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2 The noble chief, named

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7 They entered the mouth of

a river called the Ionna, not without much damage to the country, and there dwelt one year.

13 Prince

Beocca, carried the alms of king Alfred and the West- Beocca carried to Rome the Saxons to Rome.

3 In the same year the king's

sister Æthelsuuith, queen of Burhred king of the Mer

cians, died and was buried at Ticinum.

4 In which year, also, duke Æthelwold and Ethelred archbishop of Dover died in

the same month.

(1) 889.

FRITH, [bishop of Winchester]
II, 117. 2. ALFRED king of Wessex,

(6) 890.

8 Abbat Bornhelm carried to Rome the alms of king Alfred

and of the West-Saxons. 9 The Northman king Guthrum, whom, as we have said before, king Alfred received from the sacred font and gave him the name of Æthel

stan, died this year. 10 This man lived with his followers in East-Anglia, and

subscribed also by "Ethelred
subregulus et patricius Merciorum,"
"Ethelflæd,' and others. II, 118.
3. A third charter of "ELFRED

alms of king Elfred.

On that journey died Ethelsuith the king's sister, and she was buried in Pavia.

dux," subscribed also by several others, II, 120, and bearing no date is referred to 871-889. 4. ALFRED king: no date. II, 122.

In the 19th year of king In the year 890, abbat

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first inhabited and possessed CHARTERS IN 890. None.
that island after the martyr-
dom of St Edmund the king.
11 The same year the pagan
army so often spoken of
leaving the Seine, went to a
place called Santlaudan,
situated between France and
Armorica. Against whom
fought the Britons, who,
having slain some, put others
to flight, and drowned others
in the river, remained masters
of the field.

This year the army went from
the Seine to Sanlaudan which
is between Bretagne and
France. But the Bretons
fought with them, and driv-
ing them into a certain river,

5 To whom succeeced, in the archbishopric, Pleigmund who was excellently instructed in literature.

(7) 891.

slew many of them.

Here Plegmund was elected
archbishop by God and all the

army went towards the east,
and king Arnulf with the
French, and Saxons, and
Bavarians, fought against the
army, and drove them back.

13 The army of pagans above In the following year, the
mentioned, leaving West
France, went into East
France; but, before their
ships could come to them, the
emperor Arnulf, with the
Eastern Franks, Old Saxons
and Bavarians, fought against
their land army and defeated

ALFRED 'August 2. II, 123.


Beornhelm carried Rome the alms of king Elfred and

of the West-Saxons.

In the same year died Guthrum king of the Northumbrians. King Elfred, as is read above, raised him from his baptism, and called him Ethelstan.

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Saxon Chronicle cause they desired for the love of God to be in a state of pilgrimage, they recked not where. The boat in which they came was made of two hides and a half, and they took with them provisions sufficient for seven days; and then about the seventh day they came on shore in Cornwall, and soon after went to king Ælfred. Thus they were named: Dubslane, and Macbeth, and Maclinmum.

And Swifneh, the best teacher among the Scots, died.

A. 892.

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chosen men of Hibernian race, burning with piety, leave their country: they privately form a boat by sewing ox-hides; they put into it provisions for a week; they sail seven days and seven nights, and arrive on the shores of Cornwall: here they left their fleet, which had been guided, not by the strength of their arms, but by the power of Him who rules all things, and set out for the court of king Alfred, who with his senate rejoice in their coming. From thence they proceeded to Rome, and, as is customary with teachers of Christ, they essay to go thence to Jerusalem... Their names were, Dufslane the first; Macbeathath, the second; Magilmumen, the third, flourishing in the arts, skilled in letters, and a distinguished masters of the Scots.

(2) A.892.

1 Comets appeared after
Easter, and about the time of

And that same year, after
Easter, about Rogation week
or before, the star appeared
which in Latin is called
cometa; some men say in
English that it is a hairy star, because a long radiance
streams from it, sometimes on the one side, and some-
times on each side.

A. 893.

Here in this year the great army, about which we formerly spoke, came again from the eastern kingdom westward to Boulogne, and there was shipped; so that they came over in one passage, horses and all; and they came to land at Limene

(8) A. 893.

3 And thence with

350 ships to the mouth of the
river Limen, and there, not
far from the river, made a
strong fortress at a place

called Apuldran.
5 The river Limin runs out of
the great wood, called And-
reades weald, which wood
covers a space of ground in
length from east to west 120
miles or more, and in breadth
30 miles.

Also in the same year, after Easter, a comet appeared, which some think to be an omen of foul times, which have already past; but it is the most approved theory of philosophers, that they foretell future things, as has been tried in many ways.

One year after the barbarians fought king Arnulf, they go to Boulogne, and there build a fleet, and pass over into England.

There they station their fleet in the Limnean port, at a place called Apoldre [APPLEDORE, in KENT,] and destroy an ancient castle, because there was but a small band of rustics within, and there they make their winter camp.

mouth with 250 ships. This port is in the eastern part of Kent, at the east end of the great wood which we call Andred; the wood is in length from east to west 120 miles or longer and 30 miles broad: the river of which we before spoke flows out of the weald. On this river they towed up their ships as far as the weald four miles from the outward harbour, and there stormed a fortress: within the fortress a few churlish men were stationed, and it was in part only constructed.

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6 That same year Hasteng
came with 80 ships to the
mouth of the river Thames
and made for himself a strong
tower at Middeltun [MILTON]
on the south side of the

In the course of this year, large fleet belonging to Hæsten arrives on the banks of the river Thames, and found a citadel on the coasts of Kent, at a place called Middleton [MILTON]: They encamped there the whole winter. And the number of years, from the glorious nativity of our Saviour was 900, all but seven.

In this year, that was about a twelve-month after these had wrought the fortr s in

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river's mouth, and there destroyed a half-built castle inhabited by a few countrymen, and built for themselves another fort at a place called Apultreo.

In the year 893

CHARTERS IN 893. None.

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the eastern district, the North-
humbrians and the East-Angles had given oaths to king
Ælfred, and the East-Angles six hostages; and neverthe-
less, contrary to their plighted troth, as oft as the other
armies went out with all their force, they also went out,
either with them or on their own part.

On this king Ælfred gathered together his forces,
and proceeded until he encamped between the two armies,
as near as he could for the wood fastnesses and the water
fastnesses, so that he might be able to reach either of
them in case they should seek any open country.
From this time the enemy always went out along the
weald in bands and troops, by whichever border was at
the time without forces: and they also were sought out by
other bands, almost every day, either by day or night,
as well from the king's force as also from the burgs.
The king had divided his forces into two, so that one
half was constantly at home, the other half in the field;
besides those whose duty it was to defend the burgs.
The army did not come out of their stations with their
whole force oftener than twice: once when they first
came to land, before the forces were assembled; a
second time when they would go away from their stations.

Then had they taken much booty, and would at that time go northward over the Thames into Essex towards their ships. Then the king's forces outrode and got before them, and fought against them at Farnham, and put the army to flight, and retook the booty; and they fled over the Thames where there was no ford; then up along

the Colne into an island. Then the forces there beset them about so long as they there had any provisions: but at length they had stayed their term of service, and had consumed their provisions; and the king was then on his way thitherwards with the division which warred under him.

While he was on his way thither, and the other force was gone homewards, and the Danish-men remained there behind, because their king had been wounded in the battle, so that they could not carry him away, then those who dwelt among the Northhumbrians and among

7 Not long after he made
another on the north side of
the Thames, at a place called

9 The beginning of the reign
of king Charles the boy: his

knight was Hagano.
10 That same year the city of
York was taken by the
Normans; but bishop Seba

by God's help escaped.
11 This year also, Alfred king
of the West Saxons fought
against the Northmen at
Fearnhame. He cut them to
pieces, and wounded their
king, and put them to flight
and took much spoil from
them and they were compell-
ed to pass beyond the river
Thames into Essex ; but
many of them perished in the


Ethelwerd 894

After the Easter of that year. the army which had come from Gaul leave their camp, and trace the intricacies of a certain immense wood, which is called Andredessuda, and they extended as far as the Western Angles.

Slowly as they go, they ravage the adjoining provinces, Hampshire and Berkshire:

These things were told to the heir Edward, son of king Alfred, who had been exercising himself in the southern

parts of England.

And twice in the year they counted the spoil which they had obtained by fraud, in the land which borders on the southern bank of the Thames. The filthy crew which were then in possession of the East Angles, suddenly removed to a place called Bamfleet;

and there the allied band divided; some of them remained, and some of them

went beyond the sea. After this they reach the Western Angles, who meet them with threatening arms and dense array at Farnham. They exult, freed by the arrival of the prince, like sheep under the protection of the shepherd; the tyrant is wounded, and his troops

are driven across the river

Thames into the northern


Meanwhile, the Danes are held besieged in Thorney


Earl Ethered, setting out from the city of London, lent his aid to the prince. The barbarians asked peace and a treaty hostages are given, they promise by oath to leave the kingdom of the aforesaid king; their words and deeds agree together without delay. Lastly, they set out for the country of the East-Angles, formerly governed by the king Saint Edmund. And their ships fly round to them from the Limnean port to Meresige a place in Kent.

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Northumberland, made a
solemn peace on oath with king Alfred: as also did
those who dwelt in East-Anglia, giving six hostages.
But they broke the treaty, and, as often as the armies in
Kent left their castles to plunder, they also went out to
plunder, either with them, or alone, wherever they could.

When this was known, king

Alfred, taking with him part of his army, and leaving the other part at home, as was his wont, and placing others for garrisons in the castles and cities, marched hastily into Kent, where he laid out a camp, in a place naturally very strong because it was surrounded on all sides by water, high rocks and overhanging woods; so that, if the enemies went out into any of the plains to plunder or fight, he could join battle with them without delay.

But they, now on foot, now on horse-back, plundering in bands, frequented those districts, which they saw were not occupied by the king's troops. But, contrary to their expectation, not only some from the royal forces, but also from the cities, attacked them almost every day and night, and so annoyed them, that they all left Kent and went forth together from their quarters to plunder, for they had gone out together to plunder whilst they first began to live in those places.

But this time they took a greater and more plentiful booty, and determined to cross the river Thames, and enter Essex, and so, with their booty, to meet the naval band, which they had sent beforehand. But, being overtaken by the king's army, they fought a battle with them at Feornham, and having lost their booty together with the horses which they had brought with them from foreign parts, they were all put to flight, and crossing the Thames where there was no ford, they took refuge in an island situated within the stream of the river Colne, where they were blockaded, until food failed

1 But afterwards he took an
oath to king Alfred, that he
would hurt him in nothing.
But the king gave many gifts
to him and his wife, and his
children; one of whom the
king himself had held in
baptism, and the great duke
Edred the other.
But Hasteng, always unfaith-
ful, built a camp at Beam-


and swore to be true to king Elfred against the aforesaid pagans who had already come back to England.

army relieved

the king's army, and the time for their going home came round, and another them. This army therefore went home, and king Alfred hastened up with the other half of his army, but the pagans seeing that their king was much wounded,and that they could not carry

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