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A.D. 38. 'This year Pilate slew himself with his own hand.
A.D. 39. This year Caius obtained the empire.

A.D. 40. Matthew, in Judea, began to write his gospel.
A.D. 41-44.

A.D. 45. This year the blessed apostle Peter established a bishop's see in Rome. This year James, the brother of John,

was slain by Herod.

A.D. 46. This year Herod died; he who slew James, one year before his own death.

A.D. 46. This year the emperor Claudius came to Britain, and subdued a large part of the island; and he also added the island of Orkney to the dominion of the Romans.

A.D. 47. This year Claudius, second of the Roman kings, sought the land of Britain, and brought under his power the greatest part of the island, and also subjected the Orkney Islands to the dominion of the Romans. This war he effected in the fourth year of his reign: and in the same year was the great famine in Syria, which was foretold in the Acts of the Apostles through Agabus the prophet. Then Nero succeeded to the empire after Claudius: he nearly lost the island of Britain through his cowardice. Mark the Evangelist begins to write the gospel in Egypt.

A.D. 47. This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in this same year was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of in the book called "Actus Apostolorum."

A.D. 47. 10 This year Claudius, king of the Romans, went with an army into Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all the Picts and Welsh to the rule of the Romans.

A.D. 48. "In this year there was a very severe famine.
A.D. 49. This year Nero began to reign.


A.D. 50. This year Paul was sent in bonds to Rome.
A.D. 51-61.

A.D. 62. This year James, the brother of our Lord, suffered martyrdom.

A.D. 63. This year Mark the Evangelist died.

A.D. 64-68.


A.D. 69. This year Peter and Paul suffered martyrdom.

A.D. 69. 15This year Peter suffered on the cross, and Paul was slain.

A.D. 70. This year Vespasian obtained the empire.

A.D. 71. This year Titus, the son of Vespasian, slew one hundred and eleven thousand Jews in Jerusalem.

A.D. 72-80.

A.D. 81. This year Titus succeeded to the empire, after Vespasian; he who said that he had lost the day on which he had done no good.

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11 F.
A.D. 68, G.

15 F.

A.D. 82, 83.

A.D. 84. This year Domitian, the brother of Titus, succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 84. This year John the Apostle wrote the book which is called Apocalypse.

A.D. 85, 86.

A.D. 287. This year John the Evangelist wrote the book of the Apocalypse in the island of Patmos.

A.D. 88-99.

A.D. 100. This year Simon the apostle, the kinsman of Christ, was crucified, and John the Evangelist rested [in death] on that day at Ephesus.

A.D. 101. This year pope Clement died.

A.D. 102-109.

A.D. 110. This year Ignatius the bishop suffered martyrdom. A.D. 111-115.

A.D. 116. This year Adrian the emperor began to reign.

A.D. 117-136.

A.D. 137. This year Antoninus began to reign.

A.D. 138-144.

A.D. 145. This year Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius his brother succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 146-166.

A.D. 10167. This year Eleutherius" obtained the bishopric of Rome, and held it in great glory for twelve years.1 To him Lucius, king of Britain, sent letters praying that he might be made a Christian: and he fulfilled what he requested. And they afterwards continued in the right faith till the reign of Diocletian.


A.D. 167. 14This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, and held it fifteen years; and in the same year Lucius, king of the Britons, sent and begged baptism. And he soon sent it him; and they continued in the true faith until the time of Diocletian.

A.D. 168-187.

A.D. 15188. This year Severus succeeded to the empire, and went with an army into Britain, and subdued a great part of the island by battle; and then, for the protection of the Britons, he built a rampart of turf, and a broad wall thereon, from sea to sea. He reigned seventeen years, and then ended his days at York. His son Bassianus succeeded to the empire: another son of his was called Geta; he died. 16

A.D. 188. 17 This year Severus built a rampart of turf in Britain, after he had won the land in battle, and a broad wall thereon, from sea to sea; and he reigned seventeen years, and then ended his days at York.

1 F.

4 A.D. 92, G.


3 A.D. 90, G.

A.D. 84, G., and originally A. 85 B. C.
This year is an insertion in B. C. D. E. F. G.
From B. C. D. E. F. G. and inserted in A.

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9 Antonius, A. erroneously.

10 A.D. 189, G.

8 A.D. 155, D. In D. E., and inserted in A.


1 The dates of the accession and death of Eleutherius are uncertain. latest authority, Jaffé, (Regest. Rom. Pont. 4, Berl. 1851,) fixes his pontificate as extending from 177 to 190, p. 4. See Beda, Eccl. Hist. I. iv. 12 B. C. D. E. G. assign him a pontificate of fifteen years.

13 D. E. and inserted in A.

16 Here is an hiatus in D. to A.D. 963.

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seven years.

A.D. 189. Here Severus' obtained the empire, and reigned He begirt Britain with a ditch from sea to sea, 1and then ended his days at York; and Bassianus his son succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 190-198.

A.D. 199. In this year the holy rood was found.
A.D. 200. Two hundred years.

A.D. 201-285.

A.D. 286. This year St. Alban the martyr suffered.
A.D. 287-299.

A.D. 300. Three hundred years.

A.D. 301-342.

A.D. 343. This year St. Nicolas died.
A.D. 344-378.

A.D. 379. 'This year Gratian succeeded to the empire.
A.D. 380.

A.D. 381. This year Maximus the emperor obtained the empire; he was born in the land of Britain, and went thence into Gaul. 'And he there slew the emperor Gratian, and drove his brother, who was called Valentinian, out of the country. And Valentinian afterwards gathered an army and slew Maximus, and obtained the empire. In these days the heresy of Pelagius arose throughout the world.

A.D. 382-408.

A.D. '409. This year the Goths took the city of Rome by storm, and after this the Romans never ruled in Britain; and this was about eleven hundred and ten years after it had been built. "Altogether they ruled in Britain four hundred and seventy years since Caius Julius first sought the land.

A.D. 409. 12This year the city of Rome was taken by storm by the Goths, about eleven hundred and ten years after it had been built. After this the Roman kings ruled no longer in Britain.

A.D. 410-417.

A.D. 418. 13This year the Romans collected all the treasures that were in Britain, and some they hid in the earth, so that no one has since been able to find them; and some they carried with them into Gaul.

A.D. 419-422.

A.D. 423. "This year Theodosius the younger succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 424-429.

A.D. 430. "This year Palladius the bishop was sent to the Scots by pope Celestinus, that he might confirm their faith.

A.D. 430. 16 This year Patrick was sent by pope Celestine to preach baptism to the Scots.

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A.D. 443. 'This year the Britons sent over sea to Rome, and begged of them for help against the Picts; but they had none, because they were themselves warring against Attila, king of the Huns. And then they sent to the Angles, and entreated the like of the ethelings of the Angles.

A.D. 444. This year St. Martin died.

A.D. 445-448.

A.D. 448. This year John the Baptist revealed his head to two monks, who came from the east to offer up their prayers at Jerusalem, on the spot which was formerly Herod's residence. At the same time Martianus and Valentinianus reigned; and in that time the Angles came to this country, invited by king Wyrtgeorne to assist him in overcoming his foes. They came to this country with three long ships, and their leaders were Hengest and Horsa. First of all they slew and expelled the king's enemies, and afterwards they turned against the king and against the Britons, and destroyed them by fire and the edge of the sword.

A.D. 449. This year Martianus and Valentinus' succeeded to the empire, and reigned seven years. And in their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wyrtgeorne, king of the Britons, landed in Britain on the shore which is called Ypwinesfleet; at first in aid of the Britons, but afterwards they fought against them. 'King Wyrtgeorn gave them land in the south-east of this country, on condition that they should fight against the Picts. Then they fought against the Picts, and had the victory wheresoever they came. They then sent to Anglen; desired a larger force to be sent, and caused them to be told the worthlessness of the Britons, and the excellencies of the land. Then they soon sent thither a larger force in aid of the others. At that time there came men from three tribes in Germany; from the Old-Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the Jutes came the inhabitants of Kent, and of Wight; that is, the race which now dwells in Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons which is still called the race of Jutes. From the Old-Saxons came the men of Essex, and Sussex, and Wessex. From Anglen (which has ever since remained waste betwixt the Jutes and Saxons) came the men of East Anglia, Middle Anglia, Mercia, and all North-humbria. Their leaders were two brothers, Hengest and Horsa: they were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden: from this Woden sprang all our royal families, and those of the South-humbrians also.

A.D. 449. "And in their days Wyrtgeorn invited the Angles thither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place called Heopwins-fleet. A.D. 450-454.

1 E. and inserted in A.

3 Beda, I. xiv. + From F.

6 See Beda, Eccl. Hist. I. xv.

7 An error for "Valentinianus."

2 Beda I. xiii.

5 From F. See Beda, i. 641.

8 The passage ending with the word "North-humbria" is derived from E. and inserted in A.

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On the origin of these three tribes of invaders the remarks of Dr. Latham in his book on The English Language" are entitled to attention, more especially his criticism upon the Jutish portion of the immigrants, p. 10, seq. 10 Here we have an indication of a Northumbrian writer.

11 From E., which continues the passage as at note above.

A.D. 455. This year Hengest and Horsa fought against king Wyrtgeorn at the place which is called Aegels-threp [Aylesford], and his brother Horsa was there slain, and after that Hengest obtained the kingdom, and Aesc his son.

A.D. 456. This year Hengest and Aesc slew four troops of Britons with the edge of the sword, in the place which is called Creccanford [Crayford].

A.D. 457. This year Hengest and Aesc, his son, fought against the Britons at the place which is colled Crecganford [Crayford], and there slew four thousand men; and the Britons then forsook Kent, and in great terror fled to London.

A.D. 458-464.

A.D. 465. This year Hengest and Aesc fought against the Welsh near Wippedsfleet [Ebbesfleet?], and there slew twelve Welsh "ealdormen," and one of their own thanes was slain there, whose name was Wipped.

A.D. 466-472.

A.D. 473. This year Hengest and Aesc fought against the Welsh, and took spoils innumerable; and the Welsh fled from the Angles like fire.

A.D. 474-476.


A.D. 477. This year Aella, and his three sons, Cymen, and Wlencing, and Cissa, came to the land of Britain with three ships, at a place which is named Cymenes-ora, and there slew many Welsh, and some they drove in flight into the wood that is named Andreds-lea.

A.D. 478-481.

A.D. 482. This year the blessed abbat Benedict, by the glory of his miracles, shone in this world, as the blessed Gregory relates in his book of Dialogues.

A.D. 483, 484.

A.D. 485. This year Aella fought against the Welsh near the bank of Mearcraedsburn.

A.D. 486, 487.

A.D. 488. This year Aesc succeeded to the kingdom, and was king of the Kentish-men twenty-four years.'

A.D. 489, 490.

A.D. 491. This year Aella and Cissa besieged Andredscester, and slew all that dwelt therein, so that not a single Briton was there left.

A.D. 492-494.

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A.D. 495. This year two "ealdormen came to Britain, Cerdic

1 The positions usually assigned to various places mentioned n the earlier portion of the Chronicle, are often very uncertain, depending chiefly on a supposed or real similarity of names. Where these, however, appear sufficiently probable, they are placed between brackets, if otherwise, a quære is added.-P. 2 From F. A.D. 456, B. C. E. A.D. 461, B. C.



5 Petrie here remarks that the place of his landing seems to have been near West-Wittering; and that the forest of Andred occupied the present Weald of Kent and Sussex. For its extent see A.D. 893.

6 From F.

7 One copy, E., assigns him a reign of thirty-four years.

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