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of a series of arches of bright red bricks, upon which a massive wall (now removed) had been erected. These arches, which are four in number, with portions of two others, rest upon groups of piles formed of trunks of unbarked elm-trees about 11 in. in diameter. These have been driven into black earth, evidently a portion of what was once part of the bed of the river Thames, and unfit for carrying a heavy building. There being no sign of fracture from the process of driving, it appears that the piles must have been driven to their assigned depth, and their heads then cut to a level line. Each group consists of three rows, each of four piles. The arches, which are of depressed, pointed form, are two bricks thick on face, and have a rise of about 2 ft. The thickness was about 4 ft. 6 in., having been arranged to

carry a wall three bricks thick. Above the piles the arches sprang,

not from brickwork, but from a solid mass of chalk, which had been neatly cut to form the skewbacks of the arches. The spandrels were also filled up with chalk to the level of the top of the arches, and upon this mass the wall was carried up, with two sets-off, to the thickness already named, in the same bright red brickwork; the whole thickness, and not the facing merely, being thus formed. Traces remain, at the beginning of the excavation, of the base of the wall, which appears to extend farther to the north, in the direction of Tudor Street; but the southern end now stops at the new building at the end of Water Street. The extreme northern end is 70 ft. south from the present frontage of the houses on the south side of Tudor Street. A portion of a chamfered plinth of Caen stone has been cut through at this point, and it appears to continue beneath the adjoining unexcavated land.

Other return and cross-walls exist below the site, not yet touched, and these will be laid open in a few weeks.

The frontage of the wall looked south, and the plinth was on this side. The bricks are solidly bedded in mortar, so that it is impossible to remove them whole. The work is a very good specimen of building construction, and it is without question a portion of old Bridewell, erected in the reign of King Henry VIII. They are laid in an irregular bond, approaching to "Old English", and in two places a layer of newer tiles has been inserted for some unexplained cause.

An encaustic tile, of fourteenth century date, 4 in. square, with a yellow, floriated pattern on a red ground, was found in progress of the works.

The bulk of the work discovered had to be demolished for the insertion of the concrete for the south wall of the new building; but a portion of the thickness, which extends beyond the limits of the site, still remains along the whole of the line, buried in the adjoining land.

The Chairman exhibited an old key of the church chest at South Creake, of fine design, and in good preservation, with a hollow space. in the shaft holding a ball.

Mr. A. G. Langdon exhibited the rubbing of an Ogam stone found in Cornwall, the only one found in that county, and read notes on it which we have printed above at p. 336.

Mr. J. R. Allen, F.S.A.Scot., exhibited brass seals of Kelso Abbey and Sonnebecke, in the diocese of Ypres; also a collection of bronze implements, of which he promised to send notes hereafter.

Mr. Allen then read a paper on "Early Christian Monuments of Glamorganshire", illustrated with a large series of photographs, which it is hoped will be printed in a future volume.

Mr. Brock read the following notes by Dr. Alfred C. Fryer:

"Celt found near Swansea.-I have pleasure in exhibiting a small stone celt which was found in the neighbourhood of Black Pill, on Swansea Bay. Near this hamlet, where the celt was found, are still to be seen the blackened stumps of a submerged forest. The celt measures 2 in. in length, and is 1 in. in width."

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"Discovery at North Curry, near Taunton.-While excavations were being made for the foundation of a cross in the churchyard of North Curry, a silver penny of Ethelred II was discovered about 2 ft. from the surface. It bears on the obverse a bust of the King, and the inscription, Edelraed Rex Anglor.'; and on the reverse a cross extends to the margin, and 'Brynsige Mo Pint', showing that the coin was struck at Winchester, and that Brynsige was the moneyer. The coin has been presented to the Taunton Museum by Prebendary Buller."

"Discovery at Horrabridge, Devonshire.-During the removal of two cottages at Horrabridge, for the site of a new church, evidences have been found which point to the existence of a chapel on that locality. In fact, there is a tradition that there was once a chapel in that neighbourhood, dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The jambs and heads of a granite doorway, the mutilated heads of several windows, a curious old corbel, and a fragment of stained glass, have been discovered. It is gratifying to know that they will be used in the new building, thus connecting the new nineteenth century church of St. John the Baptist with the old fifteenth century chapel of that dedication."



Thomas Blashill, Esq., was elected Vice-President in place of J. W Grover, Esq., deceased.

Mr. W. J. Nichols, Bromley, was elected a Member of Council.

Wm. Fergusson Irvine, Esq., Liverpool

Rev. F. Sanders, Hoylake

Geo. Frater, Esq., Wrexham

were elected Hon. Local Correspondents.

Mr. Brock, Hon. Sec., F.S.A., read the following notes:



On Wednesdays and Fridays, before and after the hours for private prayer, I am in the habit of scrutinising the architecture, etc., of the ancient parish church, probably late Saxon and early Norman. While doing so I noticed (in June of this year) evidences of fresco on the walls supporting the chancel-arch. These for a time appeared in detached, faint marks of vermilion, but on damp days would show outlines of designs.

The fresco (lime) plaster is as thin as paper, and the vermilion paint seemed in most places to have penetrated through the plaster, and stained the stone under the plaster. After a little steaming of the walls, continued outlines of designs began showing.

About the first week in July last I accidentally noticed the form of a chalice, 7 in. high, on the north wall supporting the chancel-arch. This I carefully watched under different lights. After thoroughly satisfying myself of its form, I showed the outline to several parishioners and visitors, who pronounced it to be undoubtedly that of a chalice. Very near this chalice, on the right hand, the outline of a Maltese cross in a circle (about 3 in.) is clearly visible. Some more this design are to be seen near and far from the chalice. Therefore the Maltese cross in a circle, I presume, is the design of the fresco; but what about the chalice?

Knowing that to consecrate a church (in olden days as well as in our own) without a celebration of the Holy Eucharist, the greatest act of Christian worship, is to sacrifice much of the impressiveness and beauty of such a service, I conclude that the said painted chalice was to commemorate the consecration of (or the first service in) the church. Am I right? What would be the date of the form of chalice?

Mr. J. M. Wood exhibited a black pottery urn from Colchester, found from 3 to 4 ft. below the surface when laying a trench for a water-main; also a Samian fragment; and a piece of fayence.

Mr. R. Earle Way exhibited, from Bankside, near the site of the Globe Theatre, an iron axe, fragments of a Roman pavement, Roman

vases, horn, parts of a man's skeleton in Roman armour, bottle, horseshoe, stopper, needle, pin, spoons, spurs, shoes, tobacco-pipes, pieces of mail-armour, coins of Trajan, Gallienus, and Tetricus; a few coins of medieval, seventeenth century, European; and Egyptian beads.

Mr. Brock exhibited, on the part of the Rev. David Bowen of Monkton, Pembroke, a photograph of his church, now restored; of the two chancels, one is still in ruins, but he hopes to repair it eventually. Mr. T. Sheraton sent an imperfect bronze celt found at Llandudno. Mr. Brock exhibited a fifteenth century bound book with stamped leather and embossed brass clasps and corners, well preserved, dated 1483.

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec., read the second part of Mr. Pritchett's paper on Selby Abbey, which has been printed at pp. 285-91.

Mr. Curtis explained the discovery of the fragments of the windows in the triforium, and described the subjects, condition, and age of the glass.

Mr. C. H. Compton, V.P., read Mr. Grover's paper on " How I found the Station of Bibracte”, which it is hoped will be printed hereafter.

Antiquarian Entelligence.

The Architecture of the Churches of Denmark. By MAJOR A. HEALES, F.S.A. (London: Kegan Paul and Co.)-Major Heales says in his introductory remarks, that, in fact, no Englishman interested in archæology appears ever to have visited Denmark. This may be true in the main, but at any rate the author has gathered up in his very interesting work some remarkable and typical forms of Danish church architecture, which will in some respects make amends for the neglect his countrymen have hitherto shown to these things which lie so near to them, and, it is hoped, induce some of us to devote a holiday, often spent in less interesting researches, in a land evidently teeming with novel aspects worthy the attention of the comparative antiquary. Denmark, we are told, is a great country, possessing a marvellous number of ancient churches. Foremost among these is the Cathedral of Roskilde, of the end of the twelfth century, the whole building of which is constructed of brick, occasionally moulded, with the exception of some granite shafts. It is comparable with nothing of the kind in this country. The tall and slender single spires springing from the western towers produce a graceful and unwonted effect upon the eye. Early Runic carving and peculiar details of all kinds abound in these Danish churches, which have been fully illustrated, not only from the author's own collections, but from the works of Professor Löffler and Herr Kjöbke, who with others have produced valuable notices of Danish ecclesiological subjects, but being written in their own language, which is carelessly neglected among us, we are indebted to Major Heales for giving us an insight into their treasures. A return to a universal literary and scientific language appears to be sorely needed now if any real progress in the numerous sciences of the world is to be achieved. It was the universal use of Latin in the mediæval ages that paved the wa for the progress of human intelligence in the later days. What that language shall be we must leave others to decide, but we live too quickly now to be able to devote time to acquiring a mastery over eight or ten European languages, hence the Scandinavian group of tongues and their concomitant literature have been put out of sight.

It is this which is answerable for our small

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