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issue is entrusted, is a better guarantee for peace than the condition of apathy, with alternations of panic, which the present feeling has superseded. In connection with these matters, the assumption by the Sovereign of England of a title implying supremacy in India has a certain significance. It declares to all the world that she is the personal head of a great Asiatic empire, and that the position is, emphatically, one which can never with honour be abandoned. Her position towards the native princes cannot be better expressed than by the title of 'Empress '-a title which indicates a supremacy over other sovereign rulers, and as such was assumed by the King of Prussia to mark his supremacy in Germany. The attempts made during the recent discussions to establish an analogy between India and the Colonies showed, we think, a complete misapprehension of the position of both.
It has sometimes been made a matter of reproach to the Indian Government, both on scientific and on political grounds, that it has not shown sufficient zeal in collecting information about the countries beyond its borders, and the example of Russia is quoted against us in this respect. MacGregor said a few words on the subject at a late Meeting of the Geographical Society, and he had a good claim to do so, having a few years ago actively promoted, and himself contributed to, the compilation of the series of reports on Central Asia named at the beginning of this article. These contain a résumé of all the information attainable at that date. But this was just before the tide of interest set in that direction, and a great many things have happened since then' in Central Asia; much more information is now available; the reports on Turkestan already completed require revision, while those not yet undertaken should be now put in hand. But the work is one which from its nature requires, as it deserves, direct official help and encouragement.
Suggestions have been lately made to the Indian Government to endeavour to open some intercourse with the Pontifical court of Lhasa, and the result of such a step would be viewed with interest. How little we know of the country is well shown by the fact that Mr. Clements Markham has thought it worth while to publish the journeys to Tibet of Mr. Bogle and Mr. Manning, the former of whom travelled as an envoy from Warren Hastings in 1774, the latter independently, thirty-six years later; for it must be admitted that-apart, of course, from the value of Mr. Markham's researches-their interest is, in some measure, due to the length of time that has elapsed
since the journeys were undertaken, and to the fact that no Englishman has achieved the same feat since.
But Mr. Markham considers the dearth of information on the subject, combined with its increasing interest and importance, a sufficient reason for publishing these narratives. He has illustrated them by notes, with a short memoir of each author, and has, besides, in a comprehensive introductory notice accompanied by maps, summed up all the latest geographical information; adding some remarks on the history and politics of the country. Our knowledge of its geography is still based on the native survey executed in 1704 by Lamas trained on the system of the Jesuit Mission in China,-the survey of that empire, completed soon after by order of the Emperor Kang Hi, being, Mr. Markham tells us, superior to any map then existing of any country in Europe. Our later knowledge of Tibet is derived chiefly from reports of the native explorers employed by the Indian Survey; and to the accuracy, perseverance, and courage of these men Mr. Markham pays a high and well-deserved compliment.
The eastern province of Tibet, which abuts on the Chinese province of Szechuen, is still but little known; while of the western, which includes Ladak, a great part has been traversed by our explorers. The principal towns are situated in the central province, or Great Tibet, and chiefly in the elevated valley of the Tsanpu River-now generally identified with the Brahmaputra and with the Dihong of Assam-between the northern and central ranges of the Himalaya. The region to the north of this is commonly considered to belong to Tibet. It is inhabited by wandering tribes of Turk and Mongol origin, who are said to be Mussulmans. Tibet proper, however, may be said to comprise the whole series of elevated plains and valleys, with their intersecting ridges, contained between the northern and southern Himalaya ranges, while along its southern border, but separated by the last named range, lie the independent States, alike in creed, and more or less akin as to race, of Nipal, Sikkim, and Bhutan; and further east, our own province of Assam. The name of Tibet, Mr. Markham tells us, is of Persian or Turkish origin, the native name being Bod or Bodyul, lit. Bod-land (Hind. Bhot and Bhotiya). A writer in Forsyth's report speaks of the Tuwat tribe of Kalmaks as inhabitingTuwat, or Tubat, or Tibet, which is also called Joh.' This is somewhat vague. The large temple in the middle of Lhasa is sometimes called and the name is perhaps thence extended to the city. to the whole country.
The narratives edited by Mr. Markham are of unequal value. Mr. Manning's claims to immortality must rest on his having, alone among Englishmen, visited Lhasa, and spoken face to face with its mysterious Pontiff. As a student at Cambridge of Chinese literature, he became possessed with the desire of visiting that country. His friend Charles Lamb endeavoured, in characteristic language, to dissuade him.
'He tells him' (says Mr. Markham) 'that the reading of Chaucer had misled him, with his foolish stories about Cambuscan and the ring, and the horse of brass. "Believe me, there are no such things. 'Tis all the poet's invention. A horse of brass never flew, and a king's daughter never talked with birds. These are all tales. Pray try and cure yourself. Take hellebore. Pray to avoid the fiend. Read no more books of voyages; they are nothing but lies."
We gather that he was a hot-tempered, querulous, eccentric man, and his narrative, though affording some curious glimpses of the life of the people, is mainly a record of his own personal grievances.
Mr. Bogle was a man of different stamp ;-a shrewd, practical Scotchman, with warm affections and a cool head, he soon gained the esteem of Warren Hastings, and was sent by him as Envoy to the Teshu Lama. This personage is an incarnate Bodhisattwa,* of equal dignity with the Dalai,'† or 'Grand Lama' of Lhasa. (Politically, the latter is of more importance, as Lhasa is the centre of Chinese authority in the country, and the influence of the Dalai Lama is a powerful instrument in their hands for the control of the people of Mongolia.)
The Teshu Lama had written to Hastings to intercede for the Chief of Bhutan, who had offended the Calcutta Government, and Hastings, who had already deeply studied the subject, gladly seized the occasion to improve the acquaintance.
Mr. Bogle's narrative is interesting in some ways, but disappointing in others. He is decidedly pre-scientific. When offered a map of the country by the Lama, he reflects that 'to know a number of outlandish names, or to correct the geography of Tibet, although a matter of great curiosity to geographers and mapsellers,'-his editor must have felt a twinge in transcribing these words!-' was of no use to my constituents or to the world in general.' And his views on other points relating to natural science, or to the religion of the country, are quite in
* A Bodhisattwa is usually some eminent saint, who instead of entering into the hest glories, voluntarily continues incarnate in human form for the purpose of ing mankind.
lai' literally means 'ocean,' and the title was conferred oy the Emperor
keeping with the above. But his style-like the man-is full of life, and he has many shrewd remarks on the scenes through which he passes.
The sacredness of life being the leading tenet of the faith, nocriminal, Bogle tells us, can be put to death within the Lama's jurisdiction; all such are therefore conveyed to the castle of a neighbouring Governor, where they are shut up, deprived of food, till they die. This recals curiously, as Buddhism so often does, the practice of another hierarchy, which also, in its palmy days, would hand over offenders to the civil power, with the tender stipulation that no blood was to be shed.
Mr. Bogle was, no doubt, a good diplomatist, and the most interesting part of his narrative is that which relates his intercourse with the Teshu Lama, with whom he contracted a strong personal friendship, and whom he describes as possessing the most attractive manners, with a faultless, and indeed saint-like, character. The Lama appeared desirous to promote intercourse with Bengal, not only on philanthropic grounds, but also from a feeling for the country which had been the early cradle of his faith; and he promised to recommend this policy at Pekin, whither he was bound. He also arranged that Bogle should meet him there; but this scheme, which promised so much, was frustrated by the death of both of them within a short time after, and the policy originated by Hastings was never revived by his
There seems every reason to believe that the people of Tibet have always been disposed to intercourse with the outer world, and Mr. Markham considers that the obstacles thereto have from the first been the same, viz. the jealous policy of China, and the attitude of Nipal, which is aggressive towards Tibet and exclusive towards India. He believes that in former days we might, by coercing Nipal, have gained the gratitude and good-will of Tibet, and he broadly hints that a similar policy would be desirable now. But, to confine ourselves to the present, the feelings of the powers at Lhasa cannot be so accurately known, and the non possumus formerly dictated by China may have become the real sentiments of the Tibetan Vatican. Their connection with China is to them a source both of wealth and of political importance, which they are probably in no hurry to sacrifice. We have no sympathy with Sir Jung Bahádar, but besides the general considerations which make a difficulty' with Nipal undesirable, such a step might excite as much apprehension as pleasu hasa, while it would certainly not diminish the Her supremacy over Tibet has existed for and since 1720 she has, while hardly inter
fering at all with internal affairs, maintained Ambas, or political residents, at Lhasa. The resolution and energy she displays in dealing with her Western neighbours is in curious contrast with the signs of weakness and apparent decrepitude shown in her relations with the European powers on her seaboard. When the Nipalese invaded Tibet, in 1792, they were driven back and defeated by a Chinese army, which followed them up into the heart of Nipal; and even as late as 1841, when Gulab Sing's troops, having occupied Ladak, attempted to march up the valley of the Indus, they were met and nearly exterminated by a Chinese force, which afterwards traversed that difficult country as far west as Ladak. Her supremacy over Tibet, then, is much more than nominal, and has been again asserted actively within the last few years, so that whatever may be the wishes of the Tibetans, their action must depend on her will and pleasure.
If the passes between Tibet and Bengal were freely opened to commerce, it is probable that the traffic would be considerable. The productions of Tibet are few in number, and her imports are accordingly varied. They consist chiefly of silks, calicoes, leather, rice, and tobacco, and brick tea from China, and the Chinese Government are naturally not anxious to see this branch of trade supplanted, as it probably would be, by Indian teas from Darjiling. The exports from Tibet are confined chiefly to gold and silver, besides salt, borax, musk, and wool. It is in the last-named item that her chief source of wealth probably consists, for her far-extending grassy slopes and valleys already maintain numerous flocks and herds, which would increase with the demand.
Mr. Markham points out that the Russians are allowed to maintain a consul at the Court of the Taranath Lama, another exalted Incarnation, who resides at Urga Karen on the Tula River, and whose influence is great throughout Mongolia. It is possible that, by judiciously urging this precedent, the appointment of a resident Minister at Lhasa might be conceded to us. In such a position a scholar of the stamp of Mr. Hodgson, formerly our resident in Nipal, would no doubt bring to light a mass of curious knowledge, and might eventually open the way to freer intercourse. But we ought, perhaps, to leave some work for those who come after us. The resources of our planet, after all, are limited, and until there is a prospect of access to some of the others, we must not be in too great a hurry to exhaust all the novelties of our own.
* See article on 'Tibet,' by Mr. Heeley, in 'Calcutta Review,' July, 1874.