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Whitehall, 8 Dec. 1815.

His royal highness the prince regent, acting in the name and on the behalf of his majesty, has been graciously pleased to nominate and appoint twenty-six officers, belonging to his majesty's naval and military forces, and also six belonging to the East India Company, to be companions of the most honourable military order of the Bath.

The badge or cognizance of the order of the Bath, worn by the grand crosses, was altered upon the extension of the order, in 1815, and is now a golden cross of eight points, enamelled white, with a lion of England between the four principal angles; on the centre, a sceptre, erect, or, having on the side a rose, thistle, and shamrock, engrafted, between three imperial crowns, all proper, encircled with a ribbon gules; thereon the motto, Tria juncta in uno, in letters of gold, surrounded with a wreath of laurel-sprigs vert,* issuing from a scroll az. inscribed Ich Dien, in like letters of gold; and which badge is the size represented in Pl. 1, fig. 6. This badge, upon ordinary occasions, is worn pendent by a ring to a broad red ribbon, scarfways, over the right shoulder, hanging on the left side. On great festivals and collar days, this badge is worn pendent to a collar, composed alternately of imperial crowns of gold, as many knots or, enamelled white, and sceptres erect, engrafted with roses, thistles, and shamrocks, ppr.; the whole linked together with a double row of small gold links. See Pl. 1, fig. 5.

The star of the knights grand crosses, which is worn upon the left breast upon the upper garment, is of silver, formed with eight kinds of rays wavy, (the four in cross being somewhat longer than the four in saltier,) upon which is a gold cross also of eight points, formed like the badge, upon the centre of which are three imperial crowns ppr. upon a glory of silver rays issuing from the centre, surrounded with the ribbon gu. upon which is the motto of the order, Tria juncta in uno, in letters of gold, within a wreath of laurel-branches vert, issuing from an escroll az. inscribed Ich Dien, the whole of the size represented in Pl. 1, fig. 7.

The badge worn by the second class, or knights commanders, is exactly similar to that worn by the grand crosses, but of smaller dimensions, and is worn pendent to a broad red ribbon round the neck.

The knights companions likewise wear, on the left side of their upper vestment, a silver cross of eight points, of a nearly similar form to the badge, with five pointed rays issuing from the four princpal angles. Upon the centre of the star are three imperial crowns gold, surrounded with the red ribbon and motto, and encircled with a wreath of laurel-branches vert, issuing from an azure scroll, inscribed Ich Dien, and which star is of the dimensions represented in Pl. 1, fig. 8.

The third class, or companions, wear a similar badge to the knights commanders, but somewhat smaller, peudent to a narrow red ribbon, from the button-hole on the left side, but without any star.

We scarcely need to add, that this order, both in the number of knights, and the brilliancy of its appearance,

This distinction being of a military nature, is not borne by the knights of the grand crosses, knights commanders, nor companions, upon whom the honour is conferred for civil services, as mentioned in the foregoing order, dated 2nd January, 1815.

maintained its full splendour at the coronation of the fourth sovereign of the House of Brunswick.

BEAR. This order, sometimes called the order of St. Gall,
was instituted by Frederick II. King of Sicily; who,
being elected Emperor in 1213, and paying his devotions
in the abbey of St. Gall, patron of Germany, instituted
this order in honour of St. Ursus, one of the Thebaic
Legion, martyred before the temple of the sun at Sol-
curse; where, it is said, the body rests under the high
altar, built by Bertha, with the Great Foot, wife of Char-
lemagne. The emperor Otho IV. granted to the Abbot
of St. Gall the power of conferring this order: the cere-
mony whereof was usually performed on the 16th day of
October, being the feast of St. Gall. The order flour-
ished from its institution until the Revolution, by which
the House of Austria lost the Swiss Cantons, when it was
abolished; and it has now been extinct between three
and four centuries. The collar of the order was a gold
chain interlaced with a chaplet of oak-leaves, to which
was pendent the badge, being a medal of gold enamelled
white, thereon a bear sable, on a mount vert. See Pl. 1,
fig. 9.

BEE. This order was instituted 4th June, 1703, at Sceaux,
in France, by Louise of Bourbon, wife of Louis-Augustus
of Bourbon, Duke of Maine, &c. to which, men, as well
as women, were admitted. The ensign of the order is a
medal of gold, bearing on one side the portrait of the
foundress, and on the other a bee, with this motto, Je
suis petite, mais mes picquares sont profondes.
BLACK EAGLE, a Prussian order, instituted at Konigsberg,
by Frederick, the third Elector of Brandenburg, and first
King of Prussia, 14th January, 1701, the day previous to
his coronation, that the knights might render that cere-
mony more brilliant, by appearing in their installation
robes. By the statutes of this order, the number of the
knights, exclusive of the princes of the blood, is limited
to thirty, who must previously have been admitted into
the order of Generosity, unless they are sovereign prin-
ces. The knights are required to prove their nobility
for sixteen descents: the kings of Prussia are perpetual
grand masters of the order; and the princes of the House
of Brandenburg are born knights of it. The officers are,
a chancellor, (who is also a knight,) a secretary, a master
of the ceremonies, and a treasurer. The badge of the
order is a gold cross of eight points, enamelled blue,
having in the four principal angles the Prussian eagle,
enamelled black, and on the centre the letters F. R. in a
cypher. See Pl. 1, fig. 10. This badge, upon ordinary
occasions, is worn pendent to a broad orange-coloured
watered ribbon, scarfways over the left shoulder; but on
ceremonial days, pendent from a collar of gold composed
of round pieces, each enamelled blue, with four cyphers
of the letters FR.; the centre of the piece being set with
a large diamond, encircled with the motto of the order,
Suum cuique; and over each cypher, on the outer circle,
a regal crown; all richly chased and intermixed alter-
nately with eagles displayed, enamelled black, holding
in each claw thunderbolts of gold. See Pl. 1, fig. 10.
The knights also wear, embroidered on the left breast

This was in compliment to the memory of the founder's mother, who was born princess of Orange and Nassau, the eldest daughter of Frederick-Henry, Prince of Orange, and Stadtholder of the United Provinces.

****** *** KNIGHTHOOD.

selves for the service of our country. The habit of the order was of blue silk, lined with red satin, and embroidered with gold.

t with beak and BRICIAN, or ST. BRIDGET, of Sweden. This order was


instituted in 1366, by Queen Bridget, who was afterwards canonized, and though approved by Pope Urban VIII. it was soon after discontinued, and never revived. The badge of the order was a cross of eight points, and between the base points a flame of fire proper, embroidered on a short white robe. See Pl. 6, fig. 20.

#uko kuot. See Pl. 1, fig. 16. BROOM-FLOWER IN THE HUSK, an order instituted by

this order, which are worn whigh stivals, are composed A with Aing sleeves; above this is ked velvet mantle, with rich www.changing down before. This mantle is

wwwww ribbon of the order. The star is

Louis IX. commonly called St. Louis, in 1234, at Sens, on his marriage with Margaret, eldest daughter of Raymond Berengarius, Count of Provence, the king having chosen the broom-flower, the emblem of bumility, as the badge of the order, adopting the suitable motto, Exaltat was highly esteemed, and conferred only on princes of

Able mohans and above the vest is suspended humiles. During the reign of the founder, this order www on the left side of the mantle, and the great the blood royal, and some of the first nobility; but soon

after his death, it fell into disrepute, and became finally extinct in the fifteenth century. The habit was a cloak of white damask, with a violet-coloured hood; and the collar was composed of broom-flowers and husks, enamelled in proper colours, with fleurs-de-lis of gold set in lozenges, enamelled white, and pendent thereto a cross flory gold. See Pl. 1, fig. 15.

like those worn by peers at the ceremony of coronation, BURGUNDIAN CROSS, in Tunis, an order instituted on

the feast of St. Mary Magdalen, in 1535, by Charles V. Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, after he had restored Mulleassus, King of Tunis, to his kingdom, to reward those commanders who had signalized themselves

Bertenant-general of the king's forces, and surround the in the victory. On the above day he made his pom

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pous entry into Tunis, habited in the coat which he To usually wore in battle, whereon was embroidered a Burdgundian cross, and which cross he made the badge of

BOURBON, or KNIGHTS OF THE THISTLE, called also the order, adding a steel striking sparks of fire out of a and at di Kights of the Golden Shield. The order ornament, ordained that such badge should be suspended as well as Knights of Bourbon, flint, with the inscription, Barbaria; and for greater bon, in honour of the Virgin Mary, for twenty-six CALATRAVA, a military order of Spain, instituted by

Sancho, the third King of Castile, in 1158, and confirmed by Pope Alexander III. in 1164, derived its appellation from the castle of Calatrava, an important fortress in Andalusia, taken from the Moors, after 400 years possession, and given to the knights templars, who, being unable to maintain the possession of it, restored it to the king, who intrusted the defence of it to Don Raymond, a native of Bureva, in the kingdom of Navarre, then Abbot of St. Mary of Hitero, a convent of the Cistercian order, through whose valour and enterprising spirit, aided by persons of considerable note, it was successfully defended, and bestowed on them by the king, and thus the order of Calatrava was first instituted. Its numbers were much augmented under Alphonsus the Noble, King of Castile; and the knights soliciting the nomination of a grand master, Don Garcias de Reden was the first invested with that dignity. Pope Innocent III. confirmed the order in 1193; but their numbers, strength, influence, and possessions, were so considerable as to render them objects of the jealousy of the crown, to which at length their revenues and the office of grand master were unalienably annexed by Pope Innocent VIII. Don Garcias Lopez de Pardilla was the last grand master canonically elected by the knights. After his death, in

1489, Ferdinand and Isabella annexed the grand mastership to the crown of Castile,

At their first institution, the knights wore a white robe and a scapulary, such as were worn by the Cistercians; but Pope Benedict XIII. by dispensation, exempted them from wearing that habit; and Paul III. granted them permission to marry once. The order now possesses eighty commanderies in various parts of the Spanish dominious.

The habit of ceremony is a mantle of white silk, tied with a cordan and tassels, like those of the Garter, and on the left arm a cross flory, embroidered gu. The badge is a like cross, worn at the breast, pendent from a broad red ribbon. See Pl. 2, fig. 12. CALATRAVA, a religious order for ladies, instituted in 1219, by Donna Gazelez Maria Yonnes. It bore the same relation to the foregoing military order for men, as the religious and female order of St. James did to the military branch of it, described in that order of knighthood. The badge was similar to that worn by the military order of Calatrava. See Pl. 2, fig. 12. CATHARINE, ST. See ST. CATHARINE. CELESTIAL COLLAR OF THE HOLY ROSARY, a religious order for ladies, instituted in France, at the request of Father Francis Arnoul, a Dominican, by Queen Anne of Austria, widow to Louis XIII. King of France, and mother of Louis XIV. for fifty young ladies of the first families in France. The collar of the order was composed of a blue ribbon, enriched with white, red, and maiden-blush roses, interlaced with the capital letters A V, in cypher, affixed thereunto; and pendent at the breast, by a silk cordon, a cross of eight points pomėttee, and in each angle a fleur-de-lis: on the centre, upon one side, was enamelled the image of the Virgin Mary; and on the reverse, that of St. Dominick. See Pl. 2, fig. 2. CHASE. The order of St. Hubert, or the Chase, in Wurtemberg, was first instituted in 1702, by Charles Frederick, Duke of Wurtemberg; renewed in 1711, by Duke Eberhard-Louis; and finally confirmed in 1740. The badge of the order was, a gold cross of eight points, enamelled red; in the four principal angles, between the branches of the cross, is an eagle, displayed, gold; and between the points, at the extremity of each limb, a bugle or hunting horn; in the middle of the cross, is a small green enamelled escutcheon, upon the centre of which is the letter W in gold, surmounted with a ducal hat of crimson velvet, turned up ermine. This badge is worn pendent to a broad scarlet-coloured watered ribbon, edged with yellow, passing scarfways over the left shoulder to the right side; and on the left side of the outer garment, a silver embroidered star of eight points, the four central rays being somewhat longer than those which Occupy the augles; in the middle is the badge of the order, with a small white escutcheon; on the centre of which is au eagle, displayed, sable, charged on the breast with the letter W in gold, and ensigned with a ducal bat or chapeau; the whole badge surrounded by a circle of green, bearing the motto, Amicitiæ virtutisque fœdus, embroidered in letters gold. On great solemnities, the badge is worn pendent from a collar composed of links, as follow: the first represents an eagle of gold and black enamel, with wings expanded: the second, a green enamelled shield of gold, of a circular form, on which was the letter W, ensigned with a ducal chapeau; and the

third is likewise composed of a circular shield, on which are three hunting or bugle-horns, set in a triangular form, and slung together; these links are united with small chains, and repeated alternately in the formation of the collar.

The great festival was on the 3rd of Nov. being the feast of St. Hubert, which was annually celebrated at Ludwigsburg.

In 1806, Frederick I. King of Wurtemberg (the duchy having been erected into a kingdom) renewed this order, gave it new statutes, and denominated it The Royal of the Golden Eagle, which it now bears. The badge, star, and collar, at the same time, received some little alteration, by the introduction of F. R. in a cypher, ensigned with the royal crown, instead of the W. and ducal chapeau; and at the bottom of the badge is suspended a small circle, with the cypher and crown. See Pl. 2, fig. 1, 7, and 5. The sovereign is the great master; and the order consists of one class only, with the title of knights, and their number is fixed at fifty, exclusive of the members of the royal family and foreigners. CHARLES THE THIRD, or THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION. This order was instituted 10 Sept. 1771, by Charles III. King of Spain, in commemoration of the birth of an infant, and approved by Pope Clement XV. 21st Feb. 1772. The badge of the order is a star of eight points, of the Maltese form, enamelled white, and edged with gold, the two upper points surmounted with the regal crown of Spain chased in gold, and in the four angles as many fleurs-de-lis; on the centre of the cross, the image of the Virgin Mary, enamelled in white flowing robes, with an azure mantle: and on the reverse the letters C, enclosing the number III. in the centre, surrounded with the motto, Virtuti et Merito, in Roman characters. This order was formerly divided into four classes. The knights styled grand crosses wearing the jewel, or badge, pendent from a broad sky-blue watered ribbon, with a white border, worn scarfways over the right shoulder, with a star of silver on the left side of the upper garment, formed like the badge, with the image of the Virgin in the centre. The knights of the second class wearing the badge in the same manner, but without the star; and the third and fourth classes, a small badge from the coat button-hole, suspended from a narrow ribbon of like colour as the higher class; the third class being called knights pensioners, and receiving an annual income from the treasury of the order, which the fourth class did not enjoy. The order was greatly enriched by the king, who granted thereto the vast estates of the House of Ximenes, which reverted to that family upon the extinction of the order of the Oak of Navarre, instituted by Dou Garcias Ximenes in 722, and devolved to the crown on the death of the last survivor of that family. This order was of great estimation, and by express command of the king, who was the founder, ranked immediately after the order of the Golden Fleece, (which his majesty conferred, as heirgeneral, to the Houses of Burgundy and Spanish Austria) and preceding the orders of Calatrava, Alcantara, St. James, and Montesa, although of much greater antiquity and not less illustrious.

Charles IV. made some alterations in the statutes, by decree of the 12th of June, 1804; and the order is now composed of sixty knights grand crosses, exclusive of the

great master and the royal family, two hundred knights pensioners, (who receive annually 4000 reals,) and an indefinite number of an inferior class. The secular officers are, a chancellor, a secretary, a treasurer, and a master of ceremonies.

By a decree of the 25th April, 1815, King Ferdinand VII. granted to the knights pensioners the privilege of wearing, in addition to the badge suspended by a ribbon to the button-hole, a star embroidered in silver, (See Pl. 2, fig. 4, 6, 9.) to be worn on the left side of their upper garments.

On ceremonial days, the members of the order wear a collar. See Pl. 2, fig. 16. CHRIST, of Portugal. This military order of Christ, commonly called Christus, according to the best historians, was founded by Dyonisius, King of Portugal, about 1317, to encourage his nobles to assist him in his wars against the Moors. It was confirmed by Pope John XXII. 14th March, 1319, who gave to the knights the Rule of St. Benedict, reserving to himself the right of likewise nominating knights to this order, who bear a badge nearly similar, (See Pl. 2, fig, 13.) and so far may be considered a pontifical order. Pope Alexander VI. gave them permission to marry. The order had been under the control of twelve grand masters, nominated by the knights, when Pope Adrian VI. in 1522, conferred that dignity on John III. King of Portugal; and, in 1551, Pope Julius III. vested in the crown a perpetual right to the grand mastership, from which time the kings of Portugal have taken the title of Perpetual Administrators of the order. It acquired great wealth, and may be said to owe its origin to that of the knights templars, whose estates, on their suppression, were given to this equestrian militia.

Spanish historians affirm that the knights were possessed of four hundred and fifty four commanderies, and likewise the ecclesiastical tithes of all the lands and countries which were subject to the crown of Portugal, even of those which were situated in the two Indies.

After the separation of thirty-seven commanderies, which they possessed in Africa, Tomar became the chief seat of the order: a city nearly equi-distant from Lisbon and Coimbra.

The knights were not advanced to a commandery until they had given proofs of their military prowess and valour, in those fortresses which Portugal retained on the African coast.

According to the statutes of the order, the knights are obliged to prove, at least four degrees of hereditary nobility, but which may be dispensed with by the sovereign; and the knights are under the same regulations, and enjoy the same privileges, as those of the order of Calatrava in Spain.

The badge of the order is, a cross pattée gules, charged with a plain cross, couped, argent, which, on festivals, is worn pendent to a collar of gold, composed of three rows of chains, (See Pl. 2, fig. 19.) but commonly worn round the neck, pendent to a broad scarlet ribbon. They likewise wear a long and ample black mantle, turned up with ermine, and thereon the crosses before described. The motto of the order is, Christiana militia.

Since 1789, the knights have been divided into three classes; six grand crosses, four hundred and fifty com

manders, and an indefinite number of knights. Foreigners, honorary knights, are not subject to the statutes, nor do they receive any part of the revenue.

The knights grand crosses now wear the badge before described, surmounted by a radiant star of eight points, on the centre of which is enamelled a human heart, with a flame and cross issuant from the top; and which badge, on festivals, is worn pendent from the triple chain collar, but on ordinary occasions, from a broad red ribbon, sashways, from right to left. The commanders suspending the same badge from their necks; the grand crosses and commanders both wearing the star as in Pl. 2, fig. 13, on the left side; and the knights, the badge pendent from the button-hole, but without being surmounted by the heart, like that of the two first classes.

Note. The red enamelled heart, which surmounts the badge of the two first classes of this and the other orders of Portugal, was an addition made by Queen Marie, intended to represent the sacred heart of Jesus, under the protection of which she placed the orders of her kingdom.

CHRIST, in Italy. This pontifical order, or more properly an order of Portugal to which Pope John XXII. reserved the right of nominating knights, was founded by Dyonisius, King of Portugal, 14 March, 1319, the particulars of which will be found under that order. The pontifical knights, as they are called, being nominated by the Pope, do not wear the star of the order, but a badge nearly similar, pendent from a gold chain or a red ribbon, worn round the neck. See Pl. 2, fig. 15.

CHRIST JESUS, or CROSS OF CHRIST. This order was instituted in 1206, by St. Dominick, and was partly religious, and partly military. The object of the founder was to procure a respectable body to fight against the Albigenses, then called heretics, whom he was desirous ⚫ to extirpate. When worn out in service, or having accomplished their object, they devoted themselves to a religious life. The order became extinct in less than a century after its foundation. The badge of the order was, a cross flory, quarterly, sable and argent. See Pl. 2, fig. 18.

CHRISTIAN CHARITY. This order was instituted by Henry III. of France, for the maintenance of those military men who were maimed in his service; but the civil wars of the league prevented him from fully accomplishing the intended object. His successor, Henry IV. adopted the plan with more success, gave them a house in the suburbs of Paris, and assigned revenues for their support. After his assassination, the order became neglected, and was wholly discontinued by Louis XIV.; who, by founding the Hotel Royal des Invalides at Paris, and instituting the order of St. Louis, made a more honourable and better provision for the military, than a continuance of the order of Christian Charity. The badge of the order, which was borne on the left side of the outer garment, was a cross moline of white satin, or taffeta, edged with blue; on the centre, a lozenge of the last, charged with a fleur-de-lis gold; the whole encircled with the motto, Pour avoir fidellement servi. See Pl. 2, fig. 10. CONCEPTION. The order of the Conception in Germany and Italy, was instituted in 1618, by Ferdinand, Duke of Mantua, and Charles de Gonzaguez of Cleves, Duke of Nivernois and Rheteblois, in the wars against the infidels, and confirmed by Pope Urbin VIII. in 1624. The badge of the order was, a cross of eight points or,

enamelled azure; on the centre a medallion, rayonnated gold, thereon the image of the Holy Virgin, standing on a crescent, and holding in her arms the infant Jesus; round her head twelve stars, all enamelled proper, the reverse of the badge enamelled as the frout; and on the medallion, St. Michael; the whole of the badge environed with the cordon of St. Francis, tied at the bottom. This badge was worn round the neck, pendent to a skyblue ribbon. See Pl. 2, fig. 3.

CONCEPTION, a Brazilian order, instituted by the reigning king, on the day of his coronation, at Rio de Janeiro, 6 Feb. 1818, under similar statutes as the other orders of Portugal, and consisted of three classes. The badge is a star of eight points, enamelled white and gold, radiant between each point or, the rays charged with eight etoiles silver; on the centre a cypher, encircled with a sky-blue ribbon edged, and bearing the motto, Padroeiro Do Reino, in gold; the badge surmounted by the royal crown, and suspended by a broad sky-blue coloured ribbon. See Pl. 5, fig. 9. The star is the same as the badge, but not surmounted with the crown. See Pl. 2, fig. 8. CONCORD. This order was founded in 1261, by Ferdinand, King of Castile and Leon, to perpetuate the memory of the conquest of Grenada sur le Maur; it consisted of one hundred and fifty-four knights, but has been long extinct.

CONCORD, a Prussian order, instituted by Christian Ernest, Margrave of Brandenburg, on his return from Spain, in 1660, in memory of the part he had taken in restoring peace and union to many of the princes of Europe.

The badge of the order was, a gold cross of eight points, enamelled white; in the centre a medal, bearing two olive-branches, passing saltierways through two crowns, and circumscribed with the word Concordans; the cross surmounted with an electoral crown, and worn pendent to an orange-coloured ribbon; on the reverse, the founder's cypher, with the date of institution. See Pl. 3, fig. 2.

CORDELIERE, in Frauce, instituted in 1498, by Anne de Bretagne, after the death of her husband, Charles VIII. King of France, for widow ladies of noble families. The ensign of the order was, a Cordeliere's girdle argent, which they placed round the escutcheon of their arms. It was also worn tied round the waist, with the ends of it hanging by their sides. They likewise wore a collar of silver of the same form. The order did not long survive the foundress, having soon after fallen into disuse. See Pl. 2, fig. 11.

CORDON JAUNE, or OF THE YELLOW STRING. This order was instituted in France, in 1606, by the Duke de Nevers, for catholic and protestant knights engaging to protect widows and orphans. It was abolished the same year by Henry IV. who, in its stead, instituted the order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, and St. Lazarus. Some ridiculous ceremonies peculiar to this order were the cause of its being so suddenly abolished. CRESCENT. The imperial order of the Turkish Crescent was instituted in August 1799, by Selim III. to reward the eminent services of the immortal Nelson, and commemorate the glorious victory of Aboukir, on which depended the very existence of the Ottoman Porte. The distinguished successes of the army under Abercrombie and Hutchinson, on the plains of Egypt, and the nerito

rious services of Lord Keith, and the Royal Navy under his lordship's command, induced the Sublime Porte to extend the order of the crescent far beyond the bounds of its pristine institution. It has been formed into three classes, and successively conferred on all the commandersin-chief and superior officers, naval as well as military. The insignia of the second class was likewise presented to eight hundred British officers, who served in that expedition.

The decorations are composed of a badge, or medallion, of gold, of a circular form: on which is represented, on a field enamelled gules, a mullet of eight points within an increscent argent, (or rather formed with diamonds) and pendent from a red ribbon, which the knights of the first class wear scarfways; and on the left side of the upper garment, an oval star of pearls set in gold, in the centre of which is a large splendid ruby of the same form, on which is set a mullet of eight points, within an increscent, both formed of diamonds. See Pl. 2, fig. 17 and 14. The knights of the second class wear the same badge, suspended by a ribbon round the neck, but without the star; and the third class wear a smaller badge, attached to a ribbon from the button-hole.

A medal of honour was likewise presented by Selim III. to about one hundred English officers, after the battle of Aboukir, and the evacuation of Egypt by the French. See Pl. 3, fig. 1.

CRESCENT, an order of Naples, instituted in 1268, by Charles I. King of Naples and Sicily, who gave the first knights a collar of fleurs-de-lis and stars intermixed, and pendent thereto a crescent, with the words, Donec totum impleat orbem. Pope Clement IV. granted many privileges to the order, but it fell into decay, and was revived in 1484, by Rene, Count of Anjou, brother and heir to Louis III. King of Naples, for thirty-six knights, including the sovereign. But, like many other orders instituted about the same time, it continued only a few years; for the House of Anjou never had quiet possession of the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, from which they were expelled almost as soon as they entered, so that the order was neglected and discontinued. The badge was a golden crescent, bearing the letters L O Z, enamelled in red, which implied, L'oz en croissant, i. e. Praise by increasing. To this crescent were attached as many tags of gold, enamelled with red, as the knight who wore it had been present at battles, sieges of towns, justs, tournaments, and such like feats of arms. The collar of the order was composed of three rows of gold chain, to which the badge was attached. See Pl. 3, fig. 3. CROWN. This order was instituted in 1390, by Enguerrand Count de Soissons, Seigneur de Coucy. The decoration was a crown embroidered on the right arm. CROWN, IRON. See IRON CROWN. CROWN OF BAVARIA, or CIVIL MERIT. This order was founded 27th May, 1808, by Maximilian-Joseph, to reward the services of persons employed in the civil department of the state, and for other eminent or distinguishing acts of patriotism. It is composed of four classes; viz. twelve grand crosses, twenty-four commanders, and one hundred knights; the fourth class is composed of all those who have before obtained by their merit either gold or silver medals. Those of the first three classes have the right of bearing a title of nobility and arms assigned by the sovereign.

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