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any perrerbe mir ticarui tries the reconnaissance are mark-i. On urmachine à pike by disy, the officer should be alune, # # 23 u ime nice: bat supported at a distance by çe, u trim coservice by any cover that can be taken attırıya cEy nupit ne sont be accompanied by a strong paty: 221 by uitucing as nezr as possible towards daybreak, and ang prima, lle wou be enable to make more correct coservacas is a tre care aad state of repair of the works than at aer charirs.
The anzerous cccrecical signs recommended in most contiDental tary woeks are extremely przäng, difficult to remember, and are mostly piszebie. La a Curle work, the “ Aide Mémoire Portatif, pasüsted in 1834, there are no less than ten pages devoted to these signs. Beyoad the few that are absolutely necessary, and generally understood, it is far better to trust to references written on the face of the sketch, and the explanatory report, than by endeavouring to convey so much information by these conventional symbols and attempts at mathematical representations of the ground, to render a drawing so confused and difficult to comprehend that it really becomes of less value than an indifferent sketch with copious and clear remarks.
Below are given a few conventional signs, applicable only to military sketches :
11 Artillery Position.
Telegraph. to-Cavalry | Dark line shows
Cavalry | Dark line shows e Post-house.
? Mortar Battery.
WD Gun Battery.
* Site of an Engagement. - Redoubt.
O Passable. Mitt- Palisades.
t-Impassable for Cavalry. www.x Chevaux de Frise.
Impassable for Infantry. TOMORRE Abatis.
On the following page are those of most general use in topographical plan-drawing: the boundary lines are those employed in the Ordnance Survey; a similar arrangement could of course be adopted to mark the divisions of any other country, however they may be designated.
Smithies. A small horse-shoe with the open side turned towards the
Turnpike roads. The side from the light shaded.
Cross roads. Narrower, and both sides alike.
- Railroads. Both sides dark, very narrow, and perfectly parallel.
Canals. Distinguished from roads by the parallelism of the sides, the
locks, and bridges, and by having the side next the light shaded like rivers. Canals and navigable rivers to be coloured blue.
A. Trigonometrical point.
-Counties and Baronies.
Counties and Parishes.
Counties and Townlands.
- Baronies and Parishes.
- Baronies and Townlands.
- Parishes and Townlands.
Counties, Baronies, and Parishes.
Counties, Baronies, and Townlands.
Counties, Baronies, Parishes, and Townlands.
she ference of level between staneby means of reciprocal angles of
was a ready been alluded to in page 32, munc can be taken in the same manner,
e accurately as with a spirit level. It
antering upon this subject, to explain 5.- that must be applied to all vertical
arnose of obtaining relative altitudes - distance apart, which were referred
ration. If they are only separated ! corrections are too trifling to have
sult. * కు కాలం
Fishere, any number of points upon
centre are on the same true level; in, then ****
course, the apparent altitude or
two causes of error, currature and terrertrial gefractım: erection for the first of which depends uprot the “arc of distance," which is that contained between the two stations at the centre of the earth; and the second
their commirative elevations above the horizon.
The effect of the curvature of the earth is to depress any objet below the spectator's sensible horizon. Every borizocal line is prisonth a fangrut to the surface of the globe at that spot; and the titluste eet the corpoparment and true level at anv distant li **** W*** van een tea for the present jut uf the
with the companviny figure, to
i thy wyti thu te , souve the radius
ና ነተr's? - ክ
Putting a for the arc AD, t for the tangent AB (the horizontal line, or line of apparent level), r for the radius A C, or DC; and x for the excess of the secant BC above the radius or the difference between the true and apparent level. Then (r + x)=r?+t?. Whence x (27 + x) =t"; and, owing to the small proportion that any distance measured on the surface must bear to the earth's radius, 2 r may be substituted for (2r + x), and the arc a for the
a 2 tangent t; 2 r x then becomes = a’, and x = which, assuming
2r, the mean diameter of the earth at 7916 miles, gives x = 8.004 inches or •667 of a foot for one mile; which quantity increases as the square of the distance. Or otherwise,
2r + x :t::t: X, or 2r : a :: a : x, x being omitted in the expression (2r + x) and a substituted for t; whence x =
as before. A very easily remembered formula, derived from the above, for the correction for curvature in feet, is two-thirds of the square of the distance in miles; and another, for the same in inches, is the square of the distance in chains divided by 800*.
The second correction, terrestrial refraction, on the contrary, has the effect of elevating the apparent place of any object above its real place, and consequently, above the sensible horizon. The rays of light bent from their rectilinear direction in passing from a rare into a denser medium, or the reverse, are said to be refracted;
* The amount of the correction for curvature at different distances will be found by reference to the tables, and further remarks on Atmospheric Refraction in the chapter on the Definitions of Practical Astronomy.
and this causes an object to be seen in the direction of the tangent to the last curve at which the bent ray enters the eye, as in the last figure.
A is any station on the surface of the earth, the sensible horizon of which is AB; C and D are two stations on the summits of hills, of which C is supposed in reality to be situated on the horizontal line A B, and D above it, the angle of elevation of which is B AS. Owing, however, to the effects produced on the rays from these objects, in their passage to the eye, by the atmosphere through which they pass, they are seen in the directions A s and Ab, tangents to the curve described by the rays, and BAb, and SAs, are the measures of the respective terrestrial refractions.
Above eight or ten degrees of altitude, the rate at which the effects of refraction decrease as the altitudes increase (varying with the temperature and density of the atmosphere), is so well ascertained, that the refraction of the heavenly bodies for any altitude may be obtained with minute accuracy from any of the numerous tables compiled for the purpose of facilitating the reduction of astronomical observations; but when near the horizon, the refraction, then termed terrestrial refraction, is so unequally influenced by the variable state of the atmosphere that no dependence can be placed upon the accuracy of any tabulated quantities*. The rays are sometimes affected laterally, and they have been even seen convex instead of concave. Periods for observing angles of depression and elevation, particularly if the distances between the stations are long, should therefore be selected when this extraordinary refraction is least remarkable; morning and evening are the most favourable; and the heat of the day after moist weather, when there is a continued evaporation going on, is the least so.
It is a common custom to estimate the effects of refraction at some mean quantity, either in terms of the curvature, or of the arc of distance. The general average in the former case is į of the curvature, making the correction in feet for curvature and refraction combined = D’, D being the distance in miles as before. In the latter the proportion varies considerabyt; and General Roy,
* Puissant “Géodesie,” vol. i. p. 342; and “Recherches sur les Réfractions Extraordinaires, par Biot.” Also, the “ Trigonometrical Survey,” vol. i. p. 352.
+ Carr's “Synopsis of Practical Philosophy," articles " Levelling,' and 'Refraction.'