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Simcon whereby, on the completion of the nuptials, he appointed her the dignity of the name
of queen. 1 In the same year, king In the year king 1 In the same year king EthÆtheluulf
Adelwlf sent to Rome, to elwlf sent over to Rome his Ælfred, above-named, to pope Leo, his son Alured,
son Elfred accompanied by a Rome, with an honourable whom Leo afterwards blessed great band of noble soldiers. escort both of nobles and as king, and received as his At which time the blessed commoners. Whom pope
pope Leo presided over the Leo, at his father's request,
apostolic see : who ordained ordained and anointed for
and anointed for king the king, and confirmed, receiv
aforesaid child, and receiving ing him as his son of
him for his adopted son, conadoption.
firmed him and sent him back to his country and to his father with the blessing of St
Peter the apostle. 2 The same year also, earl In this year duke Ealhere2 At that time earl Alchere Ealhere, with the men of with the men of Kent and and Wada, with the men of Kent, and Huda with the Huda with the men of Surrey, Kent and Surrey, fought semen of Surrey, fought bravely fought against the army of verely against the army of the and resolutely against an the pagans at Thanet; and pagans in the island which army of the pagans, in the a great number were slain is called Tened in the Saxon island, which is called in the
on both sides and shipwreck- tongue, but in the British Saxon tongue, Tenet, [Tha- ed; and both the dukes Ruim. At first the Christians NET], but Ruim in the British.
had the victory; but, when And at first the Christians
the battle was protracted to a had the victory, but when
great length, many fell on the battle was protracted to a # The word here rendered DUKE, is
both sides, and many were great length, many fell on dux in the Latin : it is rendered drowned in the river and both sides, and also were DUKE merely for the sake of con
slain, a number not to be venience : the word implies no drowned in the water; and specific title of honour. described. Both the aforeboth the earls were there
said leaders there fell for the slain.
deliverance of their people.
In the year of our Lord's in854. Died Eanbert bishop of MATT: WESTMINSTER. In the carnation 854, archbishop Lindisfarne, and Eardulf seatif Grace 854 died WYMUND archbishop of York to
Wifere received the pall, and succeeded.
Eardulf undertook the bisho
pric of Lindisfarne.
whom succeeded WILFER.
In the year of our Lord's 7 About this time the pagans incarnation 855, and the army of the pagans passed tarried the whole winter in seventh from the birth of the the whole winter in the afore
aforesaid king, the army of said isle of Sheppey.
the pagans wintered the whole winter in the island of
Sheppey. In the same year the afore 1 Ethelwolf, in the 19th
At which time king Ethelwlf said venerable king Æthel- of his reign, tithed all his tithed all the dominions of uulf released the tenth part land for the service of the his kingdom for the redempof all his kingdom from all churches, on account of his tion of his soul and that of royal service and tribute, and love of God and for the re
his ancestors. with a pen never to be for- demption of himself. gotten, offered it up to God the One and the Three in
ANNALS. AN. 855. Eadmund, the One, in the cross of Christ,
most glorious king of the East
Angles, begins to reign on the 8th for the redemption of his
before the calends of January, i.e. on own soul and of his predeces
our Lord's birth-day, in the 14th year sors,
of his age.
Ethelwerd 855 And the same year he went In the same year he went to And in the same year he set to Rome in great state, and Rome with much honour; out to Rome with great dwelt there twelve months. and taking with him his son, dignity, and stopped there the aforesaid king Alfred, for
12 months, * One MS. of the Chron. gives, a second journey thither, beas paragraph 7 (in page 26) the fol. lowing.
cause he loved him more than 7" Alfred his third son he had sent to
his other sons, he remained Rome: and when pope Leo heard
there a whole year.
CHARTERS IN 855. 1. ETHELsay that Æthelwulf was dead, he
WOLF, Nov. 5. mentions that Beorred consecrated Alured king, and held
king of Mercia, and Edmund king of him as his spiritual son at confir
the Eastangles, were present and mation, even as his father Athewulf
subscribed. II, 56. 2. ETHELbade on sending him thither.
WOLF; subscribed also by "Æthelberht rex," " Alfred filius regis,"
and others. II, 58. 3. BURG RED The general authority of the Saxon Chronicle leads to a doubt,
of Mercia ; signed also by“ Æthels
with regina," "Mucel dux," and whether Alfred may not have
others. II, 58. 4. BURGRED, remained at Rome during the inter
subscribed also by "Æthels with val between the two sendings.
regina," and others. II, 60. EALHWINE bishop of Worcester.
(8) A. 856. 1 And then returned home. After which he returned to On his way back to his own wards. And then Charles his own country, bringing country, Charles king of the king of the Franks gave him with him Judith, daughter Franks gave to him in marhis daughter to wife ; and of Charles, the king of the riage his daughter, whom he after that he came to his
received and brought into his people, and they were glad
In the meantime, however,
Rome, should never again be received into his kingdom. This crime, unheard-of in all previous ages, is ascribed by many to the bishop and earl alone, as resulting from their counsels. Many also ascribe it solely to the insolence of the king, because that king was pertinacious in this matter, and in many other perversities, as we have heard related by certain persons; as also was
+ Earl of Somersetshire, of which Somerton was once the chief town.
Simeon And thus he went to 2 Afterwards he went with In the same year, he set out Rome with much honour; great honour to Rome, and with great honour to the and taking with him his son, there dwelt one year.
threshold of the the aforesaid king Alfred, for
prince of the apostles, having a second journey thither, be
with him Elfred, because he cause he loved him more than
loved him more than the his other sons, he remained
others. The king of the there a whole year.
English was received in a becoming way by the apostolic man; and he remained there a whole year, diligently occupied in prayers and alms.
When he [Ethelwolf] was
returning to his ountry,
3 And return-
brought her with him into
The most holy Edmund, beloved by God, sprung from the lineage of the old Saxons, and a true worshipper of the Christian faith, affable to all by his sweet mode of speech, and deeply imbued with the grace of humility, liberal to the needy, and a most merciful father to orphans and widows, obtained the government of the province of
ANNALS. Ax. 856. In the 18th year of the reign of Adhelwif king of the West-Saxons, HUMBERCHT bishop of the East Angles anointed with oil, and consecrated for king, the most glorious Eadmund with great joy and the greatest honour, in the royal vill which is called Burna, because the royal seat was then there, in the 15th year of his age, the sixth day of the week, 24th moon, being the day of our
2 In the meantime, however,
CHARTERS IN 856. extant.
Asser proved by the result of that which follows. For, as he was returning from Rome, his son aforesaid, with all his counsellors, or, as I ought to say, his conspirators, attempted to perpetrate the crime of repulsing the king from his own kingdom ; but neither did God permit the deed, nor would the nobles of Saxony * consent to it. For to pervent this irremediable evil to Saxony, of a son warring against his father, or rather of the whole nation carrying on civil war, either on the side of the one or the other, the extraordinary mildness of the father, seconded by the consent of all the nobles, divided between the two the kingdom which had hitherto been undivided ; the eastern parts were given to the father, and the western to the son; contrariwise : for where the father ought by just right to reign, there his unjust and obstinate son did reign; for the western part
* i, e. ENGLAND.
of Saxony is always preferable to the eastern. When Æthelwulf, therefore, was coming from Rome, that nation, as was fitting, so delighted in the arrival of the old man, that, if he permitted them, they would have expelled his rebellious son Æthelbald, with all his counsellors, out of the kingdom. But he, as we have said, acting with great clemency and prudent counsel, so wished things to be done, that the kingdom might not come into danger; and he placed Judith, daughter of king Charles, whom he had received from her father, by his own side on the regal throne, without any controversy or enmity from his nobles, even to the end of his life, contrary to the perverse custom of that nation. For the nation of the West-Saxons do not allow a queen to sit beside the king, nor to be called a queen, but only the king's wife; which stigma the elders of that land say arose from a certain obstinate and malevolent queen of the same nation, who did all things so contrary to her lord, and to all the people, that she not only earned for herself exclusion from the royal seat, but also entailed the same stigma upon those who came after her; for, in consequence of the wickedness of that queen, all the nobles of that land swore together, that they would never let any king reign over them, who should attempt to place a queen
on the throne by his side. And because, as I think, it is not known to many whence this perverse and detestable custom arose in Saxony, contrary to the custom of all the Theotiscan † nations, it seems to me right to explain a little more fully what I have heard from my lord Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, as he also had heard it from many men of truth, who in great part
recorded that fact. There was in Mercia, in recent times, a certain valiant king, who was feared by all the kings and neighbouring states around. His name was Offa, and it was he who had the great rampart made from sea to sea between Britain and Mercia. His daughter, named Eadburgh, was married to Berhtric, king of the West-Saxons; who immediately, having the king's affections, and the control of almost all the kingdom, began to live tyrannically like her father, and to execrate every man whom Beorhtric loved, and to do all things hateful to God and man, and to accuse all she could before the king, and so to deprive them insidiously of their life or power; and if she could not obtain the king's consent, she used to take them off by poison : as is ascertained to have been the case with a certain young man beloved by the king, whom she poisoned, finding that the king would not listen to any accusation against him. It is said, moreover,
"I Tedeschi "_Teutonic.
1 i. e. WALES.
Simeon proved by the result of that which follows.
Egbirht, reigned 20 years and five 3 For as he was returning from Rome, his son aforesaid, with months : he was mild by nature, and all his counsellors, or, as I ought to say, his conspirators,
more inclined to live in peace than to
command many provinces : in short, attempted to perpetrate the crime of repulsing the king from he was content with his paternal his own kingdom; but neither did God permit the deed, nor kingdom of the West-Saxons, and
gave over as appanages to his son would the nobles of all Saxony consent to it. For to per- Ethelstan the others which his father vent this irremediable evil to Saxony, of a son warring had subdued. He assisted Burhred against his father, or rather of the whole nation carrying on
king of the Mercians with civil war, either on the side of the one or the other, the anailiary army against the Britons,
exalted extraordinary mildness of the father, seconded by the con- giving him his daughter in marriage.
The Danish pirates, who wandered sent of all the nobles, divided between the two the kingdom
over the whole island, and infested which had hitherto been undivided; the eastern parts were all its
with unexpected given to the father, and the western to the son ;
landings, were crushed more than
once by him and his generals ; for where the father ought by just right to reign, there his though, according to the lot of war, unjust and obstinate son did reign; for the western part he received frequent and severe
losses at the hands of the same, of Saxony is always preferable to the eastern.
whereby London and almost all 4 When Ætheluulf, therefore, was coming from Rome, that Kent were laid waste.
But a stop nation, as was fitting, so delighted in the arrival of the old was always put to these losses by the man, that if he permitted them, they would have expelled who would never allow the enemy
energy of the king's counsellors, who his rebellious son Æthelbald, with all his counsellors, out of to offend with impunity, but took
vengeance upon them with their the kingdom. But he, as we have said, acting with great
united forces. For he had, in his clemency and prudent counsel, so wished things to be done, time, two excellent prelates, the that the kingdom might not come into danger; and he blessed Swithin of Winchester, and
Alstan of Sherborne; who, seeing placed Judith, daughter of king Charles, whom he had
that the king was of a dull and heavy received from her father, by his own side on the regal mind, impelled him by their admo
nitions to the science of ruling. throne, without any controversy or enmity from his nobles,
with earthly even to the end of his life, contrary to the perverse custom things, taught his lord to look to of that nation. For the nation of the West Saxons do not above; Alstan, thinking that public
matters also were not to be neglected, allow a queen to sit beside the king, nor to be called a
encouraged him against the Danes, queen, but only the king's wife; which stigma our elders himselt supplying money to the say arose from a certain obstinate and malevo- treasury, himself marshalling the
army. He who reads the annals, lent queen of the same nation.
(PROBABLY THE SAXON CHRONICLE IS MEANT) will find many of his
achievenents both bravely begun and 6 For the malice of this queen, all the inhabitants of that land
happily ended. He lived 50 years in swore together, that they would never allow any king to his bishopric, happy in having lived reign over them, who should command his queen to sit beside
to do good for so long a time. I
would willingly praise him, except him on the royal throne.
that, led astray by human
feel to this day the effects of his The remarks which William of shameless conduct, though the place Malmesbury has made on the reign immediately after his death, struggand character of Ethelwolf are led its way out of the violence that worthy of notice: “In the year of our
had been done it, even down to our Lord's incarnation 537, Ethelwulf, own times, when it has fallen again (whom some call Athull) son of into the same danger (SEIZED BY
ROGER BP OP SALISBURY IN 1118] [Go TO THE TOP OF NEXT
Ethelwulf relying on these COLUMN.]
two supporters, and providing for that which was without, whilst he did not slight what within,
after he had triumphed over his ene5 There was in Mercia, in
mies, turned to the worship of God,
and granted to Christ's servants the recent times, a certain valiant
tenth of every hide of land within king, Offa, whose daughter,
his kingdom, freed from all duties named Eadburh, was married, as we have said before, and from all annoyances.
little glory was that? When he had to Brihtric, king of the West-Saxons; who immediately
settled his kingdom, he went to began to live tyrannically
Rome, and there, he gave to St Peter and to do all
the tribute, which Englaud still
pays, in presence of pope Leo the things hateful to God and man, and to accuse all she could
Fourth, who also, before that, had before the king, and so to deprive them insidiously of their honorably received and anointed for
king his son Alfred when he had been life or power; and if she could not obtain the king's consent
sent unto him. Ethelwolf remained she used to take them off by poison : as is ascertained to there a whole year, and beautifully have been the case with a certain young man beloved by the repaired the school of the English,
which, they say, was first founded kuuz, whom she poisoned, finding that the king would not
by Offa king of the Mercians, and listen to any acctisation against him. It is said, moreover, had been burnt the year before.