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and Cynric, his son, with five ships, at the place which is called Cerdics-ore, and the same day they fought against the Welsh.' A.D. 496-500.
A.D. 501. This year Port, and his two sons Bieda and Mægla, came to Britain with two ships, at a place which is called Portsmouth, and they soon effected a landing, and they there slew a young British man of high nobility.
A.D. 508. This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whose name was Natan-leod, and five thousand men with him. After him the country was named Natan-lea, as far as Cerdicsford [Charford].
A.D. 509. This year St. Benedict the abbat, father of all monks, went to heaven.
A.D. 514. This year the West-Saxons came to Britain with three ships, at the place which is called Cerdic's-ore, and Stuf and Whitgar fought against the Britons, and put them to flight.
A.D. 519. This year Cerdic and Cynric obtained the kingdom of the West-Saxons; and the same year they fought against the Britons where it is now named Cerdicsford. And from that time forth the royal offspring of the West-Saxons reigned.
A.D. 527. This year Cerdic and Cynric fought against the Britons at the place which is called Cerdic's-lea.
A.D. 528, 529.
A.D. 530. This year Cerdic and Cynric conquered the island of Wight, and slew many men at Wiht-garas-byrg [Carisbrooke, in Wight].
A.D. 534. This year Cerdic, the first king of the West-Saxons, died, and Cynric his son succeeded to the kingdom, and reigned from that time twenty-six years; and they gave the whole island of Wight to their two nephews, Stuf and Wihtgar.
A.D. 538. This year, fourteen days before the kalends of March [15th Feb.], the sun was eclipsed from early morning till nine in the forenoon.
A.D. 540. This year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth of the kalends of July [20th June], and the stars showed themselves fullnigh half an hour after nine in the forenoon.
A.D. 544. This year Wihtgar died, and they buried him in Wiht-gara-byrg [Carisbrooke].
1 The genealogy of the West-Saxon kings, which Gibson here inserted in his edition of the Chronicle, will be given in its proper place.
2 The remainder of this year is from E.
From F. The true date of Benedict's death is A.D. 543.
To the end of the year inserted in A. from E.
5 B. C. F. xxvii.
• See Beda's epitome.
7 See Beda's epitome.
A.D. 545, 546.
A.D. 547. 'This year Ida began to reign, from whom arose the royal race of North-humbria; and he reigned twelve years, and built Bambrough, which was at first enclosed by a hedge, and afterwards by a wall. Ida was the son of Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingwi, Ingwi of Angenwit, Angenwit of Aloc, Aloc of Benoc, Benoc of Brand, Brand of Baldaeg, Baldaeg of Woden, Woden of Freotholaf, Freotholaf of Freothowulf, Freothowulf of Finn, Finn of Godulf, Godulf of Geat.
A.D. 552. This year Cynric fought against the Britons at the place which is called Searo-byrig [Old Sarum], and he put the Bretwalas to flight. Cerdic was Cynric's father; Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brand, Brand of Baeldaeg, Baeldaeg of Woden. And Egelberht, the son of Eormenric, was born; and in the... tieth year of his reign he received baptism, the first of the kings in Britain.
A.D. 556. This year Cynric and Ceawlin fought against the Britons at Beran-Byrig. [Banbury?]
A.D. 560. This year Ceawlin succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and Ida being dead, Aelle succeeded to the kingdom of North-humbria, each of whom reigned thirty years. was the son of Yffa, Yffa of Uxfrea, Uxfrea of Wilgils, Wilgils of Westerfalcna, Westerfalcna of Saefugl, Saefugl of Saebald, Saebald of Sigegeat, Sigegeat of Swabdaeg, Swabdaeg of Sigegar, Sigegar of Waegdaeg, Waegdaeg of Woden, Woden of Frithowulf.
A.D. 565. This year Aethelbriht" succeeded to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and held it fifty-three years. In his days the holy pope Gregory sent us baptism, that was in the two-andthirtieth year of his reign; and Columba, a mass-priest, came to the Picts, and converted them to the faith of Christ: they are dwellers by the northern mountains. And their king gave him the island which is called Ii [Iona]: therein are five hides of land, as men say. There Columba built a monastery; and he was abbat there thirty-two years; and there he died when he was seventy-seven years old. His successors still have the place. The 1 See Beda's epitome.
2 The remainder of the year is inserted in A. from E. F.
3 B. C. G. to the end of the year.
The following pedigree is not in E.
6 Imperfect in the MS.
5 From F.
8 The duration of these reigns is from E. F., and is inserted in A.
9 The following pedigree is from B. C. and G., excepting the name of Frithowulf, which occurs only in G. 10 E. F, and inserted in A.
11 All the MSS. now remaining place Ethelbert's accession in 565, Whelock in 560, which seems right, though apparently without MS. authority, for Beda (II. v.) says he died 23d Feb. 616, after a reign of fifty-six years, and MS. E. under the year 616, (seemingly from Beda,) also assigns him a reign of fifty-six years. The thirty-second year of his reign, noticed in MS. F. (see note 12) would of course be reckoned from 565. See Beda, III. iv.—P. 12 This date is from F.
Southern Picts had been baptized long before: bishop Ninia, who had been instructed at Rome, had preached baptism to them, whose church and his monastery is at Witherne, hallowed in the name of St. Martin: there he resteth, with many holy men. Now in li there must ever be an abbat, and not a bishop; and all the Scottish bishops ought to be subject to him, because Columba was an abbat and not a bishop.
A.D. 565. 1This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots among the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a monastery in the island of Hii.
A.D. 566, 567.
A.D. 568. This year Ceawlin, and Cutha, Ceawlin's brother, fought against Aethelbirht, and drove him into Kent, and they killed two "ealdormen" at Wibban-dune [Wimbledon], Oslaf and Cnebba.
A.D. 569, 570.
A.D. 571. This year Cuthwulf fought against the Bretwalas at Bedcanford [Bedford], and took four towns, Lygean-byrg [Leighton?] and Aegeles-birg [Aylesbury], and Baenesington [Benson], and Égonesham [Eynsham]; and the same year he died. Cutha was Ceawlin's brother.
A.D. 577. This year Cuthwine and Ceawlin fought against the Britons, and they slew three kings, Comail, and Condidan, and Farinmail, at the place which is called Deorham [Derham ?], and took three cities from them, Gloucester, and Cirencester, and Bath-ceaster.
A.D. 583. 'This year Mauricius succeeded to the empire of the Romans.
A.D. 584. This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought against the Britons at the place which is called Fethan-lea, [Frethern?] and there was Cutha slain; and Ceawlin took many towns, and spoils innumerable; and wrathful he thence returned to his own.
A.D. 588. This year king Aelle died, and Ethelric reigned after him five years.
A.D. '590. At this period Ceol' reigned five years.
A.D. 591. This year in Britain was a great slaughter in battle at Woddesbeorg [Wemborow?], and Ceawlin was expelled.
A.D. 592. This year Gregory succeeded to the popedom in Rome.
A.D. 593. This year Ceawlin, and Cuichelm, and Crida perished; and Aethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the North-humbrians; 'he was the son of Aethelric, Aethelric of Ida.
1 From B. C. and G.
2 From E. We should apparently read "Cuthwulf;" but both he and Cutha
were the brothers of Ceawlin.-P.
3 E. F. and inserted in A. From Beda, I. xxiii.
So B. C. G. Ceol [ric], by interpolation, A. Ceolric, E. He was king of Wessex. 6 A.D. 592, B. C. E. 7 E. and inserted A.D. 591, in A.
9 To the end of the year from E.
8 King of Mercia.
A.D. 594, 595.
A.D. 596. 'This year pope Gregory sent Augustine to Britain, with a great many monks, who preached the word of God to the nation of the Angles.
A.D. 597. This year Ceolwulf began to reign over the WestSaxons; and he fought and contended incessantly against either the Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the Scots. He was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, Freawine of Frithugar, Frithugar of Brond, Brond of Baeldaeg, Baeldaeg of Woden. This year Augustine and his companions
came to the land of the Angles.
A.D. 601. This year pope Gregory sent a pall to archbishop Augustine in Britain, and also a great many religious teachers to assist him, and amongst them was Paulinus the bishop, who afterwards converted Eadwin, king of the North-humbrians, to baptism. A.D. 602.
A.D. 603. This year there was a battle at Egesanstane.*
A.D. 603. This year Aegthan, king of the Scots, fought against the Dalreods and against Aethelferth, king of the North-humbrians, at Daegsanstane [Dawston ?], and they slew almost all his army. There Theodbald, Aethelferth's brother, was slain with all his band. Since then no king of the Scots has dared to lead an army against this nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither.
A.D. 604. This year the East-Saxons received the faith and baptism under king Saebriht and bishop Mellitus.
A.D. 604. 10 This year Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus and Justus. He sent Mellitus to preach baptism to the East-Saxons, whose king was called Saeberht, son of Ricole, the sister of Aethelberht, and whom Aethelberht had there appointed king. And Aethelberht gave Mellitus a bishop's see in London, and to Justus he gave Rochester, "which is twenty-four miles from Canterbury.
A.D. 2606. This year pope Gregory died, about " ten years after he had sent us baptism; "his father was called Gordian, and his mother Silvia.
A.D. 607. 15 This year Ceolwulf fought against the South-Saxons. 16And this year Aethelfrith led his army to Legaceastre [Chester],
1 B. C. E. F. G., and inserted in A. See Beda I. xxiii.
2 This pedigree is not in E.
* Read "Degsastan" on the authority of Beda, Eccl. Hist. I. xxxiv. This passage is in B. C. G., and originally was in A.
5 E. and inserted in A.
6 There is some confusion here; the Dalreods were Aedan's subjects.
16 E. A.D. 605, and inserted in A. under this year, but on what authority a date
is assigned to this event is uncertain. Tigernach it occurred in 613.
According to the Cambrian Annals and
and there slew numberless Welshmen: and so was fulfilled the prophecy of Augustine, wherein he saith, "If the Welsh will not be at peace with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons." There also were slain two hundred priests, who came to pray for the army of the Welsh: their "ealdor" was called Scromail [Brocmail], who with about fifty escaped thence.
A.D. 611. This year Cynegils succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and held it thirty-one years. 'Cynegils was the son of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric.
A.D. 612, 613.
A.D. 614. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought at Beandun,' and slew two thousand and sixty-five' Welshmen.
A.D. 616. This year Aethelbyrht, king of the Kentish-men, died; "he was the first English king who received baptism, and he was the son of Eormenric; he reigned fifty-six years, and in this same year five thousand eight hundred years' were gone by, from the beginning of the world; and after him, Eadbald his son succeeded to the kingdom; "he forsook his baptismal vow, and lived after the manner of the heathens, so that he had his father's widow to wife. Then Laurentius, who was archbishop of Kent, was minded that he would go southwards over the sea, and leave it entirely. But the apostle Peter came to him by night and scourged him sorely, because he wished thus to forsake the flock of God, and commanded him to go to the king and preach the true faith to him; and he did so, and the king was converted and was baptized. In this king's days 10 Laurentius, who was archbishop of Kent after Augustine, died, and was buried beside Augustine, "on the 4th of the nones of February [2d Feb.]. After him Mellitus, who formerly had been bishop of London, succeeded to the archbishopric: then the men of London, where Mellitus had been formerly, became heathens (again). And in about five years, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus departed to Christ. Then after him, "Justus succeeded to the archbishopric; and he consecrated Romanus to Rochester, where formerly himself had been bishop.
1 B. C. and G.
2 Beamdun, B. C. G. Probably Bampton, near Oxford. 345, B. C.; 46, E. G., and so perhaps A. originally.
In F. there is a Latin insertion here, of which the following is a translation :"In this year, on the 7th of the kalends of June [26th May], the blessed Augustine, who was the apostle of the English, having finished the labour of this miserable life, obtained the society of the angels; to whom in the year of our Lord's incarnation 614 succeeded Laurence, whom, while he was yet young, Augustine himself had consecrated with this purpose, that he might succeed himself in the archbishopric." The Saxon narrative has here been mostly cut off or obliterated.
5 See Beda, Eccl. Hist. II. v.
6 From F. as far as "Eormenric;" the duration of his reign is from E. and F. 7 5616 G.
8 To the end of the year from E. F., and an insertion in A.