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On the hills and moors of Derbyshire are frequently being unearthed the remains of our far-off residential ancestors, in relics of their bodies and bones, and of their utensils, and of contemporary animals, and this notwithstanding all that has been discovered by "that archdigger", the late Mr. Bateman of Lomberdale, and his lieutenant, the industrious antiquary, Llewellyn Jewitt, in the numerous tumuli, cists, dolmens, menhirs, etc., etc. Only lately, in Haddon Fields, on high ground between Over Haddon and Bakewell, and overlooking the charming valley of the Lathkil, some workmen disturbed a barrow containing sepulchral remains. The slabs of the cist were smashed, and the skulls and portions of the human skeleton also partially destroyed, the portions being conveyed to the local surgeon, Dr. Greenhough of Youlgreave, adjacent. "The corpse had been laid on its right side, with the head to the west, in a contracted attitude, but instead of the knees being brought up towards the chest, as is usually the case in such burials, it took the Oriental attitude of sitting upon its feet, the feet being in a straight line with the body. The exact position of the arms and hands is uncertain. The skeleton lay upon a bed of chert fragments (there is a chert quarry on Bakewell Moor), with a few pieces of limestone and sandstone, which showed signs of the action of fire.”

Such is the report given by those fortunate enough to see it the day after the discovery, and related, with illustrations of the skulls, by Mr. Ward, a member of our Derbyshire Association, in their Journal (vol. x). There were also found fragments of a quern, bones of animals, but no pottery.

At Haddon Hall there is the lower stone of a quern, long used as a receptacle of a water down-spout, and covered with moss and earth, and easily recognised: this has just been removed within the Hall for better custody.

When the foundations of the Town Hall at Bakewell (completed last year) were being dug out, a few coins of Charles II were found, the upper stone of a quern (now in the writer's possession, he being luckily on the spot when the workman's pick struck it, but without injury), and a bronze ring, large enough to be a thumb ring, were discovered. The ring bears a coronet and the letter V.

The site of the new buildings is on the Haddon Hall (Vernon) estate. The workmen sold the ring to a local jeweller. The writer produces a very clear impression of it. Very old houses, probably sixteenth century, occupied the site, the walls being immensely thick, the interior of which were filled with rubble, and very little mortar had been used.

Just lately the writer saw, in a cottage garden at Bakewell, a small vessel shaped like a miniature font. It was serving the purpose of a flower-pot. I immediately secured it. It is a mediæval stone mortar, 9 ins. high, 11 ins. in diameter, and the walls of the bowl are 14 in. thick. Rev. Charles Kerry tells me there is a remarkably fine one at Breadsal, decorated with a boat-keel; "another, like mine," he says, " was found in the grounds of the site of the old Priory of St. Bees, Cumberland. Wheat was much used, in a brayed condition, by our 'frumenty' loving forefathers, and these were the vessels used for its preparation."

On Stanton Moor, near Bakewell, noted for the stone circle, which is now happily included in the National Ancient Monuments, some labourers, while quarrying, lately found a cinerary urn, which it is almost needless to say was broken by the finders before they knew what it was or its value. Its contents were burnt bones, and a quaint jar or cup, the upper walls of which are open; it is believed to be an incense-cup. The urn has been described by Mr. John Ward, of Derby, as being 14 ins. high and 10 ins. across, and the jar or cup as being of finer clay, measuring 2 ins. high, and 23 ins. in diameter at the mouth, and very narrow at the base. Another urn and cup were also discovered a few weeks later, in the same locality, but these were hopelessly broken. This cup was slightly larger than the former one.

At Cliffe Hulme College, a mile or two past Baslow, on the road to Stony Middleton, in 1888, labourers, while sinking for water, were attracted by the odd shapes of fragments of stone into which their picks had been driven, and broken them up in the gritstone in the process of boring. They had, in fact, unfortunately broken up into pieces a large number of animal remains, with which this gritstone, for 11 ft. deep, is packed-huge birds, the

wings and claws of one of which, like an eagle, are very plainly to be seen, as well as antediluvian animals. There are no traces of human remains, as, in fact, we could not expect to find any. By the courtesy of Mr. Rattray, Principal of the College (a missionary Nonconformist college), the writer was able to make a careful examination. of them, which, to his extreme regret, had been so unwittingly mutilated. The college stands on a high eminence beside the main road, and this rock is behind the house.

The old church of Chapel-en-le-Frith, near Buxton, is in the most dilapidated condition, and demands restoration or rebuilding. On these two words hang much controversy. Antiquarian opinion leads to restoration, parishioners' to rebuilding. Some money has been left, with discretionary power, towards this church work. The somewhat ambiguous word "repairs' repairs" is, however, used in the legacy. The writer went to examine the church, the chancel of which is the point of division of opinion. Nothing can well be worse than its present state, and the desecration by additions and alterations of later years; but the chancel should not be pulled down. There are points of architecture which should not be destroyed, even to be reproduced; the antiquity will be gone. The chief reason given against us is that the walls are insecure; but it appears to the writer that the roof, or, rather, ceiling, is the insecure part, and as that must be removed for it is a flat, plastered affair-a good deal of the difficulty ends. The chancel, in fact, is the only remaining part of the original church, except some features in the interior, the remaining portion being rebuilt in the worst period of church architecture, the incongruity of which is apparent. "The chancel", writes Dr. Cox, in his Derbyshire Churches, "which has an embattled parapet and a single gargoyle on the south side, is lighted at the east end by a pointed Decorated window (circa 1350) of three principal lights, with interlaced tracery. There is also a three-light square-headed window of the Perpendicular period on each side of the chancel, the lower part of the one on the south side being cut away for a doorway. On the north side of the chancel is a protruding vestry of exceptional ugliness.

[This is what the writer has already alluded to as being almost a desecration-it has a huge domestic outhouse chimney.] At the east end of the north aisle is a threelight pointed window, also of the Perpendicular period, but the remainder of the exterior is of the Georgian mixture." The interior shows distinct marks of the fourteenth century architecture. On one's way to view the church, one is struck at the very entrance of the churchyard by a large stone coffin by the gate-post on top of the wall, placed as a coping.

In the parish

This church has historic interest. registers (quoted by Dr. Cox) is the following record: "1648, September 11. There came to this town of Scots army led by the Duke of Hambleton, and squandered by Colonell Lord Cromwell, sent hither prisoners from Stopford, under the conduct of Marshall Edward Matthews, said to be 1,500 in number, put into ye church Sept. 14. They went away Sept. 30 following. There were buried of them before the rest went away 44 persons, and more buried Oct. 2, who were not able to march, and the same yt died by the way before they came to Cheshire 10 and more." Another entry later in the year speaks volumes for the then condition of things: "1648 Nov. Noe Minster, noe churchwardens !"

The plain octagon font is probably of fifteenth century date. The original piscina is now plastered up.

The fine parish church of Ilkeston, situated as it is on the highest ground in the town, is remarkable in many ways. Like many other old churches it has suffered from so-called restoration in the worst period of church architecture. First, on entering the building, one is struck with the absence of any stained or heraldic glass in so old a church. The present vicar has recovered somedozen or so quarries of fourteenth century date, which are in some respects remarkable. They are small squares of clouded glass with a cross thereon. These, along with the record of some heraldic glass, go to show that the windows were once filled with stained glass, or, at all events, some of them. The base of the old font is in the church, from which the modern font has been designed. It has been restored to the church by the present vicar, the Rev. E. Muirhead Evans, who is very much the

"right man in the right place", and cares for his fine old church and for its careful preservation. This fragment of the old Early English font was discovered in the Vicarage gardens, where lately a very good brass plate was also found in a heap of rubbish, having disappeared from the chancel in 1831. It is to the memory of Mr. Benjamin Day, late of Arnold, in co. Nottingham, who died in 1760, æt. 94. Mr. Evans has had this tablet restored to the church. The writer does not know another church wherein he can more comfortably listen to a long, prosy sermon (such as the curates used to preach in his time). The architecture is admirable. Like a thing of beauty, it is a joy for ever. The style and decoration of the arches are studies, while the almost unique stone chancel-screen is delightful to look upon. The arches dividing the exceptionally large Lady Chapel, or north aisle, are very beautiful.


When the restoration of the chapel was commenced (very lately), upon the removal of the old seats two very interesting tombstones, or slabs, were discovered, belonging to the Flamstead family. It is sad to have to record, on the authority of the present vicar, that "a great many monumental stones and brasses were in existence about the year 1831, but what became of most of them is now unknown." The two most remarkable "finds", the monuments of the Flamsteads, are in very good preservation. This goes to show how careless, fifty years ago, was the work of so-called "restoration". The larger Flamstead slab is of slate, about 7 ft. by 3 ft., having a moulded border, and bearing upon its upper portion a coat of arms and crest in relief. The arms are, on an oval-shaped shield, or, three bars sa. ; on a chief sa. a lion passant or. The crest: A dog's head erased arg. charged with two bars, and the ears or. The inscription: "Here lyeth the body of John Flamstead, of Little Hallam, gentleman, who dyed December ye 15th, 1745, aged 72 years." The smaller one is a stone slab, about 2 ft. 6 ins. by 2 ft., having in the centre a small brass shield, with the inscription: "Here lyeth the body of Templer Flamstead, son of John and Ann Flamstead, who was born October 22, 1712, and departed this life April 6, 1713."

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