on his son of the paramount importanc

me (for this must go no further) what do you friend Lord Albemarle Colonel of a regiment of of Virgini room of the Stole, and ambassador to

Paris-amounting in all to sixteen or seventeen thousand pounds ayear? Was it his birth? No;-a Dutch gentleman. Was it his state? No; he had none. Was it his learning, his party, his political abilities and application? You can answer these questions easily and as soon as I can render them. What was it then? Many people wondered, but I do not. It was his air, his address, his manners, and his graces. Show me any one instance where intrinsic worth and merit, unassisted by exterior accomplishments, have raised any man so high.' This is going much too far in the way of depreciation, and against it may be set the impartial estimate of Marmontel:

'A personage totally different from Count Kauniz was this Lord Albemarle, ambassador of England, who died at Paris as regretted amongst us as in his own country. He was par excellence what is called un galant homme: noble, sensible, generous, full of loyalty, frankness, politeness, and goodness, he united what is best and most estimable in the two characters of English and French.'


On the evening of December 2nd, 1754, he was taken ill at Paris as he was going home from a supper party, and died in a few hours. The current story ran that the event was announced to Lady Albemarle in a dream; or (as Lady Temple tells it) that she thought she saw her husband dressed in white; the same thing happened before the Duke of Richmond's death, and often has happened before the death of any of her family.' This may pair off with the Bodach Glas of the M'Ivors.

When George, the third Earl, delivered up the insignia of his father's Order of the Garter, the King said to him: Your father had a great many good qualities, but he was a sieve.' Walpole sarcastically remarks: It is the last receiver into which I should have thought his Majesty would have poured gold.' The King alluded to his large demands for secret service money, which was honestly expended on public objects. At all events, he saved nothing, and died poor, probably in debt, for the estate of Voorst was sold by the son to the Count of Lynden in September, 1756.

The accession to the peerage made no change in the position or mode of life of the third Earl. He remained a member of the Duke of Cumberland's military household, and accompanied him in the campaign of 1757, which ended with the disastrous Convention of Closterseven, signed September 10, by which 38,000 Hanoverians and Hessians laid down their arms, and were broken up as a force without becoming prisoners of war. The King publicly disclaimed this convention, and threw the whole blame and responsibility on his son. When the Duke first appeared in the royal presence, the King never addressed 'Mémoires,' tom. i. p. 342. 21

Vol. 141.-No. 282.

a word

a word to him, but said aloud, in the course of the evening, 'Here is my son, who has ruined me and disgraced himself." The Duke resented this treatment by resigning all his employments, but took no step to vindicate himself at the expense of his father. The only minister who guessed the truth, or had the courage to speak out, was Pitt, the great Commoner, who, when the King said he had given the Duke no orders for such a treaty, answered, ' But full powers, Sir-very full powers.' A document discovered amongst Lord Albemarle's (the third Earl's) papers proves that Pitt was right :—

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Copy of H.M.'s letter to H.R.H. the Duke, dated August the 9th, 1757.'

'DEAR WILLIAM,-I just received your letter of the 2nd August, by which I see the distracted situation of my affairs in Germany. I am convinced of your sense, and capacity, and zeal, for my service, therefore, you will receive powers to get me and my country out of these difficulties, at the best rate you can, by a separate peace as elector, including my allies the Duke of Wolfenbuttle, the Landgrave, the Duke of Saxony, and Count Buckebourg. Nobody attributes your bad success either to you or the troops under your command, to any cowardice or want of precaution. But it seems, fate is everywhere against us. I trust my affairs entirely to your conduct. You will talk with my Ministers and choose those you think properest for this negotiation, as in the case of war I depend upon your courage and skill, so I now depend upon your affection, zeal, and capacity, to extricate yourself, me, my brave army, and my dearly-beloved subjects, out of the misery of slavery they groan


'I am, dear William,

"Your loving father,


Lord Albemarle was Commander-in-Chief of the successful expedition against Havannah, in 1762; having under him one brother, Major-General William Keppel, who displayed the most distinguished gallantry in leading the storming-parties; whilst another, Commodore Augustus Keppel, effectively discharged the duty confided to him by the Admiral, with six ships-of-theline, of conducting the naval operations of the siege. Speaking of the capture of the place, in the Annual Register, Burke says, 'It was a military advantage of the highest class. It was equal to the greatest naval victory by its effect on the enemy's marine, and in the plunder it equalled the produce of a national subsidy.' The plunder was roughly estimated at three millions. Lord Albemarle, in a letter to the Duke of Cumberland, expresses an expectation that his share will, from first to last,

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