# A Treatise on Land-surveying: Comprising the Theory Developed from Five Elementary Principles; and the Practice with the Chain Alone, the Compass, the Transit, the Theodolite, the Plane Table, &c. ...

D. Appleton, 1875 - 424 pages

### Contents

 THE FIELDWORK 138 PLATTING THE SURVEY 157 CALCULATING THE CONTENT 180 MAGNETIC VARIATION 199 PART III 210 TRANSIT AND THEODOLITE SURVEYING 211 ADJUSTMENTS 221 235 Taking Bearings 235 PART V 260 PART VI 275 PART VIII 303 PART IX 311 314 Irregular changes 314 LAYING OUT AND DIVIDING UP LAND 334 UNITED STATES PUBLIC LANDS 348 366 To measure a horizontal 366
 379 Principle 1 104 By Surveyors Cross 2 change 3 247 4 468 Copying by tracing 5 0 6 992 16 Copying Plats 18 124 32 131 The sixline system 39 441 43 143 52 When the length of one side and the bearing of another 53 Q 61 7 64

### Popular passages

Page 153 - All the interior angles of any rectilineal figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.
Page 365 - ... And in all cases where the exterior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections or half sections, shall exceed or shall not extend six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in. running the lines from east to west, or from south to north.
Page 379 - Every circumference of a. circle, whether the circle be large or small, is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds.
Page 370 - President may prescribe, to cause the lands thus situated to be surveyed in tracts of two acres in width, fronting on any river, bayou, lake, or watercourse, and running back the depth of forty acres...
Page 155 - ... draw lines of direction along those streets, using two men as marks, or poles set in wooden pedestals, or perhaps some remarkable places in the houses at the farther ends, as windows, doors, corners...
Page 366 - The principal meridian, tho base line, and the standard parallels having been first astronomically run, measured, and marked, according to instructions, on true meridians, and true parallels of latitude, the process of running, measuring, and marking the exterior lines of townships will be as follows. Townships situated NORTH of the base line, and WEST of the principal meridian* Commence at No.
Page 372 - The precise relative position of islands, in a township made fractional by the river in which the same are situated, is to be determined trigonometrically — sighting to a flag or other fixed object on the island, from a special and carefully measured base line, connected with the surveyed lines, on or near the river bank, you are to form connection between the meander corners on the river to points corresponding thereto, in direct line, on the bank of the island, and there establish the proper...
Page 313 - If foot for each degree of Fahrenheit. If a wind blows with or against the movement of the sound, its velocity must be added or subtracted. If it blows obliquely, the correction will evidently equal its velocity multiplied by the cosine of the angle which the direction of the wind makes with the direction of the sound.* If the gun be fired at each end of the base in turn, and the means of the times taken, the effect of the wind -will be eliminated. If a watch is not at hand, suspend a pebble to a...
Page 366 - ... (either of which would indicate an important error in the surveying,) the lines must be retraced, even if found necessary to remeasure the meridional boundaries of the township, (especially the western boundary,) so as to discover and correct the error ; in doing which, the true corners must be established and marked, and the false ones destroyed and obliterated to prevent confusion in future ; and all the facts must be distinctly
Page 372 - A sufficient number of other trees standing within 50 links of the line, on either side of it, are to be blazed on two sides diagonally, or quartering toward the line, in order to render the line conspicuous, and readily to be traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other the farther the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be...