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Three metacarpi of sheep a little larger than St. Kilda ram.

Two metacarpi of young sheep (small).

Two metacarpi of young sheep-larger and stouter animal than St. Kilda.
One radius of small sheep.

One fragment of tibia of small sheep.

Goat. Two horns.

Roe Deer. Horn.

Red Deer? Fragment of tine.

The Human bones included tibía, pelvis, fibula, radius, clavicle, four os calces, and four astragali. Only the left tibia could be measured; its length was 360 millimetres.

Notes on Food-Vessels from Oldbury Hill.

By W. CUNNINGTON, F.G.S.

IN June, 1890, the Rev. W. C. Plenderleath was informed that the flint-diggers on Oldbury Hill had found some ancient British remains. On reaching the spot he was fortunate in securing a perfect food-vessel, with its contents; and, by dint of much searching, he obtained a quantity of fragments of two other similar vessels. These, with three "loom-weights" (described below) and a considerable quantity of bones of sheep, deer, ox, and hog (but no human bones) were found in a pit some 6ft. below the surface, just within the ramparts of Oldbury Camp, and about 100yds. south of the monument. The surface of the turf at this spot was quite smooth, with nothing to show that a pit-dwelling existed below, but the finding of the articles just mentioned, in a pit of such a depth, sufficiently proves that it was one of the ancient habitations which abound within the camp-some of which have been opened and

described in Wilts Mag., vol. xxiii. The perfect food or cookingvessel was exhibited by Mr. Plenderleath at the Annual Meeting of the Society, at Devizes, in 1890 (Wilts Mag., xxv. p. 248). The undisturbed condition of its contents raised expectations that some interesting relics might be found in it. This, however, proved to be an antiquaries' disappointment. On removing the chalky soil from the top of the vessel it was found to be three-parts full of a very fine sandy earth, resembling in appearance ordinary Portland cement. This has been analysed by Mr. Powell, of Denmark Hill, and found to consist of fine siliceous sand, some carbonate of lime and alumina, with a small quantity of iron. It may possibly be silt from some brook or river. Mixed throughout this fine earth were many small fragments of bone which had been more or less burnt. Professor C. Stuart, of the Royal College of Surgeons, has kindly examined these remains, and reports that "none of the fragments are of human bone, and the small rounded one is the internal sesamoid of some ungulate-probably red-deer."

There are three holes, carefully, though not symmetrically, bored in the bottom of this vessel. They are counter-sunk on both sides. When found these holes were covered over with little thin plates of burnt clay, two of which are preserved. The holes themselves were filled with the ordinary chalky earth.

Vessels with similar perforations in the bottom have been found by Gen. Pitt-Rivers in some numbers in the Romano-British villages of Rotherley and Woodcuts (see "Excavations") and a fragment with three holes in it from Cold Kitchen Hill (see above, p. 289) is in the Museum. Such vessels are supposed to have been used for

1 The number of these pit-dwellings within the area of the camp proves that this stronghold must have been much used in troublous times, by the ancient population.

The detached entrenched camps which occupy the tops of many of our highest hills were probably not originally intended as parts of a system of defence for the county generally. The inhabitants (who, doubtless, in times of peace occupied the valleys, where food and water were abundant) would avail themselves of the temporary security afforded by the strong entrenchment, when the neighbouring district was overrun or threatened by invading hordes. This view of the subject entirely coincides with the opinions expressed by Gen. Pitt-Rivers, in his work on the Hill Forts of Sussex (Archæologia, xl., 11).

draining the moisture from various articles of food, or possibly draining honey from the comb.

From the fragments of pottery we were able successfully to restore one vessel and half of another. The three are of the same sizeabout 4in. in height and 5 in. in width, of simple bowl shape, two. of them with almost straight sides, and square rims, the other slightly wider at the top than at the base, without ornamentation or handles, resembling in general appearance and size, the example found in a dwelling-hole within the same camp by the late Mr. H. Cunnington (see Wilts Mag., xxiii., 217). They are hand-made of very fine well-burnt clay, probably of Romano-British date, and it is only by close examination that it can be seen that they were not turned on the wheel. Two of them are of a reddish brown colour, carefully tooled and polished on the outside, the pottery of which they are composed being identical with fragments found on Cold Kitchen Hill, 1893, now in the Museum (see p. 289), but unlike anything known to Gen. Pitt-Rivers from the villages near Rushmore. Of the three "loom-weights" before mentioned, two are formed of hard chalk and one of a stone resembling the calcareous concretions found in the Oxford Clay. They are precisely like those from Westbury, already in the Society's Museum-rudely formed; flattened on two sides and tapering to one end, where a hole is bored for suspension.1

Oldbury Hill abounds with remains of the ancient inhabitants, and many interesting relics would reward the further researches of the antiquary. The depression mentioned by the Rev. A. C. Smith, Antiq. North Wilts, p. 96, should be examined, and the whole area of the camp trenched throughout.

[The illustration of the two most perfect of the vessels is from a photograph by the Rev. B. W. Bradford.]

1 A set of about twenty of these weights was found in the excavations at Westbury Iron Works. They were unfortunately exposed to the frost, and with the exception of those which are now in the Museum were shivered to pieces.

Notes on the Discovery of Bomano-British Kilns and Pottery at Broomsgrove, Milton, Pewscy.

By B. H. CUNNINGTON, F.S.A. Scot.

[Read at the Warminster Meeting of the Society, 1893.]

SOWARDS the end of March, 1893, a man digging for road

material on Broomsgrove Farm, near Milton, Pewsey, in the occupation of Mr. William Kingston, found, at the depth of about 16in. from the surface of the ground, a quantity of black earth, that had apparently been burnt; digging a little further down, this black earth was found to be mixed with many fragments of broken pottery, and he shortly discovered a large urn in an inverted position but unfortunately much broken. He brought the matter to the notice of his master, Mr. Kingston, who, knowing the interest taken in such discoveries by our Society, communicated with me on the subject at once.

On reaching the spot we made a careful examination of the place and its surroundings, and ultimately came to the conclusion that this had not been used as a burial-place, as we did not find any remains of animal matter with the exception of two small bones that have been identified as those of a sheep and had been broken longitudinally, presumably for extraction of the marrow. Besides these two pieces there was nothing but fragments of pottery mixed with sooty matter-charcoal, wood ashes, &c.; the urn itself being tightly filled with the black earth only.1

Although the urn was very much broken we were able to find a great many of the pieces, which later on I put together, making the vessel fairly complete.

The digger still continued his course of work, and three days

I may add that, whilst digging out the sandstone rock for the road repairs, many specimens of fossil sponges were found.

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TWO UPNE FOUND AT BROOMSGROVE FARM NEAR MILTON, HS

PAGE 294.

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