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surcoat, or tabard, which was commonly worn by warriors of military grandeur, before the establishment of heraldry over their armour, like the Roman tunica palmata; whence as a system; after which, they became specifically approthe term "coats of arms." It is generally considered that |priated to its purposes. this tabard, or the coat of arms itself, is only a continuation of the sagum, or short vest, formed from the skin of a wild beast, which was worn by the ancient Germans, and covered the shoulders and breast. Du Cange expressly observes, in his first dissertation, that "the coat of arms was the ordinary dress of the ancient Gauls, by them termed sagum; whence the French derive their word saye, sayon." On the authority of Tacitus, we may state, that the sagum was gradually improved by spots, and ornaments of different furs; and that it became otherwise adorned, according to the rude fancy of those distant ages, is asserted by several authors. Cluverius particularly describes the different forms and ornaments of the German sagum, representing that it was a sort of cloak, clasped before, adorned with streaks of various colours, sometimes even of gold and silver, and also adverts to the affinity between them and the armorial bearings. Herodian states that they ornamented it with silver; and Pliny, when treating of the texture of cloth of gold, ascribes the invention of the chequer to the Gauls.

In the above historical remark, we may trace the origin of the different tinctures, furs, &c. which are the materials of the art of blazonry. It is probable that when the sagum became a coat of arms, the same stripes and chequers were retained, and the other acquired embellishments added thereto. According to Favine, the Franks, struck with the gay appearance of the saga, striped of various colours, worn by the Gauls, assumed that habit for a length of time, instead of their own. It is the opinion of some learned individuals, that such stripes, and combinations of stripes, in various positions, first brought into use those armorial figures termed honourable ordinaries; which are not called so, as forming, more than other heraldic bearings, tokens of superior honour or merit, but because they are more ordinarily or generally employed in forming insignia of honour. Some writers, among whom we may note Menestrier, have given a different origin to them, affirming that they were copied from the pieces of wood which formed and made up the barriers of the lists at the tournaments; but with little or no foundation. Nisbet supposes that the principal ordinaries are all derived from the cross; this opinion has more probability in its favour, as that figure was displayed on the imperial standard of Rome, so early as the fourteenth century, when it superceded the eagle, which, before that time, had flourished on the Roman banners. It is also stated by Eusebius, that the cross was represented on the tombs of the primitive Christians, and the monogram, which ensigned the pole, or staff of the Labarune, or banner of the cross, (described in Gibbon's history of the empire) is said to have been engraven on the tomb of St. Laurence, and many other martyrs, and to have been borne by the Emperor Constantine on his helmet, who also caused it to be represented on the shields of his soldiers. At the same time, the cross was displayed on the shields and banners of the imperial armies; and it was used as an ornament for the sacerdotal vestments, as appears from the Bolandists Lives; and Chambers states, on the authority of Tertullian, that the primitive Christians, even among the laity, bad their mantles adorned with crosses. From these remarks, it will appear, that several armorial figures were used as personal decorations, and in the display

The customs of chivalry, as before observed, contributed much to the improvement of heraldry. To excite and animate that peculiar spirit, tournaments, and other sumptuous exhibitions of warlike exercises, were iustituted; these, together with the crusades, rendered arms more elegant, by additional embellishments, and still more diversified, by extending the number of charges: they also attached higher value to their acquirements: as, without possessing such insignia of nobility, none could become candidates for the acquisition of honour at the Olympic games of chivalry. There are several writers, who, from the connexion of heraldry with those customs, have ventured to assert, that the institution of armories may be referred to the tournaments, which were held towards the end of the tenth century; their growth, to the crusades; and their perfection, to justs, and other feats of arms. The fallacy of such statements, however, is obvious, since it is generally allowed that it was one of the first institutions by which Henry of Saxony regulated these ceremonies, that none should be allowed to exercise at tournaments, unless they could prove themselves gentlemen of hereditary coat armour.

The impulsatory effects on the manner of life, from the association of warlike habits and ideas, among a people for such a length of time, must be such, that it will be but to few of their institutions that a clear origin may be traced. The principles, the amusements, nay, the most decisive laws, which chivalry supplied, we find to flow from such a source; and although it was not till a later period, when magnificence and pomp were introduced, that tournaments and justs were properly instituted, yet we may suppose that their introduction into that form was produced by a long concatenation of customs, which, whilst they advanced, gathered a more material form, till they became a source of delight, of pageantry, and of the acquisition of honour. The tournaments were not only equal to the Olympic games of the ancients, but much surpassed them in point of humanity, generosity, and honour. Judicial combat, which, in ages of chivalry, often formed as great a display, in point of show, as the tournament, is also allowed to have originated with the remotest Goths, who allowed no other tribunal, and appealed to their own right arm alone to execute vengeance, or to prove their innocence. The same mode was observed by their descendants; for the nobles, proud and fierce, disdained any custom which had the appearance of restraint; and considered that vengeance, by no means adequate, which was not personally taken. With the regulation of governments, however, courts of chivalry were established, whose officers were empowered to decide such quarrels; or, as the alternative, to appoint the time, place, lists, &c. for meeting, with a due attendance of officers of justice and heralds, and there leave the parties to decide the cause with their weapons.

It may be inferred from the treatise on heraldry, in the first volume of Edmondson, that the emperor Henry the first, surnamed the Birder, was the first prince, who, by solemn ordinaries, instituted and established the performance of public tournaments and justs at stated periods. After alluding to various suppositions concerning the cause, Franciscus Modius, a learned and correct author, is referred to; on whose authority it is stated, "that one of the emperor's courtiers, named Philip, who had travelled into

England and France, and there seen the nobility running weapons, either blunts or sharps, as they chose to just at the ring, combating at the barriers, and performing with; the attendants particularly noticing which of these other martial exercises, on his return home, represented was used; for oft, from private or national animosity, the them in so advantageous a light to his master, that the em- combatauts were induced to offer mortal combat; and, peror determined to institute the like practices within his when so inclined, each touched the shield of his adversary own dominions; and, thereupon, commanded the palatine of with sharps, or the sharp end of his weapon; but when the Rhine, and the dukes of Bavaria and Franconia, in only a trial of skill was intended, the contrary method was conjunction with the before-mentioned Philip, to draw up made use of, which sufficiently displayed their amicable proper articles for regulating those meetings and exercises, intentions. In such cases, honour was their scope, and aniagreeably to the practice used in England and France, on mosity was avoided, as no disgrace attended the vanquished; the like occasions: and that such articles, being accordingly to whom, according to the precepts of chivalry, the victor prepared by the commissioners, and approved by the em- behaved with the kindest attention, palliating the defeat, by peror, were, in the year 938, published in his court, and ascribing the victory to the fate of arms, and encouraging ratified by an imperial constitution; whereby it was also him to expect similar advantages on another opportunity. ordained, that tournaments should every third year be Yet such was their desire for victory and renown at these solemnized in Germany and the countries belonging thereto." military exercises, that when they charged, it was to the According to these institutions, which were afterwards full extent of their might, and with so much fury that their generally adopted throughout Europe, all princes, lords, lances were often shattered to pieces at the encounter against barons, and gentlemen, were entitled and invited to exercise their coats of mail. The honour of the victory was also at these games, providing they possessed the necessary more enhanced by the prizes being presented by ladies, who requisites; which were to be, as before noted, gentlemen constantly prepared chaplets, and other ornaments, to of coat armour, and to prove themselves at least of four reward the bravest knights. They also presented them with descents of noble parentage, either paternally or mater- ribbons, or scarfs, which were termed ladies' favours. nally. All attempts at encroachment on those rules, when This appears to have been the origin of the ribbons which detected, were severely punished; and those persons whose distinguish so many orders of knighthood. honour was sullied by crime, were likewise excluded from taking a part in such diversions, though otherwise privileged by hereditary rights. The persons who were desirous to exercise, visited the lists some days previous to the nominated time for the commencement of the tournaments, completely armed, with liveries the same as they intended there to use, having their armorial bearings depicted on their shields, and embroidered on their surcoats and the caparisons of their horses. In this visit, each was preceded by his esquire, likewise on horseback, who bore in his right hand his master's tilting spear, with a pennon, charged with his arms, attached thereto; and in his left, the helmet, which was to be worn in the exercise, ornamented with lambrequins, ladies' favours, and further adorned with a torse or wreath, of the prevailing tinctures in the arms, and surmounted by the crest or device. On arriving near the barriers, it was made known by the sounding of a trumpet, when the appointed judges, who presided over the sports, came forth and met them. To those were made known the quality of the person, his name, armorial bearings, and other proofs of his possessing the requisite qualifications; which, after decision, the officers registered and recorded in their books. After this, the shield and helmet, displaying their appropriate honours and decorations, were hung above the tent or pavilion which he occupied; or, some times, on the barriers, trees, or other convenient places, near the place of justing. They were thus conspicuously displayed in the interim between the beginning of the sports, that each individual might, in time of combat, be publicly recognised by those badges. Among the whimsical introductions of pageantry, it became customary for the pages who attended and guarded the armour, to appear disguised, sometimes in the likenesses of Savages, Saracens, Moors, Sirens, &c.; and oft in the skins of various kinds of animals. It was their business, in conjunction with the appointed officers, or heralds, to take down the names and arms of such as challenged their master to combat. The mode of challenging was thus: the knights, or persons admitted to tourney, touched each other's shield with such

As these martial exhibitions became exceedingly prevalent in this country, and constituted the delight of our ancestors, it is presumed that a more particular description of those in England, with their regulations, will be interesting. It does not appear, if the authority of Colombiere, and other well reputed writers, may be relied upon, that we deviated materially from the institutions and arrangements invented and adopted by the Germans and French; but, on the contrary, when intricacies occurred, which rendered the decision of victory difficult, and which often happened from the number of combatants who engaged at the same time, their institutes were resorted to for final decision. A profusion of grandeur and magnificence constantly atteuded their display; the cost of which, except the equipage of the combatants, was supplied from the royal purse. It was also the policy of the Norman kings, by whom most of the foreign customs were introduced, to render them as attractive as possible; for the people of England being attracted by, and exceedingly attached to, such exhibitions, they were used as means for conciliating their affections, and also for exciting a warlike spirit among them.

Although during the reigns of Heury and John, many splendid meetings of this kind were held, yet they were more frequently celebrated, and with a still greater degree of elegance, during the chivalrous times of Edward III. A particular one is recorded, which occurred A.D. 1343, during the last-mentioned reign; which the king commanded should be proclaimed in the principal states of Europe: it lasted fifteen days, and was attended by many noble and distinguished foreigners.

A military triumph of this kind was appointed by Richard the second, A.D. 1390; in which his majesty rode in procession from the Tower to Smithfield, attended by sixty knights, and as many ladies of the court, sumptuously apparelled. In passing through Cheapside, a proclamation was made, that those knights would attend the lists on Sunday and Monday following, to challenge all comers. The same had been previously proclaimed in different parts of England, and also in Scotland, France, Germany, Flau

ders, Brabant, and Hainault; which induced many of the knights and nobility of those kingdoms to visit this country, in order to accept the challenge. Among these were many of great skill and reputation in arms, who gained much honour in the combat; as likewise did many of our English nobles. To the victor of the just, if a stranger, was adjudged a golden crown, presented by the queen and the ladies of her court; but if one of the sixty knights, he was to receive a rich bracelet. The English knights also promised to present the most skilful, if a stranger, with a valuable horse, caparisoned; and if an Englishman, with a falcon.

The English nobility, whose predilection for those exercises was great, gained much renown for their general superiority in the tournaments, &c.; to which they, in common with those of other nations, were also invited, when any such were held by the different European states. Segar gives an account of a splendid pageant of this sort, held in France, occasioned by the challenge of three French knights, named Boncequant, Roy, and St. Pie; which challenge, according to that author, was as follows.

"The great desire wee have to know the noble gentlemen inhabiting neere the kingdome of France, and therewith longing to make triall of their valour in armes, have mooved us to appeare at Ingueluert, the 20 of May next, and there to remain thirty dayes. We also determine to be accompanyed with other noble gentlemen, louers of armes and honour, there to encounter all commers with lances, either sharpe, blunt, or both; and every man shall be permitted to run five courses.

"We, likewise, hereby give you to understand, that such order is taken, as every one of us shall have his shield and empreaze hanging on the outside of the pavilion; to the end, if any of you desire to runne, then the day before, you may with a wand, or such a lance as you intend to run with, touch the shield; and whoso meaneth to try his fortune, both with blunt and sharpe, must touch the shield with either, and signifie his name to him that has our said shields in keeping.

"It is, moreover, ordered, that every defender may bring with him one other gentleman, in lieu of a padrin, to encounter us both, or single, as it shall please them. Wherewith, we pray and desire all noble and worthy gentlemen (of what nation soever) to beleeve, that no pride or malice hath moved us to this enterprise, but rather an earnest desire to see and know all such noble gentlemen as are willing to make proof of their vertue and valour, without fraude or covin. In witnesse whereof, every one of us have signed these letters with our seales and empreaze. Written and dated at Montepessolane, the 20 of November, 1389.

(Subscribed)" BONÇEQUANT. ROY. S. PYE." It is said, that above one hundred knights and gentlemen repaired from this country to France, to accept this challenge; among whom were many noblemen of the first rank, and the English monarch, incognito. At the place appointed, they caused green pavilions to be erected; over the entrance of which, they suspended their respective shields, &c. The sports lasted four days; during which the English knights gained much commendation for their honourable and skilful behaviour in the contest.

In the reigns of several of the sovereigns subsequent to that of Richard II. tournaments continued to be held with equal pomp; and were, till later centuries, celebrated with magnificence during Lent, in Smithfield; and more particularly those which occurred in the reign of Henry VIII.

The most brilliant one, solemnized in this reign, took place in 1520, when the rival kings Henry and Francis met in the valley between Guisnes and Ardres, which from its profuse and lavish embellishments, was called "Le Champ de Drap d'or." The kings chose to them fourteen others, seven from each of their respective kingdoms, and challenged all comers to run at the tilt, and fight both at the tourney and the barrier. The ceremony was conducted by heralds, and previously proclaimed through the realm of France, by Thomas Benoilt, Clarencieux; and through Germany, by T. Wall, Norroy King of Arms.

Another remarkable one, on account of its being held in the night, by torchlight, took place in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, which was solemnized within her majesty's palace, at Westminster. In this combat, the Earl of Essex, with twelve knights, gorgeously dressed, the earl and his horse in white cloth of silver, and the rest in white satin; and the Earl of Rutland, with a like number, apparelled in blue, took opposite sides. To add to the richness of this scene, a magnificent chariot appeared in the middle of the lists, in which was a fair damsel, who, conducted by an armed knight, approached her majesty, whom she addressed in an appropriate manner, in the French tongue; after which, the queen gave the signal for assault, and the games commenced. In this reign, triumphs, or annual exercises of arms, were also held; which took place on the 17th November. These originated with Sir Henry Lea, K. G. Master of the Queen's Armory; who voluntarily vowed, that, unless infirmity, age, or other accident, did impeach him, he would, during his life, yearly present himself at the tilt, armed, in honour of her majesty. This he continued to do, till the infirmity of old age compelled him to resign; when he recommended the office to the Earl of Cumberland, and these ceremonies remained to be held with great pomp.

If any length of time had passed between the performance of such ceremonials, the form, or rules, were republished by the earl marshal, or such officer as bad the regulation of them, as in the following instance, which is a list of "The ordinances, statutes, and rules, made by John Lord Typtoft, Earle of Worcester, Constable of England, by the Kinges commandment at Windsor, the 29th of May, anno sexto Edwardi quarti, to be observed and kepte in all mauner juste of Peers royal within this realme of England, referring always to the Queene, and the Ladyes present the attrebution and gift of the prize, after the manner and forme accustomed to be attrebuted for their demerites according to thes articles ensuinge.

"1. Whosoe breakyth most speares as theye ought to be broken shall have the prize.

"2. Item. He that or whoso hittethe iij. times in the sight of the healme shall have the prize.

"3. Item. Whoso metythe two times cornell to cornell shall have the prize.

"4. Item. Whoso beareth a man downe with stroke of speare shall have the prize.

"Here followithe wherefore the Prize shall be lost.

"1. Whoso stryketh a horse shall have no pryse. "2. Item. Whoso stryketh a man his back bones shall have no prize.

"3. Item. Who hitteth the toyle iij. times shall have no prize.

"4. Item. Whosoe unhelmets himself ij. times shall have the province to be a gentleman of armes, bloud, and deno prize.

"Here followithe how Speres broken shall be allowed. "1. Whoso breakyth a spear betweene the sadle and the charnell of the helmet shall be allowed for one. "2. Item. Whoso brekyth the speare from the charnell upwards shall be allowed for two.

"3. Item. Whoso breaketh a speare so as he strikith him downe or puttyth him out of his sadle, or dismayeth him in suche wayes as he maye not runne the next course after, or breaketh his speare cornall to cornall shall be allowed iij. speres broken.

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"At Tourney. "Two blowes at the passage and tenne at the joining, more or lesse, as they make it all grypes, shockes, and fowle playe forbidden.

"How Prizes at Tourney and Barriers are lost. "1. Item. He that geveth a stroke with a pyke from the girdle downwarde or under the barrier shall have no prize. "2. Item. He that shall have a close gauntlette or any thing to fasten his sword to his hand shal bave no prize. "3. Item. He whose sword fawleth owt of his hand shal have no prize.

"4. Item. He that stayeth his hand in fyght onne the barriers shall have no prize.

"5. Item. He whosoever shall fight and dotbe not showe his sword to the judges before shal winne no prize. Yet it is to be understoon, that the challengers may wynne all these prizes against the defendants. The maynetayners may take order of assystaunce of the noble men of suche as they shall best lyke."

Then follows a notice, that it is illegal for any man to just, except "he be well known unto the King of Armes of

scent," with a declaration of some other necessary ceremonies.

The combatants at the tournament generally exercised on horseback; but sometimes they performed combats on foot. When any one was inclined to try his skill, either or both ways, he notified his intention, by suspending two shields above the entrance of his pavilion, one by the right, and the other by the left corner; the adverse person, that offered to fight on foot, signified as much, by touching the shield which hung by the right corner; whilst, on the contrary, he who chose rather to exercise on horseback, touched that which hung by the left. According to the "Memoirs of Chivalry," it was customary in the early times, to exhibit through the cloisters of some ancient monastery, the coat of arms, helmets, &c. of those who designed to enter the lists, that they might be viewed by such lords, ladies, and young gentlemen, who desired to see them; there also attended a herald, who named to the females the persons to whom they belonged; and if, amongst those pretenders, there were found any one, of whom a lady had cause to complain, either for speaking ill of her, or for any other fault, or injury, she touched his shield of arms, to demand justice; and left her cause to be decided by the judges of the tournaments.

Having already mentioned how consonant to the feelings of our ancestors, was judicial combat, or the deciding a quarrel by the fate of battle, both for the manner of redress, and as offering occasion for the signalizing of those pageants, in which they took so much delight; we shall now proceed to give a summary view of their order, and to notify their regulatious, in such instances as were under the cognizance of the court of chivalry; with a brief notice of some of the most particular that have taken place in England.

It is most probable, that such a mode of deciding quarrels would be the alternative, to which the people of all nations would resort, before the effects of civilization taught them to seek more legitimate redress.

The order of single combat was among the code of laws which William the Conqueror introduced into this country, and was encouraged through many successive reigns. The same rule, which governed the tourney, was applicable in this instance; as without the qualifications which constituted a gentleman of blood and of coat armour, the protection of the court of chivalry was not afforded. The process of this mode of law was most decisive; for the vanquished was adjudged guilty, and, if the case required it, immediately led to execution. Proofs by witness or circumstantial evidence were seldom resorted to; for the one party mostly made asseverations of the guilt of the other, which the accused denying, threw down his gauntlet, or any other gage: this being challenged by the accuser, he likewise threw down his to the other, intimating, by so doing, his willingness to prove the truth of the assertion by the fate of battle, in which the righteous party confidently anticipated victory, through the favour and justice of heaveu. The principal and general causes, which produced these meetings, were treasonable practices, and words against the sovereign or state,-crimes and defamation, which threatened either life or property. When combat for life was to be the issue of any of these disputes, the gages, or a cartell of challenge, was preferred to the earl marshal, with a petition that he would obtain the license of the sovereign for a solemn combat.

"The Order of Combats for Life, in England, as they are anciently recorded in the Office of Arms at London.

"1. The cartell, or bill of quarrel, as well of the challenger's behalf as of the defender's, was brought into the court, before the constable and marshal. And when the truth of the cause of quarrel could not be proved by witness nor otherwise, then it was permitted the same should receive trial by force of arms; the one party by assailing, the other by defending. The constable, as vicar-general unto the king, assigned the day of battle, which was to be performed within forty days next following, whereunto both the challenger and defender condescended. Then were the combatants commanded to bring in sufficient pledges for surety, that they and every of them should appear, and perform the combat, between the sun rising and going down, of the day appointed for the acquittal of their pledges; and that they, nor any of them, should do, or cause to be done, any molestation, damage, assault, or subtlety, against the person of his enemy, either by himself, his friends, his followers, or other person whatsoever.

“In what sort the King commanded the place of Combat to be made.

"The king's pleasure being signified to the constable and marshal, they caused lists, or rails to be made, and set up in length threescore paces, and in breadth forty paces. The place where the lists were appointed was upon plain and dry ground, without ridges, hills, or other impediments. At either end of the lists was made a gate, or place of entry, with a strong bar to keep out the people. For the guarding of either gate, one sergeant-at-arms was appointed, and commanded not to suffer any man to approach within four feet. The one gate opened towards the east, the other towards the west, being strongly barred with a rail seven feet long, and of such a height that no horse could pass under or over the same.

"In what sort the King did sit to behold the Combat. "On the day of battle, the king used to sit on a high seat, or scaffold, purposely made; at the foot whereof was another seat for the constable and marshal, who, being come thither, called before them the pledges, as well of the defendant as of the challenger, to be shown and presented to the king, there to remain within the lists as prisoners, until such time as the challenger and defender were come, and had performed all their ceremonies.

"In what sort the challenger used to present himself to Combat.

"The challenger did commonly come to the east gate of the lists, and brought with him such armours as were appointed by the court, and wherewith he determined to fight. Being at the gate, there he staid until such time as the constable and marshal arose from their seat and went thither. They being come to the said gate of the lists, and beholding the challenger there, the constable said, For what cause art thou come hither thus armed? and what is thy name?' Unto whom the challenger answered thus:- -My name is A. B. and am hither come, armed and mounted, to perform my challenge against C. D. and acquit my pledges; wherefore, I humbly desire this gate may be opened, and I suffered to perform my intent and purpose.' Then the constable did open the vizor of his head-piece to see his

face, and thereby to know that man to be he who makes the challenge.

"These ceremonies ended, the constable commanded the gate of the lists to be opened, whereat the armed man, with his necessaries and counsel, entered. From thence he was brought before the king, where he remained until such time as the defender was come thither.

"In like manner, the defender appearing, did make request unto the constable and marshal, desiring that they would be pleased to deliver and discharge his pledges. Whereupon the said constable and marshal did humbly desire the king to release them, because the defender is already come, and presented before his majesty, there to perform his duty.

"But, in case the defender did not come at time convenient in the day appointed, then did the king deliver his pleasure unto the constable, and he reported the same unto the marshal, who forthwith did give order unto the lieutenant that the defender should presently be called to appear by the herald-marshal of the king of the south, called Clarencieux; and, in case the herald-marshal of the king of the south was not present, then was the proclamation made by some other herald. But, if the combat was performed in the north, on the other side of the river Trent, in the circuit of the king of the north, called Norroy, then was the marshal to make proclamation; the words whereof was to this effect:—

'O yes! C. D. defender in this combat, appear now; for, in this day, hast thou taken upon thee to acquit thy pledges in the presence of the lords, constable, and marshal, and also defend thy person against A. B. who challenged thee to maintain the cause of this combat.'

"This proclamation was made thrice at every corner of the lists: but, if, at the second time, the party appeared not, then the herald did add these words: The day passeth; and, therefore, come without delay.' And if, in case the said defendant appeared not before noon, but staid until the third hour after, then did the herald, by commandment of the constable and marshal, in the beginning of the proclamation, say, 'A. B. appear in haste, and save thine honour, for the day is well near spent wherein thou didst promise to perform thine enterprize.'

"It was also used that the constable's clerk should, in a book, record the hour of the combatants appearing within the lists, either on foot or horseback, in what sort they were armed, of what colour the horses were, and how they were in all points furnished.

"It was also anciently used that the constable moved the king in favour of the combatants, to know whether his majesty were pleased to appoint any of his nobility, or other servants of reputation, to assist them for counsel in combat. The constable and marshal did survey the lances and other weapons wherewith the combat should be performed, making them equal and of even measure.


"The constable also appointed two knights or esquires unto the challenger, to keep the place free from impediments. The like was also done for the defender.

"The constable did also move the king to know whether his majesty, in person, would take the oaths of the fighters, or give him and the marshal authority to do it out of his presence.

"The constable also did send the marshal unto the challenger and his counsel to make ready his oath, declaring that, after that ceremony, all protestations should be void.

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