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influence began to be felt, often sinking into that of a single half-roll section. Its most elaborate examples are marked by a simplicity, and strength, that give it a dignity often wanting in those of the second or Norman age of its use.

The second period of the use or recurrence to interlacing ornament (to which class the greater number of such objects belong) took its rise somewhere about or shortly prior to 1090; when the vastly increased use of cut stone erections had, in the second generation from the Conquest, raised up a school of native masons of Saxon stock, who naturally supported a fashion which reverted to the old style of their native ornament. Though but a fashion, yet as a return to local use, it is both interesting and well worthy of study. In this, as usually is found to be the case, the imitating artist often seeks to hide his want of originality in an over-elaboration of ornament, considering, no doubt, he thus was improving on the older design. Of such class the so-called monument of Abbot Hedda at Peterborough Cathedral, and the base of its not very distant neighbour, the churchyard cross at Castre, are admirable specimens; as, indeed, are almost all the over-elaborated ones.

Double-strap is now seldom found, while that strap (so by courtesy termed) into which the dragon's or other animals' tails change when forming the cloud of interlacement so often seen, is in section reduced to about half the thickness of ordinary sash-cord.

Caps and spandrels of arches are filled with a sort of natural foliage. But patient study soon brings to light other points, readily revealing to an experienced experienced eye the division in date existing between this Norman imitationwork and its older Saxon ancestry.

Excellent samples of the changes through which the fashion itself passes are seen, where it appears in the churches of St. Peter's, Northampton, and Castre; both the work of the same French architect, and in both the strapends begin to receive and change into leafy terminations. At Kirkstall Abbey, in this county, are no less than four examples of such ornamentation, all still occupying their original position in the building. Here, at least, the most obstinate supporter of this recent heresy cannot

pretend that prior to 1155 any former abbey had existed on the site, a date, by the way, before which the entire fashion would, in Northamptonshire, have probably passed away. Thus that dreary stalking-horse called "re-used materials" cannot be trotted out to ride off upon here. The five sketches from Kirkstall Abbey Church, which accompany these notes, show them as they now remain, while the process of change they underwent follows exactly their rotation of execution in the structure.

Besides these, still later cases of such use had here existed, in the shape of windows so ornamented; but the five fragments left, most unfortunately, are not sufficient to recover the design; while, singular to say, one of these stones belonged to curved bar-tracery. (See sketches F.)

The first sketch (A) presents a view of the western impost to the circular-headed recess, over the piscina, at the east end of the south wall of the choir; the very earliest work commenced of the Abbey Church. It has been engraved, I think, for Mr. J. H. Parker. Naturally enough this is most akin to actual pre-Norman ornamentation, though the serpent's head and leafy tail fairly reveal the "cloven hoof" of pretension, to that which it

is not.

Sketch B gives the caps supporting the north side of that arch, which opens into the central eastern chapel from the north transept. In it the leaf-terminations begin to overwhelm the interlacing parts of the design, and as elsewhere mark that movement of change forwards which was taking place in it.

Sketch c shows the north-west angle of the base of the third pillar, west of the crossing pier of the north arcade of the nave. The other three angles are blocked, and left unfinished. Its design approaches much more to the old work than the last; but the breadth and treatment of the strap, and its remarkable production from a fillet of the very moulded base, divides it from all true Saxon work altogether.

Sketch D presents the highest up of all those remaining in the very places they had been formed to fill. It is that corbel-termination that supported the south side of the great western arch leading from the

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crossing into the nave. In this, the now coming abandonment of the fashion, then close at hand, is foreshadowed, and the penitential whips, forming the design, may be said to considerably hide the interlacing idea they are arranged to form. Corbel from top of wall (E).

Such ornamentation at Kirkstall Abbey is of necessity later than 1155 (probably beyond the period of its final disuse in Northants). At St. Peter's, Northampton, and Castre churches, we can approximate towards the age of the designer, as the dedication-inscription of the last declares it took place in 1124, and his work must have, therefore, been going on a few years previously. In like manner, those who visit Adel Church (no great distance from Kirkstall) will see caps with interlacing work used in its south porch. Now its date is generally accepted as after 1136. Nor can any one doubt of its being a Norman design.


Moulded Cornice with Interlacing Work.

Whenever a date can be obtained or approximated to, the evidence so given is most satisfactory as to the Norman parentage of this fashion, and in a recent Journal is illustrated a most beautiful specimen of exactly the same fashionable re-use in the chancel-arch of Wallingford Church. This presents so many points by which it can be assigned to its late Norman date that it raises astonishment, how any real architectural student can doubt the question, or hesitate for a moment, in assigning it to its

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