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Eldest Sons of Knights of the Thistle and Bath.

Knights' eldest Sons.
Baronets' younger Sons.
Esquires of the King's Body.
Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.
Esquires of the Knights of the Bath.
Esquires by Creation.
Esquires by Office.

Younger Sons of Knights of the Garter.
Younger Sons of Bannerets.

succeed equally, whereas the eldest son excludes all the


By marriage, a woman participates in her husband's dignities; but none of the wife's dignities can come by marriage to her husband, but are to descend to her next heir.

If a woman have precedency by creation or birth, she retains the same, though she marry a commoner; but if a woman nobly born marry any peer, she shall take place according to the degree of her husband ouly, though she be a duke's daughter.

A woman, privileged by marriage with one of noble degree, shall retain the privilege due to her by her husband, though he should be degraded by forfeiture, &c.; for

Younger Sons of Knights of the Bath.
Younger Sons of Knights Bachelors.
Gentlemen entitled to bear arms.
Clergymen, Barristers at Law, Officers in the Navy and crimes are personal.
Army, who are all Gentlemen by profession.

Citizens. Burgesses, &c.

The wife of the eldest son of any degree takes place of the daughters of the same degree, who always have place immediately after the wives of such eldest sons; and both of them take place of the younger sons of the preceding degree; thus, the lady of the eldest son of an earl takes place of an earl's daughter; and both of them precede the

ARTICLE OF UNION REGARDING PRECEDENCY. wife of the younger son of a marquess. Also, the wife of any


ALL peers of Scotland shall be peers of Great Britain, and have rank next after the peers of the like degree in England, at the time of the Union, which commenced the 1st May, 1707, and before all peers of Great Britain, of the same degree, created after the Union.-23rd Art. of Union with Scotland, 5 Anne, ch. 8.


THE lords of parliament, on the part of Ireland, shall have the same privileges as the lords on the part of Great Britain; and all lords spiritual of Ireland shall have rank next after the lords spiritual of the same rank of Great Britain, and shall enjoy the same privileges, except those depending upon sitting in the house of lords; and the temporal peers of Ireland shall have rank next after the peers of the like rank in Great Britain, at the time of the Union; and all peerages of Ireland, and of the United Kingdom, created after the Union, shall have rank according to creation; and all peerages of Great Britain and Ireland shall, in all other respects, be considered as peerages of the United Kingdom; and the peers of Ireland shall enjoy the same privileges, except those depending upon sitting in the house of lords. -Art. of Union with Ireland, 39 and 40, Geo. III. ch. 67.


WOMEN, before marriage, have precedency by their father; with this difference between them and the male children, that the same precedency is due to all the daughters which belongs to the eldest; which is not so among the sons; and

degree precedes the wife of the eldest son of the preceding degree; thus, the wife of a marquess precedes the wife of the eldest son of a duke.

Married women and widows are entitled to the same rank among each other, as their husbands respectively bear, or have borne, except such rank be merely professional or official; and unmarried women, to the same rank as their eldest brothers would bear among men, during the lives of their fathers.

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Wives of Knights of the Garter.
Wives of Bannerets of each kind.

Wives of Knights of the Bath.
Wives of Knights Bachelors.

Wives of the eldest Sons of the younger Sons of Peers.
Wives of the eldest Sons of Baronets.
Daughters of Baronets.

Wives of the eldest Sons of Knights of the Garter.
Daughters of Knights of the Garter.
Wives of the eldest Sons of Bannerets.
Daughters of Bannerets.

Wives of the eldest Sons of Knights of the Bath.
Daughters of Knights of the Bath.

Wives of the eldest sons of Knights Bachelors.

Daughters of Knights Bachelors.
Wives of the younger Sons of Baronets.
Daughters of Knights.

Wives of the Esquires of the King's Body.
Wives of the Esquires of Knights of the Bath.
Wives of Esquires by Creation.

Wives of Esquires by Office.

Wives of the younger Sons of Knights of the Garter.
Wives of the younger Sons of Bannerets.
Wives of the younger Sons of Knights of the Bath.
Wives of the younger Sons of Knights Bachelors.
Wives of Gentlemen.
Daughters of Esquires.
Daughters of Gentlemen.
Wives of Citizens.
Wives of Burgesses, &c.





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800 FORENT, the fist King of England, before that 1916 EDMUND IRONSID55, (son of Ethebred, az, a cross period called Bazm” AL. 3 cross patence or

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1066 WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, gu. two lions pass. 1199 JOHN. The same arms.
guard. or. Much controversy has arisen as to the
bearings in these arms, which some maintain are
improperly called lions. In support of their being
such, Sandford, in his Genealogical History, b. i,
p. 24, notes the story of John, the monk of Har-
monstier, in Tourain, an author of the time; who
relates, that when Henry I. chose Geoffrey Planta-
genet, son of Foulk, Earl of Anjou, Tourain, and
Main, to be his son-in-law, by marrying him to
his only daughter and heir, Maud the Empress,
and made him a Knight; after bathing and other
solemnities, (pedes ejus salutaribus in superficie
Leonculos aureos habentibus muniuntur) boots, em-
broidered with golden lyons, were drawn on his
legs; and also, that (Clypeus Leoncules aureos
imaginarios habens collo ejus suspenditur) a shield,
with lyons of gold therein, was hung about his
neck. Favine, lib. iii, p. 577, 578, and 579. A
proof that this bearing was, at that early period,
termed lions.

1087 WILLIAM II. surnamed Rufus, [second son of Wil-
liam the Conqueror.] The same arms.

1100 HENRY I. [third son of William the Conqueror.] The same arms.

ever since been continued by succeeding sovereigns, as the motto of the royal arms of England. But before his elevation to the throne of England, when Earl of Mortagne, in Normandy, he bore only two lions. 1216 HENRY III. The same arms. 1272 EDWARD I. The same arms. 1307 EDWARD II. The same arms. 1327 EDWARD III. assumed the title of King of France, in right of his mother Isabel, daughter of Philip IV. King of France, the three sons of Philip, (Lewis, Philip, and Charles, successively Kings of France) dying without issue. Arms, quarterly; first and fourth, France, viz. az. semée of fleursde-lis or; second and third, England, gu. three lions pass. guard. or.-Crest, on a chapeau, a lion pass. guard. crowned, or. Edward III. was the first English monarch who bore a crest, which was afterwards continued by succeeding sovereigns to Edward VI. inclusive, upon their great seals. This monarch instituted the order of the Garter, which has been generally borne round the royal arms by succeeding monarchs; though it was not introduced upon the great seal till the time of Henry VIII. Badges, clouds ar. from which descend rays; and a trunk or stump of a tree, eradicated and couped, or.

1135 STEPHEN, said to have borne the same arms. And 1377
also, gu. three bodies of three lions pass. the necks
with men's bodies, or, in form of the sign Sagitta-
rius. By others, gu. a Sagittarius or. King Ste-
phen is said to have adopted this bearing from
the great assistance afforded him by the archers,
and having entered the kingdom when the sun
was in the sign Sagittarius. But on the great
seal, the shield is plain, without any device, as
may be seen in Sandford's Genealogical History.


1154 HENRY II. gu. two lions pass. guard. or; but after
his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, this king
added a third lion, (the arms of Aquitaine being,
gu. a lion or.) On the great seal, no arms appear;
only the concave side of the shield being shown.
1189 RICHARD I. Before the crusade, this monarch's
great seal shows but one half of the shield, the
dexter side, with a liou ramp. sinister, from which
it is inferred that he bore two lions combatant. 1399
After the expedition to the Holy Land, another
great seal bears three lions; which, from this
time, became the hereditary bearing of his suc-
cessors, Kings of England. [From this crusade,
may be dated the origin of arms in this kingdom,
which by degrees became hereditary, but not fully
established until the latter end of the reign of
Henry III.] Motto, Dieu et mon droit. This mo-
narch having defeated the French at Gisors, in the
department of Eure, and late province of Nor-
mandy, A.D. 1198, and the king's parole on that
day having been Dieu et mon droit, God and my
right; his majesty adopted it, in memory of the
victory, as the royal motto, and it has almost

RICHARD II. [son of Edward the Black Prince] used the same arms as his grandfather Edward III. upon his great seal; but having chosen St. Edward the Confessor as his patron, he impaled the arms of the Confessor (az. a cross patonce betw. four martlets, or,) with the arms of France and England quarterly. Richard II. was the first of the English monarchs who used supporters, which were two angels, and beneath the shield a white hart couchant, gorged with a gold coronet, and chained under a tree-a device from the arms of his mother, Joan, Countess of Kent, and which he used as a badge. This king likewise used other badges; viz. a peascod branch, with the cods open, but the peas out; also, the sun in splendour, and the eradicated tree, couped, or. In some instances, the arms of England were placed in the first quarter.


HENRY IV. This monarch seems to have usurped the great seal of his predecessor, Richard II. with his throne, merely erasing the name of Richard, and substituting his own; bearing the same arms, and sometimes England in the first quarter. The supporters assigned to him, which are somewhat doubtful, are, on the dexter side, a swan, gorged and lined; and on the sinister, an antelope, gorged and lined as the dexter. Badge, the rose gu. ensigned with a crown. He was the last king who bore semée of fleurs-de-lis for France. He used the tail of the fox as a badge or device, following, as Camden remarks, the advice of Lisander, "If the lion's skin were too short, to piece it out with a fox's case." See Camden's Remains, p. 215.

1413 Howay V. The arms of France having been altered

by the French King, limiting the number of fleursde la to three; this monarch likewise reduced thom, still retaining France in the first and fourth quarters, and England in the second and third. When Prince of Wales, his supporters were two swans, each holding in the beak an ostrich feather and scroll; but upon ascending the throne, was the first English monarch who took for the dexter 1509 supporter, a lion ramp. guard, crowned or; the sinister supporter being an antelope, as borne by his predecessor, Henry IV. The badges of this king seem to have been, a beacon or, from which flames, of fire issue, ppr.; and also, the red rose, ensigned with the crown. 1422 HENRY VI. France and England, quarterly. Supporters, two antelopes ar. accolled with coronets, attired and chained or; as appears over the gate of Eton College; though, a tiger ramp. guard. or, semee of roundles, alternately sa. gu. az. and vert, with fire issuing from the mouth and ears, sometimes occur as the sinister supporter. His badge or device, was, two feathers, in saltier, ar.; and he likewise used the rose as a royal badge.




1400 EDWARD IV. France and England, quarterly. Sup-
porters, dexter, a liou ramp. ar. the tail passing
betw. the less, and turned over the back; (one of
the supporters of this king, as Earl of March;)
sinister, a bull: a white hart was also borne.
Badges, a falcon ar. within a fetterlock, closed,
or, as Duke of York; a dragon, sejant, sa. crowned
or, as Earl of Ulster; a bull sa. crowned and
hoofed or, for his Honour of Clare or Clarence ;
a white hart, attired, accolled with a coronet, and
chained, or, on a mount vert, which he used in
honour of King Richard II. it being his badge.
A white rose rayonné or, and the sun in splendour
or, were likewise two badges used by this king.
1483 EDWARD V. France and England, quarterly. Sup-
porters, dexter, a lion ar.; (one of the supporters
of the Earldom of March;) sinister, a hind ar.
Badges, the white rose; and the falcon within the
fetterlock, as borne by his father, Edward IV.
1483 RICHARD III. France and England, quarterly. Sup- 1558
porters, two boars ar. tusks and bristles or. The
white boar was his cognizance. Badge, the white
rose rayonné or.


1485 HENRY VII. France and England, quarterly. Supporters, dexter, a dragon gu.; (the ensign of Cadwallader, the last king of the Britains;) sinister, a greyhound ar. collared gu. Motto, Dieu et mon droit. Badges, a portcullis, to which he added the motto, Altera securitas; the red and white

with the diadem of King Richard, which was found after the battle, in a hawthorn-bush, he bore the hawthorn-bush with the crown in it, and the letters K. H. as a badge.

Note. From the devices of the red dragon and portcullis, this monarch created the two pursuivants of arins, called Rouge Dragon, and Portcullis.

HENRY VIII. France and England, quarterly. The supporters, in the beginning of this monarch's reign, were the same as those of his father, Henry VII.; but he afterwards discontinued the greyhound, and used the following supporters, dexter, a lion guard. and crowned, or, transposing the red dragon to the sinister. Motto, Dieu et mon droit. Badges, a red rose; the uniou roses, red and white; a fleur-de-lis or; a portcullis or: he likewise used a greyhound, current, collared, to show his descent from the royal house of York. He was the first monarch who encircled the royal arms within the garter, surmounted by the crown, upon the great seal.

EDWARD VI. Arms, supporters, motto, and badges, the same as those of his father, Henry VIII. MARY. Arms after her marriage with King Philip. Those of King Philip being, party per fesse, the chief part quarterly of four pieces; first, Castile and Leon, quarterly; second, Arragon, impaling Sicily; third, as the second; fourth, as the first. The base part of the escutcheon also quarterly of four pieces; first, Austria, modern; second, Burgundy, modern; third, Burgundy, ancient; and fourth, Brabant; over all, an inescutcheon of Flanders and Tyrole, impaled. This achievement impaling France and England, quarterly: the arms of Queen Mary encircled by the garter. Supporters, dexter, an eagle: sinister, a lion ramp. crowned or. Badges, when Princess, she used both the red and white rose and a pomegranate knit together, to show her descent from the houses of Lancaster, York, and Spain; but when she came to the throne, by persuasion of the clergy, she bore, winged Time drawing Truth out of a Pit, with Veritas temporis filia; which motto appears on her first great seal, before marriage. The rose ensigned with a royal crown, seems to have been another badge used by this queen. ELIZABETH, France and England, quarterly, encircled by the garter. Supporters, dexter, the lion ramp. guard. crowned or; sinister, the red dragon, as borne by her father, Henry VIII. Badges, the red and white roses, the fleurs de lis, and the Irish harp, ensigned by the royal crown. This queen made use of several heroical devices, but most commouly that of sieve. The badge of Ireland seems, for the first time, to have been placed on the great seal in this queen's reign.


roses united, in allusion to the union in him of the 1603 JAMES I. Arms, supporters, mottos, and badges,

two houses of York and Lancaster. And, to com-
memorate his being crowned, in Bosworth Field,

see STEWART, in the Alphabet. On the great seal appear banners of the arms of Cadwallader,

the last king of the Britains, az. a cross pattée fitchée or; and the arms of King Edgar, az. a cross patonce betw. four martlets or: to show his descent from the blood royal, both Welsh and English. 1625 CHARLES I. Arms, supporters, mottos, and badges, as borne by his father, James I. On the great seal is represented the standard of St. George, ar. a cross gu. supported by the lion of England and the standard of St. Andrew, being az. a saltier ar. upheld by the unicorn of Scotland; and, what is very remarkable, on the sides of the two great seals, used by this king, where he appears on horseback, he is riding towards the dexter, and not, as was usual with his royal predecessors, towards the sinister, which was resumed by his


1648 CHARLES II. This monarch bore the same arms, &c. as his father, Charles I. and by warrant under his sign manual, dated 9th February, in the 13th year of his reign, directed that, for the future, the heir apparent to the crown, for the time being, should use and bear a coronet composed of crosses and fleurs-de-lis, with one arch, and in the midst a ball and cross, as in the royal diadem; and that his brother, James, Duke of York, the sons of the sovereign, and the immediate sons and brothers of



1701 1714

his successors, Kings of England, should use coronets composed of crosses and fleurs-de-lis only ; but that all their sons, respectively, having the title of duke, shall use coronets composed of crosses and flowers, or leaves, such as are used in the coronets of dukes not being of the blood royal. JAMES II. The same arms, &c. as his brother, Charles II.

WILLIAM III. and QUEEN MARY. The same arms as James I. with an escutcheon of pretence, upon which are the arms of Nassau, viz. az. billettée or, a lion ramp. gold, encircled by the garter, and without any variation in the supporters. Motto, Je maintiendrai. The arms are thus borne on the great seal; but they are sometimes depicted otherwise, viz. impaling the arms as above described, bearing the escutcheon of pretence, with precisely the same arms without the inescutcheon, the whole encircled by the garter.


QUEEN ANNE. The same arms, &c. as James I. encircled by the garter. Motto, Semper eadem. GEORGE I. GEORGE II. GEORGE III. and GEORGE IV. See GUELPH, in the Alphabet.





AMERICA, NORTH, UNITED STATES OF, on the seal of the United States, an eagle displ. in the dexter claw an olive-branch, aud in the sinister a sheaf of many arrows, the points upward, ppr.; from the beak a scroll, or ribbon; thereon, E pluribus unum; above the head, encircled by clouds, also ppr. the azure sky and glory, with as many mullets, or stars of six points, ar. as United States on the body of the eagle a shield, paly of thirteen, (in allusion to the thirteen first United States) ar. and gu. a chief az.

SYMBOLS, BADGES, AND ARMORIAL BEARINGS, OF THE FIRST THIRTEEN UNITED STATES. CAROLINA, NORTH, the figure of Plenty strewing, from an inverted cornucopia, the fruits of the earth, at the

feet of Liberty, who holds in the right hand a scroll of the constitution; the sea and ships in perspective. CAROLINA, SOUTH, in base, an oak-tree eradicated, lying fesseways; in pale a palm-tree, peudent there from a shield, inscribed, July 4; and at the foot two bundles of arrows, in saltier, united by a scroll, with the motto, Quis separabit? The sea and mountains in perspective. CONNECTICUT, a shield charged with three trees from mounts; on the dexter side, war trophies; and on the siuister, the emblems of Justice; behind the escutcheon, an explosion. Motto Qui trans sust. DELAWARE, a shield, a fesse wavy, in chief a wheat-sheaf and hank of flax in bend counterbend, and in base, upon a mount, an ox; supported on the dexter side by a husbandman, the right hand supporting a hoe, and pointing to the ox, and holding in the left, over the arms, on a wreath, the crest, viz. a ship in full sail towards the sinister; the shield supported on the sinister side by the

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