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A.D. 616. 1In that time Laurentius was archbishop, and for the sorrowfulness which he had on account of the king's unbelief, he was minded to forsake this country entirely, and go over sea; but St. Peter the apostle scourged him sorely one night, because he wished thus to forsake the flock of God, and commanded him to teach boldly the true faith to the king; and he did so, and the king turned to the right (faith). In the days of this same king Eadbald, this Laurentius died. The holy Augustine, while yet in sound health, ordained him bishop, in order that the church of Christ, which was yet new in England, should not after his decease be at any time without an archbishop. After him Mellitus, who had been previously bishop of London, succeeded to the archbishopric. And within five years of the decease of Laurentius, while Eadbald still reigned, Mellitus departed to Christ.
A.D. 617. This year Aethelfrith, king of the North-humbrians was slain by Reodwald, king of the East-Angles, and Eadwin the son of Aella succeeded to the kingdom, and subdued all Britain, the Kentish-men alone excepted. And he drove out the "ethelings," sons of Aethelfrith; that is to say, first Eanfrid, Oswald, and Oswiu, Oslac, Oswudu, Oslaf, and Offa.
A.D. 619. This year archbishop Laurentius died.
A.D. 624. This year archbishop Mellitus died.
A.D. 625. This year Paulinus was ordained bishop of the Northhumbrians by archbishop Justus, on the 12th of the kalends of August [21 July].
A.D. 625. This year archbishop Justus consecrated Paulinus bishop of the North-humbrians.
A.D. 626. This year Eanfled, daughter of king Eadwin, was baptized on the holy eve of Pentecost [8th June], and (now) Penda held the kingdom thirty years, and he was fifty years (old) when he succeeded to the kingdom. "Penda was the son of Pybba, Pybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomaer, Eomaer of Angeltheow, Angeltheow of Offa, Offa of Waermund, Waermund of Wihtlaeg, Wihtlaeg of Woden.
A.D. 626. This year Eomer came from Cwichelm king of the WestSaxons, thinking to stab king Eadwin. But he stabbed Lilla his thane, and Forthhere, and wounded the king. And on the same night a daughter was born to Eadwin: she was called Eanfled. Then the king promised Paulinus that he would give his daughter to God, if he would obtain of God that he might kill his foe who had before sent the assassin thither. And he then went with an army against the West-Saxons, and there killed five kings, and slew a great number of the people. And at Pentecost Paulinus baptized his daughter, 'she being one of twelve. 10And within a twelvemonth the king, and all his nobility, were baptized at Easter; that year Easter fell on the 2d of the ides or April [12th April, A.D. 627]. This was done at York, where he first ordered a church to be built of wood, which was consecrated in the name of St. Peter. There the king gave Paulinus
1 From F. instead of the passage indicated in the text at note 9. 2 See Beda, II. xii. and II. v. The whole of this year is from E. 3 From F. See Beda, II. vii.
5 The date is from E. F. See Beda, II. xiv.
7 This pedigree is from B. C. and G.
See Beda, Eccl. Hist. § 114, note 2.
E. F. Beda, ibid.
6 E. F.
10 Ibid. II. xiv.
a bishop's see, and there he afterwards commanded a larger church to be built of stone. And this year Penda succeeded to the kingdom [of Mercia], and reigned thirty years.
A.D. 627. This year king Eadwin was baptized with his people by Paulinus at Easter [12th April]. And this Paulinus also preached baptism in Lindsey, where the first who believed was a certain. great man called Blecca, with all his followers. And in this time Honorius, who sent Paulinus his pall, succeeded to the popedom. after Boniface. And archbishop Justus died on the 4th of the ides of November [10 Nov.], and Honorius was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury by Paulinus at Lincoln. And to this Honorius the pope also sent a pall: and he sent a letter to the Scots, desiring that they should turn to the right Easter.
A.D.627. This year, at Easter [12th April], Paulinus baptized Eadwin, king of the North-humbrians, with his people: and earlier within the same year, at Pentecost, he had baptized Eanflaed, daughter of the same king.1
A.D. 628. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought against Penda at Cirencester; and then made a treaty.
A.D. 632. This year Eorpwald" was baptized.
A.D. 633. 'This year Eadwin was slain, and Paulinus returned to the Kentish-men, and occupied the bishop's see at Rochester.
A.D. 633. This year king Eadwin was slain by Cadwalla and Penda at Heathfield [Hatfield Chase ?] on the 2d of the ides of October [14th Oct.], and he reigned seventeen years; and his son Osfrith was also slain with him. And after that went Ceadwalla and Penda, and laid waste the whole country of the North-humbrians. When Paulinus saw that, he took Aethelburge, Eadwin's widow, and departed by ship to Kent. And Eadbold and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him a bishop's see in Rochester; and he dwelt there till his end.
A.D. 633. 10 This year king Eadwin was slain, and Paulinus returned again with Aethelburge, Eadwin's widow, to Canterbury, and Honorius the archbishop received them with great worship, and gave Paulinus a bishop's see in Rochester, and there he dwelt until his death.
A.D. 634. "This year Osric, whom Paulinus had formerly baptized, succeeded to the kingdom of Deira; he was the son of Aelfric, Aedwin's uncle. And Eanfrith the son of Aethelfrith succeeded to Bernicia. And this year also bishop Birinus first preached baptism to the West-Saxons, 12 under king Cynegils. Birinus came thither by command of Honorius the pope, and he was bishop there until his life's end. 13 And this year also Oswold succeeded to the kingdom of the North-humbrians, and he reigned nine years; the ninth being numbered to him because of the heathenism which they practised who reigned over them the one year between him and Eadwin.
A.D. 635. 'This year king Cynegils was baptized by Birinus the bishop, at Dorchester, and Oswold king of the North-humbrians was his godfather.
A.D. 636. This year king Cuichelm was baptized at Dorchester, and the same year he died. And bishop Felix preached the faith
of Christ to the East-Angles.
A.D. 637, 638.
A.D. 639. This year Birinus baptized king Cuthred at Dorchester, and received him as his (god)son.
A.D. 640. This year Eadbald, king of the Kentish-men, died, and he reigned twenty-five years. He had two sons, Ermenred and Ercenberht, and Ercenberht reigned there after his father. He overthrew all idolatry in his kingdom, and was the first of the English kings who established the Easter-fast. His daughter was called Ercongota, a holy woman and a wondrous person, whose mother was Sexburh, daughter of Anna, king of the East-Angles. And Ermenred begot two sons, who afterwards were martyred by Thunor.
A.D. 642. This year Oswold, king of the North-humbrians, was slain by Penda [and] the South-humbrians at Maser-feld on the nones of August [5th Aug.], and his body was buried at Bardney. His sanctity and his miracles were afterwards manifested in various ways beyond this island, and his hands are at Bambrough, uncorrupted. And the same year that Oswold was slain, Oswiu his brother succeeded to the kingdom of the North-humbrians, and he reigned two less (than) thirty years.
A.D. 643. This year Cenwalh succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and held it thirty-one years; and Cenwalh commanded the old11 church at Winchester to be built in the name of St. Peter; and he was the son of Cynegils.
A.D. 644. This year Paulinus died, on the 136th of the ides of October [10th Oct.]; he was archbishop first of York, and afterwards at Rochester. "He was bishop one less (than) twenty years, and two months and twenty-one days. "And this year Oswin's uncle's son,1 the son of Osric, succeeded to the kingdom of Deira, and reigned seven years.
From here to the end of the year is an insertion in A., and occurs in E. and F.
7 See Eccl. Hist. III. ix. x. In B. C. ascribed to 641.
8 To the end of the year from E.
10 Twenty-one, E
9 A.D. 642, E.
11 The epithet "old" occurs only in B. C., the dedication of Winchester is from F., and the conclusion of the year from E., where by a clerical error the reading is Cynegilw instead of Cynegils.
12 See Beda, Eccl. Hist. III. xiv. A D. 643, B. C. E.
13 This date is from E.
14 This clause is from E. and F.
15 The conclusion of the year from E.
16 This is apparently corrupt, and should be read "Oswin, the son of Osric, Edwin's uncle's son." See Beda, III. i. and above, An. 634.-P.
A.D. 645. 'This year king Cenwalh was driven out of his kingdom by king Penda.
A.D. 646. This year king Cenwalh was baptized.
A.D. 648. This year Cenwalh gave Cuthred, his kinsman, three thousand hides of land by Ashdown [Aston ?]. Cuthred was the son of Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Cynegils. This year the minster was built at Winchester, which king Cynwalh caused to be made, and hallowed in the name of St. Peter.
A.D. 650. This year Aegelbyrht, a native of Gaul, obtained the bishopric of the West-Saxons after Birinus the Romish bishop.
A.D. 650. This year Birinus the bishop died, and Aegebertus the Frenchman was ordained.
A.D. 650. This year king Oswiu ordered king Oswin to be slain, on the 13th of the kalends of September [20th Aug.]; and about twelve days after this bishop Aidan died, on the 2d of the kalends of September [31st Aug.].
A.D. 651. This year king Oswin was slain, and bishop Aidan died.
A.D. 652. This year Cenwalh fought at Bradford by the Avon. A.D. '653. This year the Middle-Saxons, under Peada the ealdorman," received the true faith.
A.D. 654. This year king Onna1 was slain, and Botulf began to build a minster at Ycean-ho " [Boston?]. And this year archbishop Honorius died, 13 on the second of the kalends of October [30th Sept.].
A.D. 654. 14This year king Osuiu slew king Penda at Winwedfield, and thirty men of the royal race with him, and some of them were kings, among whom was Aethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles.
A.D. 655. 15This year Penda perished, and the Mercians became Christians. From the beginning of the world to this time, five thousand eight hundred and fifty years were agone; and Peada," the son of Penda,1s succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians.
19In his time he and Oswiu, the brother of king Oswald, came together, and agreed that they would rear a monastery to the glory of Christ and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and named it Medeshamstede [Peterborough], because there is a
1 A.D. 644, B. C. E. See Beda, Eccl. Hist. III. vii.
2 A.D. 645, B. E.
5 A.D. 649, B. C. E.
8 See Beda, Eccl. Hist. III. xiv.
9 A.D. 652, E. See Eccl. Hist. III. xxi.
10 Namely, Anna, king of East Anglia. See Eccl. Hist. III. xviii.
11 The name of Ycean-ho is from B. C. E. F.
12 See Eccl. Hist. III. xx. F. ascribes this event to 653.
13 This date is from E.
14 E. F. as far as "with him," afterwards from F. only, which continues as at
15 above, which it ascribes to the year 654.
15 See Eccl. Hist. III. xxiv.
16 E. F. omit " fifty."
18 "The son of Penda," not in G.
17 So B. C. E. Penda, A. G.
19 This is the first of many late additions to the Chronicle concerning the monastery of Peterborough. They occur only in MS. G. It is here ascribed to A.D. 654.
whirlpool, which is called Medeswæl. And they began the foundations and wrought thereon, and then committed it to a monk who was called Saxulf. He was greatly God's friend, and all the people loved him, and he was very nobly born, in a worldly sense, and rich; but he is now much richer, being with Christ. And king Peada reigned no long time, for he was betrayed by his own wife at Easter.
'This year Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to [the see of] Canterbury, on the seventh of the kalends of April [26th March].
A.D. 657. This year Peada died, and Wulfhere, the son of Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians.
In his time the abbacy of Medeshamstede, which his brother had begun, waxed very rich. The king loved it much for the love of his brother Peada, and for the love of Oswi his "wed-brother " [brother by baptism], and for the love of abbat Saxulf. And he said that he would dignify and honour it, and this by the counsel of Aethelred and Merwala, his brothers, and Kyneburg and Kyneswith, his sisters, and by the counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit, and by the counsel of all his "witan," both clergy and laity, who were in his kingdom; and he did so.
Then the king sent after the abbat, that he should come to him with all speed, and he did so. Then the king said to the abbat, "Lo! I have sent for thee, beloved Saxulf, for the behoof of my soul, and I will plainly tell thee for why. My brother Peada and my dear friend Oswi began a monastery to the glory of Christ and St. Peter. But my brother, as it has pleased Christ, is departed this life, and my prayer to thee, O beloved friend, is, that they work diligently on the work, and I will provide thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and all that behoveth thereto." Then the abbat went home, and began to build; and he so sped, by the grace of Christ, that in a few years the monastery was ready. When the king heard that said, he was very glad: he bade send throughout the nation after all his thanes, after the archbishop, and after the bishops, and after his earls, and after all who loved God, that they should come to him; and he set a day on which the monastery should be hallowed.
At the hallowing of the monastery, king Wulfere was present, and his brother Aethelred, and his sisters Kyneburg and Kyneswith. And Deus-dedit, archbishop of Canterbury, hallowed the monastery, and Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, and the bishop of London, who was called Wina, and the bishop of the Mercians, who was called Jeruman, and bishop Tuda. And there was Wilfrid the priest, who was afterwards a bishop; and were there all his thanes who were within his kingdom.
When the monastery had been hallowed in the name of St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Andrew, then the king stood up before all his thanes, and said, with a clear voice, "Thanked be the high Almighty From E. Ascribed in F. to 655. See Beda, Eccl. Hist. III xx.
2 E. See the Anglo-Saxon Charters, No. 984.