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God for the worthy deed which here is done, and I will this day do honour to Christ and St. Peter; and I desire that ye all assent to my words: I, Wulfere, do this day give to St. Peter and abbat Saxulf, and the monks of the monastery, the lands, and the waters, and meres, and fens, and wears, and all the lands which lie thereabout, which are of my kingdom, freely, so that none but the abbat and the monks shall have any claim upon them. This is the grant. From Medeshamstede to North-borough, and thence to the place which is called Folies, and thence all the fen straight to Esendic, and from Esendic to the place which is called Fethermouth, and thence along the straight way ten miles to Cuggedike, and thence to Raggewilh, and from Raggewilh five miles to the main stream which goeth to Aelm and to Wisbeach, and thence about three miles to Throkonholt, and from Throkonholt straight through all the fen to Derevord, which is twenty miles long, and thence to Grætecross, and from Grætecross through a clear water called Bradanæ, and thence six miles to Paccelade, and thence onward through all the meres and fens which lie toward Huntendune-port, and these meres and lakes, Scalfremere and Witlesmere, and all the others which lie thereabout, with the land and the houses which are on the east half of Scalfremere, and from thence all the fens to Medeshamstede, and from Medeshamstede to Welmesford, and from Welmesford to Clive, and thence to Aestun, and from Aestun to Stamford, and from Stamford even as the water runneth to the aforesaid North-borough." These are the lands and the fens which the king gave to St. Peter's monastery.

Then said the king, "This gift is little; but it is my will that they shall hold it so royally and so freely that neither geld nor tribute be taken from it, except for the monks alone. And thus free I will make this minster, that it be subject to Rome alone; and here it is my will that all of us who are unable to go to Rome shall visit St. Peter."

While he was saying these words, the abbat desired of him that he would grant him what he should desire of him: and the king granted it." I have here God-fearing monks, who wish to spend their lives in an anchorite's abode, if they knew where. And there is an island here, which is called Ancarig, and my desire is that we might build a minster there to the glory of St. Mary, so that those may dwell therein who wish to lead a life of peace and rest."

Then the king answered, and said thus: "Beloved Saxulf, lo! not only that one thing which thou hast desired, but all things which I know that thou desirest on our Lord's behalf, I thus approve and grant. And I beg of thee, my brother Aethelred, and my sisters Cyneburg and Cyneswith, that ye be witnesses, for your souls' redemption, and that ye write it with your fingers. And I beg all those who come after me, be they my sons, be they my brothers, or kings that come after me, that our gift may stand, even as they would be partakers of the life eternal, and as they would escape everlasting torment. Whosoever shall take from this our gift, or the gifts of other good men, may the heavenly gate-ward take from him in the kingdom of heaven; and whosoever will increase it, may

the heavenly gate-ward increase (his state) in the kingdom of heaven."

These are the witnesses who were there, who subscribed it with their fingers on the cross of Christ, and assented to it with their tongues. King Wulfhere was the first who confirmed it, first by his word, and afterwards with his fingers wrote on it the cross of Christ; and said thus: "I, king Wulfhere, with the kings, and earls, and dukes, and thanes, the witnesses of my gift, do confirm it before the archbishop Deus-dedit with the cross of Christ." "And I, Oswi, king of the North-humbrians, the friend of this monastery and of abbat Saxulf, approve of it with the cross of Christ. king Sighere, grant it with the cross of Christ. Sibbi, subscribe it with the cross of Christ.

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And I, "And I, king

"And I, Aethelred,

the king's brother, grant that same with the cross of Christ. "And we, the king's sisters, Cyneburh and Cyneswith, we approve it." "And I, Deus-dedit, archbishop of Canterbury, grant it." After that, all the others who were there assented to it with the cross of Christ. They were by name Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, and Wine, bishop of London, and Jeruman, who was bishop of the Mercians, and bishop Tuda, and Wilfrid the priest, who was afterwards bishop, and Eoppa the priest, whom king Wulfhere sent to preach Christianity in Wight, and abbat Saxulf, and Immine the "ealdorman," and Eadberht the "ealdorman," and Herefrid the "ealdorman," and Wilberht the "ealdorman," and Abo the "ealdorman," Aethelbold, Brorda, Wilberht, Elhmund, Frethegis. These and many others who were there, servants of the king, all assented to it. This writing was written six hundred and sixty-four years after the birth of our Lord, (in) the seventh year of king Wulfhere; the ninth year of archbishop Deus-dedit. They then laid the curse of God, and the curse of all saints, and of all Christian people (upon him) who should undo any thing which there was done. So be it," say all, "Amen."

When these things were done, the king sent to Rome to Vitalian,' who then was pope, and desired that he should grant by his writing, and with his blessing, all the before-mentioned things. And the pope sent then this writing, thus saying,-" I, pope Vitalian, concede to thee, king Wulfhere, and archbishop Deus-dedit, and abbat Saxulf, all the things which ye desire; and I forbid that any king or any man have any claim thereon, except the abbat alone; nor let him obey any man except the pope of Rome, and the archbishop of Canterbury. If any one break this in any thing, may St. Peter exterminate him with his sword: if any one observe it, may St. Peter, with the keys of heaven, undo for him the kingdom of heaven." Thus the monastery at Medeshamstede was begun, which since has been called Burh [Peterborough].

After that, another archbishop came to Canterbury, who was called Theodorus, a very good and a wise man, and he held his synod with his bishops and with the clergy. There was Winfrid, bishop of the Mercians, deposed from his bishopric, and abbat Saxulf was

1 There is no other trace of this bull of Vitalian than the notice here preserved.

there chosen to be bishop, and Cuthbald, a monk of the same monastery, was chosen abbat. This synod was held six hundred and seventy-three years after the birth of our Lord.1

A.D. 658. This year Cenwalh fought against the Welsh at Peonna [Pen]; and he drove them as far as Pedrida [Petherton ?]. This was fought after he came from East-Anglia; he was there three years in exile. Thither had Penda driven him, and deprived him of his kingdom, because he had forsaken his sister.

A.D. 659.

A.D. 660. This year bishop Aegelbryht departed from Cenwalh, and Wine held the bishopric three years, and Aegelbryht obtained the bishopric of Paris in France, by the Seine.

A.D. 661. This year, during Easter, Cenwalh fought at Posentesbyrg, and Wulfhere, the son of Penda, laid the country waste as far as Ashdown. And Cuthred, the son of Cuichelm, and king Coenbyrht,' died in one year. And Wulfhere, the son of Penda, laid waste Wight, and gave the people of Wight to Aethelwald king of the South-Saxons, because Wulfhere had been his sponsor at baptism. And Eoppa, the mass-priest, by the command of Wilferth and king Wulfhere, was the first of men who brought baptism to the people of the Isle of Wight.

A.D. 662, 663.

A.D. 664. This year the sun was eclipsed on the 5th of the nones of May; and Arcenbryht, king of the Kentish-men died, and Ecgbriht, his son, succeeded to the kingdom; and Colman,1o with his companions, went to his country. The same year there was a great pestilence" in the island of Britain, and bishop Tuda died of the pestilence, and was buried at Wagele. And1 Ceadda and Wilferth were ordained; and the same year archbishop Deus-dedit died. A.D. 665, 666.

A.D. 66713. This year Oswiu and Ecgbriht sent Wighard, the priest, to Rome, that he might there be consecrated archbishop of Canterbury; but he died soon after he came thither.

A.D. 667.14 This year Wighard went to Rome, even as king Oswi and Egbyrht had sent him.15

A.D. 668.16 This year Theodore was ordained an archbishop," and sent to Britain.

1 Here ends the extract from E.

2 This year is not recorded in F.

3 See Beda, Eccl. Hist. III. vii.

4 Namely, at Wessex. See Beda, as above.

5 He was the father of Caedualla, of Wessex.

6 Beda, Eccl. Hist. IV. xiii.

7 Ibid. IV. xvi.

8 The date is from E. F., it is incorrect, though borrowed from Beda, for the eclipse occurred on May 1st.

See Eccl. Hist. III. xxvii.

9 The succession of Ecgbriht is from E.
10 Bishop of Lindisfarne. See E. H. III. xxvi.
11 The conclusion of the sentence is from E.

the place of his burial is unknown.

13 From E. and F. See E. H. III. xxix.

Tuda was bishop of Lindisfarne;
12 E. H. III. xxviii.
14 From F.

15 Continued as above, after the word "Rome," A.D. 667, in the text.

16 See Eccl. Hist. IV. i.

17 E. F. add that this was done by pope Vitalianus, and from them we have the concluding clause of the year.

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A.D. 669. This year king Ecgbyrht gave Reculver to Bass, the mass-priest, that he might build a minster thereon.

A.D. 670. This year Ösweo, king of the North-humbrians, died,' on the 15th of the kalends of March [15th Feb.]; and Ecferth, his son, reigned after him; and Hlothere, the nephew of bishop Aethelbyrht, obtained the bishopric over the West-Saxons, and held it seven years. Bishop Theodore consecrated him. And Oswio was the son of Aethelferth, Aethelferth of Aethelric, Aethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

A.D. 671. This year was the great destruction among the birds. A.D. 672. This year king Cenwalh died, and Seaxburg, his queen, reigned one year after him.

A.D. 673. This year1 Ecgbyrht, king of the Kentish-men, died; and the same year there was a synod at Hertford, and St. Aetheldryht began the minster at Ely.

A.D. 674.5 This year Aescwin succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons; he was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of Cenferth, Cenferth of Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic.

A.D. 675. This year Wulfhere, the son of Penda, and Aescwin, the son of Cenfus, fought at Beadan-head; and the same year Wulfhere died, and Aethelred succeeded to the kingdom.


'Now, in his time, he sent bishop Wilfrid to Rome to the pope that then was; he was called Agatho, and showed him by letter and bv message how his brothers Peada and Wulfhere, and Saxulf the abbat, had built a minster, which was called Medeshamstede, and that they had freed it, against king and against bishop, of all services ; and he besought him that he would assent to it with his writing and with his blessing. And then the pope sent his writing to England, thus saying:

"I, Agatho, pope of Rome, greet well the worshipful Aethelred, king of the Mercians, and the archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, and the bishop of the Mercians Saxulf, who was formerly abbat, and all the abbats who are in England, with the greeting of God and my blessing. I have heard the desire of king Aethelred, and of archbishop Theodore, and of bishop Saxulf, and of abbat Cuthbald; and it is my will that it be in all wise even as you have spoken. And I ordain, on behalf of God and St. Peter, and of all saints, and of every person in orders, that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man have any claim, nor any tribute, geld, or military service; neither let any man exact any kind of service from the abbacy of Medeshamstede. I also ordain that the shire-bishop be not so bold that he perform any ordination or consecration within the abbacy unless the abbat beseech it of him, nor have any claim

1 The date is from E., and does not occur in F. See Beda, Eccl. Hist. IV. v. ? Eleutherius, bishop of Winchester. E. H. III. vii.

This pedigree does not occur in E. F

See E. H. IV. v.

This entry does not occur in F.
This concluding clause not in F.

7 The following interpolation is from E.
See Cod. Diplomat. No. 990.

there for proxies, or synodals, or for any kind of thing. And it is my will that the abbat be holden as legate of Rome over all the island, and that whatsover abbat shall be there chosen by the monks, he be consecrated by the archbishop of Canterbury. I will and concede that whatever man shall have made a vow to go to Rome, which he may be unable to fulfil, either from sickness or (his) lord's need (of him), or from poverty, or be unable to come there from any other kind of need, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, let him come to the minster at Medeshamstede, and have the same forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbat and of the monks, that he should have if he went to Rome. Now I beseech thee, brother Theodore, that thou cause to be commanded throughout all England, that a synod be gathered, and this decree be read and observed. In like manner I command the bishop Saxulf, that even as thou didst desire that the minster be free, so I forbid thee and all the bishops that shall come after thee, from Christ and all his saints, that ye have any claim upon the minster, except so far as the abbat shall be willing. Now will I say in a word, that whoso observeth this writing and this decree, let him be ever dwelling with God Almighty in the kingdom of heaven; and whoso breaketh it let him be excommunicated, and thrust down with Judas and with all the devils in hell, unless he turn to repentance. Amen!"

This writ pope Agatho and one hundred and twenty-five bishops sent to England by Wilfrid archbishop of York. This was done six hundred and eighty years after the birth of our Lord, and in the sixth year of king Aethelred.

The king then commanded the archbishop Theodore that he should appoint a meeting of all the "witan" at the place which is called Heatfield. When they were there assembled, he caused the writ to be read, which the pope had sent thither, and they all assented to and fully confirmed it.

Then said the king: "All those things which my brother Peada, and my brother Wulfhere, and my sisters Kyneburh and Kyneswith, gave and granted to St. Peter and the abbat, it is my will shall stand; and I will in my day increase it for the good of their souls and of my own soul. Now, to-day I give St. Peter for his minster Medeshamstede, these lands and all that lieth there adjoining; that is to say, Bredune, Hrepingas, Cedenac, Swineshaefed, Heanbyrig, Lodeshac, Scuffanhalch, Costesford, Stretford, Waettelleburne, Lusgeard, Aethelhun-iglond, Barthanig. These lands I give St. Peter all as freely as I myself possessed them, and so that none of my successors take anything therefrom. If any one shall do so, let him have the curse of the pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and of all those who are here witnesses, and this I confirm with Christ's token." "I, Theodorus, archbishop of Canterbury, am witness to this charter of Medeshamstede, and I confirm it with my signature, and I excommunicate all those who shall break any part thereof, and I bless all those who shall observe it." "I, Wilfrid, archbishop of York, I am witness to this charter, and I assent to the same curse." "I, Saxulf, who was first abbat and am now

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