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Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles.

The History of Chippenham, by the Rev. J. J. Daniell, Rector of Langley Burrell. Compiled from researches by the Author and from the Collections of the late Rev. Canon Jackson, F.S.A. R. F. Houlston, Chippenham and Bath. 1894. Cr. 8vo, cloth,

Price 5s. nett.

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This little book of 248 pages, with two illustrations of Old Chippenham, does not pretend to be an elaborate history of the town. The author has aimed rather at giving an account of the more notable persons, events, buildings, and institutions connected with the history of the place and neighbourhood, gathered from the best available sources of information and arranged and written in such form and style as that the public at large may find it both easy and interesting to read, and may not be deterred from so doing by any appearance of archæological dryness-and he has done his work well. As he tells us in the preface, a great deal of the historical information comes from Canon Jackson's unpublished papers, now at the Society of Antiquaries, and much of it is exceedingly interesting, not only to the general reader, but to the student of local history and antiquities. As will be seen from the following" contents," almost everything connected with the place is touched upon-The site of Chippenham-the Manor, Sheldon, Rowden, Monckton, Cocklebury and Foghamshire, Allington - Forests - Geology — River Avon, springs and wells, Lockswell Spring-The Garden of Wilts-Stanley Abbey-The Parish, Borough, Charters, Town Hall, M.Ps., Bailiffs, Town, Trade, Bridge, Causeway, Plague, School, Fire of London, Riots, Manor of Ogbourne St. GeorgeNomina Villarum-Sheriffs of Wilts-Maud Heath's Causeway-The Civil Wars-Parish Church, Chantries, Vicars, Church Lands, Registers, Communion Plate, Bells, Church wardens' Records, Monumental Inscriptions-West Tytherton-St. Paul's Church-List of Celtic and Saxon Words-Distinguished Natives-Persons of Note who have lived in the Neighbourhood-A useful index completing the book. The greater part of these subjects are treated shortly, accurately, and well, but there are one or two blemishes. The section on the Geology of Chippenham, for instance, really conveys no accurate idea of the facts; whilst the surprising natural history stories on pages 36, 37 are quite unworthy of the rest of the book. In the list of words of "Celtic or Saxon origin "in local use, too, it is hard to see why such words as contraption, whippersnapper, taut (tight), lackadaisical, fractious, humbug, hullaballoo, bran new, rapscallion, swop, blubber, wallop, &c., should find a place. The book has been favourably reviewed in the Devizes Gazette, August 30th, 1894.

Letters, Remains, and Memoirs of Edward Adolphus Seymour, Twelfth Duke of Somerset, K.G., in which are also included some

extracts from his two published Works on Christianity and Democracy. Edited and arranged by W. H. Mallock and Lady Gwendoline Ramsden. London. R. Bentley & Son. 8vo, cloth.

1893.

This is a well got up book of x and 547 pages, with a good autotype portrait of the Duke from a bust by Brock. It cannot be called a biography, for, with the exception of here and there a small print explanatory note, the letters are left to tell their own story. They deal with his home life, his travels on the Continent, and the active part which he took in politics for more than forty years. The large majority were written to his father, his wife, and his brother-in-law, Brinsley Sheridan, and although they cannot be said to be of any great public interest-here and there they contain a good story—yet they present the writer as an honourable and upright English gentleman, bound to his own home circle by the ties of great affection.

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The epitome of his work on Christian Theology and Modern Scepticism" shows that he entertained very liberal views on the doctrines of Christianity, and that, in his view, religious controversy should cease in the future in the presence of a latitudinarian scheme of comprehension for all Protestant denomi nations. In his work on Monarchy and Democracy" he traces shortly the growth of modern political opinions, quoting the various doctrines propounded by distinguished writers on political science and comparing their predictions with the teaching of subsequent events and very shrewdly points out the dangers of the modern democratic ideal of government.

The Annals of the Yeomanry Cavalry of Wiltshire, vol. ii., from 1884 to 1893, by (Col.) Henry Graham. 8vo. Liverpool. D. Marples & Co. 1894.

This is a thin volume of 44 pages with an unnamed portrait (we believe of Col. Estcourt) as a frontispiece. In it the author continues the work he began in his first volume in 1886. The annals of the regiment are traced up to date, and end with an account of the centenary celebration. There are three ap pendices, a list of officers 1884-1893, a list of regimental prize-winners, and the centenary muster roll. Noticed in Salisbury Journal, June 23rd, 1894The Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, Lieutenant-General of the Horse in the Army of the Commonwealth of England, 1625-1672. Edited, with Appendices of Letters and Illustrative Documents, by C. H. Firth, M.A. Two vols., 8vo. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1894. Vol. i., pp. xlix. and 436; vol, ii., pp. 571.

Since their first appearance in 1698 Ludlow's Memoirs, which are at once an autobiography and a history of his own time, have been looked upon as one of the chief authorities for the history of the period, and have been repeatedly reprinted, but Mr. Firth claims that this is the first edition in which a number of suppressed passages in the memoirs have been printed. The critical introduction of 49 pages by the Editor is partly intended to complete Ludlow's account of himself, and partly to estimate the value of his contribution to the general history of the period. In vol. i. there are five appendices,

containing the Pedigree of Ludlow, a Sketch of the Civil War in Wilts (pp. 439-482)-the account of General Ludlow-Ludlow's services in Irelandand the Wiltshire Election of 1654; whilst vol. ii. contains appendices occupying 131 pages, on Col. Nicolas Kempson-Ludlow's command in Ireland -the articles against him-the Election for Hindon, 1660–Letters of the English Exiles in Switzerland-Ludlow's visit to England in 1689-Epitaphs, from Vevay-The site of Ludlow's House at Vevay. Of these, as will be seen several are concerned more or less with Wiltshire matters, whilst the Sketch of the Civil War in Wilts is an excellent outline of the general course of the struggle in the county, supplementing Ludlow's own account of the events in which he himself took part. There are a good many illustrative footnotes. The index at the end seems fairly full, and the Editor seems in every way to have done his work well. The text is that of the edition of 1698 with the errata noted in vol. iii. corrected.

Stonehenge, the Balearic Isles, and Malta; Ancient Temples compared. By Capt. S. P. Oliver, F.S.A., is a paper in The Illustrated London News of August 4th, 1894.

Capt. Oliver apparently maintains, as he did a year or two ago in The Times, that the original condition of Stonehenge is to be explained by the analogy of the megalithic monuments of the Balearic Isles and of Malta. He argues that as it has been fairly proved that the upright pillars with cap stones on them, or "Taulas," found in the Balearic buildings, were really not altars, but pillars to support a roof- so the lintels of the outer sarsen circle at Stonehenge were to support the roof of a cloister or terrace surrounding the higher central roofed building-supported by the great trilithons, corresponding with the conical towers or "Talayots" of Minorca. The notion, he says, "that Stonehenge was hypæthral, or open to the sky, may certainly be dismissed from the mind "-though he does not tell us what the roof was made of, or what has become of it. He apparently believes that there was no outer circle at Stonehenge at all, but that the south-west side was cut off flat, as in some of the Mediterranean buildings, and that the entrance was on the south-east side.

Of Avebury he says:-"Avebury is generally quoted as a larger and ruder counterpart of Stonehenge, but so few stones remain in situ that is is almost impossible to re-construct it even in imagination. It is classed as a circle with interior circles, yet if Aubrey's plans (however uutrustworthy) are consulted, it will be seen that even in his day the circle is a stretch of the imaginationone side, that to the south-west, is decidedly flat, and the so-called circles within are decidedly of horseshoe shape, with straight façades also to southwest and south. The so-called avenues may have been lines of Cyclopean fortification, or portions of an enciente, and probably only the central stones inside the inner circles represented the ruins of edifices not dissimilar to those now seen in the Balearic Islands." The paper occupies two pages, and is illustrated with a plan and two photographic blocks of Stonehenge, with four others of megalithic structures in Minorca and Malta.

Wilton. In Good Words for July, 1894, is a paper by Geoffrey Winterwood,

VOL. XXVIII.-NO. LXXXII.

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with illustrations by G. Fidler, on Wilton House. The woodcuts, seven in number, of the entrance, the house and bridge, cloisters, interior of the bridge, house from the west, Holbein's Porch, and south-west view of the house, do not do justice to their subjects, and the singular charm of Wilton is hardly reflected in the sketchy letterpress.

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The Jutes and Wansdyke. In the October number of The Antiquary, vol. xxx., p. 152–156, Mr. F. M. Willis has a paper entitled "Notes on the Jutes," in which he puts forward arguments, principally etymological, to prove that the Jutes took a much more prominent place in the Teutonic conquest of Britain than has hitherto been supposed. Mr. Willis does not dogmatise on the point, but professedly gives the reasons for his theory for what they are worth. How far his etymological arguments are sound is not easy to judge. He quotes from Henry of Huntingdon the following passage: "A.D. 478. Hengist, King of Kent, died in the fortieth year after his invasion of Britain, and his son Esc reigned thirty-four years. Esc, inheriting his father's valor, firmly defended his kingdom against the Britons, and augmented it by territories conquered from them." He considers that until the coming of Cerdic and Cynric and the West Saxons in 519 the supreme power lay with the Jutes, the Kingdom of the Kentish people" being a much more extended district than that which we know now as Kent. "It is with this extension of Kent,” Mr. Willis says, "of which Henry of Huntingdon speaks that I connect Wansdyke, and although the latter was probably never completed, it was, I imagine, Esc's intention to carry it right across the island from channel to channel as a northern boundary to the larger kingdom for which he was striving." The Museums at Farnham, Dorset, and at King John's House, Tollard Royal, pp. 166–171, in The Antiquary for October, 1894 (vol, xxx.), is the title of a long and extremely appreciative article by Roach le Schonix on the wonderful series of institutions which Gen. Pitt-Rivers has established near Rushmore. The arrangement, classification, and labelling of these collections are spoken of in the highest terms. Of the collection of ancient pottery the writer says:-" We know of no other museum that has anything like so perfect a general collection illustrative of the various styles of pottery prevailing in different countries and at different periods, though there are a few that have a far richer variety under one or other special heading."

"A Short Guide to the Larmer Grounds, Rushmore; King John's House; and the Museum at Farnham, Dorset, by Lt.-Gen. PittRivers, F.R.S., F.S.A.," is an 8vo pamphlet of 16 pp., giving a short account of the pleasure grounds and museums already mentioned. It is illustrated with a map of the neighbourhood, plans of the museums, and fifteer photographic views of the Larmer Grounds, Rushmore Park, the museum, and King John's House, admirably reproduced, as well as a cut of the Larmer Tree.

A long notice of the book, with an illustration of King John's House, appears in the Illustrated Archæologist, September 1894, vol. ii., p. 115.

Report on Experiments with Potatoes and Onions in Warminster and District, 1893. 4to; wrapper. London. 1894. Price 1s. Is pub. lished by the Technical Education Committee of the Wilts County Council, and consists of 32 pages recording the results of elaborate investigations into the value of different manures, the best methods of checking disease, and the varieties of potato best suited to different soils and circumstances, &c. The analyst's reports are by J. M. H. Munro, and the general report by E. S. Beaven and E. H. Smith. It is illustrated by a good plate of six micro-photographs of the organisms which are responsible for the potato disease. Noticed in Salisbury Journal, March 24th, 1894.

Salisbury Cathedral.

In Messrs. Cassell's "Cathedrals, Abbeys and Churches of England and Wales," 4to, an article of 7 pages, by H. T. Armfield, is devoted to Salisbury. This, though written in a popular form, is by no means of the ordinary "handbook" type, but is full of valuable suggestions and criticisms-as to the original position of the high altar-the different effect of the polychrome decorations in ancient times and at present -and other like points. The article is illustrated by an excellent full-page photo-print of the Palace and Cathedral from the Palace grounds, and by four other decent woodcuts in the letterpress.

Poems in Pink. By W. Phillpotts Williams, Master and Huntsman of the Netton Harriers. Cr. 8vo, cloth, pp. 79. Salisbury, Brown & Co.; London, Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. Price 5s. This volume contains some thirty pieces, of which the majority are hunting ballads. Many of them have already appeared in Bailey's Magazine, Land and Water, The Sportsman, and The Country Gentleman—others are printed here for the first time.

A favourable review of the book appeared in the Salisbury Journal for September 22nd, 1894.

Truffle Hunting. The Standard of October 6th, 1894, contains an article descriptive of the process of hunting for truffles with dogs-with special reference to the neighbourhood of Winterslow and Salisbury. English truffles we are told are worth about 2s. 6d. per lb., and the counties in which they most abound are Wilts, Hants, and Dorset.

Winterslow is again brought into notice by a long article in the Pall Mall Gazette of September 20th, 1894, on Major Poore's extremely interesting experiment there in the sale or lease of plots of land to small holders.

This article has been reproduced by many of the county papers.

Downton. An article from The Agricultural Gazette on the College of Agriculture at Downton, by H. E., is noticed in the Salisbury Journal, February 24th, 1894.

Marlborough. Great Public Schools, published by Edward Arnold, London, 1893--68.-contains an illustrated article on Marlborough College.

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