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The Church of St. Mary, Bishophill Junior, was next visited. Pointing out the masonry of the Saxon tower, Mr. Brock said this was one of the earliest and one of the most remarkable churches in the country. The variation in the masonry of the tower was very suggestive. The lower part was built of stone of all sorts and descriptions, whilst sandstone had been used for the building of the upper part, which was of somewhat different character. In the lower portion they noticed some of the stones arranged herring-bonewise, as they were in the little fragment of Paulinus' church in the crypt of York Minster. They would find that the Roman wall of York was faced with small stones of the same kind, but laid flat in shape; and from these circumstances he drew the inference that the stones used in the lower part of the tower of St. Mary, Bishophill Junior, were removed for the purpose from some Roman building; but the supply becoming exhausted before the completion of the tower, the builders were forced to quarry elsewhere; hence the dissimilarity in the character of the masonry. Later, Mr. Brock stated that having now had an opportunity of examining the masonry of the exterior of the fabric, he found that it bore the usual evidences of Roman tooling.

The party then moved to Micklegate Bar, whose fine front was much eulogised; thence the company proceeded, by way of the City Walls, to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society's Grounds. Canon Raine conducted the visitors over the Hospitium, the ruins of St. Mary's Abbey, the Museum, the remains of St. Leonard's Priory, and the Roman multangular tower at the angle of the city wall. The rich treasures of antiquity to be found within the Philosophical Society's storehouses were viewed with interest, whilst the ruins, which are such a picturesque feature of the grounds, excited admiration.

St. Michael's, Spurriergate, which was formerly in the custody of Canon Raine, was then inspected, and Mr. Brock called attention to the middle window on the south side, where there were the remains of a Jesse window. The semi-Norman columns of the nave are of great lightness and beauty, and resemble the pillars of the Gallilee of Durham Cathedral, suggesting the work of the same masons.

The party next passed on to St. Mary's, Castlegate, where attention was directed to the spire, which curved inwards instead of outwards, as is usual. Mr. Brock observed that within the church were evidences of all gradations of church architecture from the period of the Norman conquest. A church existed on the site before the conquest, as attested by Domesday Book. He traced the extension of the structure, which originally consisted of a nave of ordinary dimensions, and noticed the chantry chapel, in which traces of the altar are still discernible.

Crossing the road, the party entered the Castle, and under the guid. ance of Governor Taylor viewed Clifford's Tower and the dungeon in

which Dick Turpin is said to have been confined. Before quitting the Castle a vote of thanks was given to the Governor for his courtesy.

Leaving the Castle, the party wended their way to the Pavement, calling en passant at All Saints' Church with its lantern-tower, and after taking a look at the old houses in the Pavement they came to the Merchants' Hall, Fossgate, where Mr. Joseph Wilkinson, Secretary of the Company, conducted them over the old building, and sketched its historical associations in a short paper which we hope to print hereafter.

On the proposition of Mr. Wyon a vote of thanks was rendered to Mr. Wilkinson.

St. Martin's, Coney Street, was the last church visited, and the afternoon's tour terminated at Mr. James Backhouse's private Museum of valuable Mexican and Peruvian antiquities and local fossils.

At the evening meeting in the new Council Chamber, Guildhall, Canon Raine presided, and Dr. Phené read a paper on Constantine, which will be printed hereafter.


Mr. C. Lynam read a paper on Earthworks of Early Date", which will also be printed hereafter.

The Chairman, in response to a vote of thanks, said that Dr. Phené had not drawn the character of Constantine quite to his mind. He had spoken of him as a man of peace. He was a man of peace when he had removed all his adversaries out of the way. He destroyed his partner in the Empire, and killed his wife and one of his sons, which rather militated against his pacific character. He was, however, a man of wonderful constructive genius, very much like our own Henry I. With regard to Mr. Lynam's paper, he would respectfully suggest that he had underdated the age of those camps. It appeared to him that they dated back hundreds of years before there was a Roman in this country. The hill-sides in our own county were scored with those mounds, especially on the Wolds. He attributed them to the division of the country into small tribes, which were obliged to be continually on their defence. Those mounds were to some extent fortifications, and also places into which the cattle belonging to the tribe could be driven for security. He did not think they had regular stone walls. As Mr. Lynam said, the rubble was in the main what was gathered from the diggings inside. They erected palisades where they could make them. He could not agree that those mounds were ever reared by Saxons or Romans, or used by them. They could not find anything Roman or Saxon in them, except it was something dropped by a wayfarer. If they found anything it was flint implements used by a very ancient people indeed. It was not his intention to unfavourably criticise the papers, in which he had been extremely interested. The proceedings then terminated.


This day the Congress visited Knaresborough Castle and Church, where they were met in the porch by Mr. Basil T. Woodd, J.P.

Then the party proceeded to Boroughbridge, and were met by Mr. A. S. Lawson, J.P., and Mr. Alex. D. H. Leadman, F.S.A., and at once placed themselves under the guidance of Mr. Leadman, who possesses an unrivalled acquaintance with the antiquities which abound in Boroughbridge and Aldborough.

Mr. Leadman said that Boroughbridge could not boast of any ruined feudal castle, nor of monastic remains; but he invited them to follow him over a tract of interesting country. After enumerating the remains which they would examine, he pointed to the bridge across the Ure, and reminded the party that at that spot a battle between Thomas Earl of Lancaster and the rebellious barons, against Edward II, was fought 16th March 1322. Sir Humphrey de Bohun tried to force the passage of the bridge, but was speared from underneath the bridge, and the rebels fell back, and after a sanguinary conflict were routed. The Earl of Lancaster took refuge in the old church; but its sanctuary did not avail him. He was dragged from the building, stripped of his armour, and taken to Pontefract, where he was beheaded.

Mr. Leadman then conducted the party to the Devil's Arrows, and described their peculiarities. It was recorded that in 1694 there were seven of these strange relics, but the number was now reduced to three. Where did the stones come from? No doubt the stones belonged to the time of the earliest inhabitants of the island. They were certainly not Roman nor Druidical, and they were certainly not memorials of the dead. The legend was that the Devil was offended with Aldborough, and resolved to sweep the place off the face of the earth. Taking his stand on How Hill, near Fountains Abbey, and planting one foot on the front, and the other on the back, he thundered forth, "Boro Brigg keep out o't road, for Aldbro' town I will ding down", and forthwith launched his arrows. Mr. Leadman's theory is that they formed the remains of a temple erected to the worship of the sun.

The most interesting portion of the day's programme was the Isurium of the Romans. On reaching a point opposite the Manor House at Aldborough the party halted, while their guide reminded them that they were standing upon the remains of the Roman Wall that enclosed Isurium.

Moving on a few steps further, the party looked up at the cross, in the Decorated style, which formerly stood in the Market-Place at

Borough Bridge for over five hundred years, and was erected to commemorate the battle to which we have already alluded.

The Roman tesselated pavement was unearthed in 1732, and the party were reminded at this stage that of the nine Roman pavements which have been discovered in Aldborough, six were in situ.

A visit was next paid to the church. The figure, said to be of Mercury, let into the outside vestry-wall is supposed to come from a Roman temple. On a gravestone in the churchyard there is a sculptured relief' of a female in the attitude of prayer.

The Museum, full of Roman antiquities, was also a source of admiration; and before quitting Aldborough a cordial vote of thanks was given to Mr. Lawson.

On the return to Boroughbridge several of the visitors went with Mr. Leadman to look at the quaint sculptures that adorned the old church at Boroughbridge, and now find a lodgment in the vestry of the new church. After tea the party returned to York.

Canon Raine presided in the evening. A series of drawings and sketches of portions of old York, Fountains Abbey, and Rosslyn Chapel, executed many years ago by Mr. E. Moore of York, were exhibited in the Council Chamber, Mr. Moore having kindly lent them for the occasion. They included St. Mary's Abbey, the Old Castle Mills and surroundings, river-scenes on the Ouse and Foss, the Guildhall (riverfront), Stonegate (1840), portion of York Minster, east window of Fountains Abbey, and the tower, etc.

Mr. J. S. Rowntree contributed a paper entitled "Memories of an Ancient House in the Pavement, York", the building having been inspected on Tuesday.

Mr. McGuire, Town Clerk, being prevented by illness from attending, Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec., read a paper on the "Civic Insignia of York."

A paper was then read by Mr. J. H. Macmichael on "The Horn of Ulphus" in York Minster.

It is hoped that these papers will be printed hereafter in the Journal.


By invitation of the President, the members visited Fountains Abbey, where they were very hospitably entertained, and had an opportunity of viewing this famous ruin.

Prior to proceeding to Studley Royal, the party made an inspection of Ripon Cathedral. On arriving at Ripon the visitors were received in the Chapter House by the Very Rev. the Dean, Dr. Fremantle. The Communion-plate was displayed on a table, and the horns of the "wakeman". Up to the time of James I, when a new charter was granted to

the city, a noteworthy civic dignitary was known as the "wakeman”, and it was ordained in 1598 that the horn should be blown at 9 o'clock nightly at the four corners of the Cross, in conformity with ancient custom. This blast announced the setting of the watch; but though the discontinuance of the internecine warfare, and the pillaging which harassed the North Country in those olden days, has long made the sounding of the horn a mere form, it is still carried on with great punctuality, an official horn-blower giving three blasts at the Mayor's door and one at the Market-Cross at the hour named. The original horn, which is worn by the Sergeant-at-Mace in civic processions, is attached to an ample velvet belt which hangs over the shoulder of the bearer, and is studded with a vast number of silver badges with the names and arms of previous "wakemen" and Mayors engraven upon them, together with the insignia of the trading companies of the town. The most ancient of these badges bears date 1521, when the office of wakeman" was served by one Thomas Mankyn.


Another horn belonging to the Corporation was presented by the Dean of Ripon on the occasion of the millenary celebration, in signification, as he put it, of the connection between Church and State, the authority and civil rights of the city having been originally conferred through the Archbishop of York.

Dr. Fremantle observed that the Cathedral had certain points of interest historically which were deserving of attention, seeing that it was probably one of the very first buildings erected of stone by Wilfrid, and was the first to obtain a charter, as he believed, from King Alfred, Ripon thereby becoming one of the first cities of England. The crypt in the Cathedral was an object of peculiar interest, and other points in the history of the edifice were deserving of notice. There could be no doubt that at the time when the persecution fell upon the monks at Lindisfarne, they brought the body of Cuthbert and the head of Oswald to Kipon. They were on their way to Chester-leStreet, but seemed to have paused in the neighbourhood of Ripon for a time. He was not sure whether they came actually to Ripon Minster or to a little church that originally stood at Winksley. From his own. researches he was rather of opinion that they might have gone to Winksley, and settled on the moors there for a time in order to avoid persecution, and they passed thence to Durham, where Cuthbert's body and Oswald's head now lie buried. Ripon had the same privileges in early days as were enjoyed by Beverley. They had the refuge crosses, and could now identify the sites of them.

Before the party left the Chapter House, the Dean presented to Mr. Birch, Hon. Sec., one of the medals struck at the Royal Mint on the occasion of the millenary festival at Ripon. It is now in the care of the Hon. Treasurer.

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