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It should be borne in mind that after the death of Prince Gruffydd ab Llewelyn of North Wales, in 1056, Harold, acting as the lieutenant of Edward the Saxon King, had committed the government of that country to Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, even though Gruffydd, who was a most popular King, had left two sons, Ithel and Meredydd, who were slain in 1066 (or, as the Brut y Tywysogion has it, in 1068) at the battle of Mechain. Ithel was slain in battle, and Meredydd died of cold in his flight. Rhiwallon, son of Cynvyn, was also slain there; so that Bleddyn ap Cynvyn held Gwynedd alone, but was soon afterwards, in 1073, treacherously slain, and as usual, without regard to his sons, Trahaiarn ab Caradoc ascended the throne of Gwynedd, probably in right of his wife, the sister and heiress of Ithel and Meredydd, sons of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn.

And now, as the Life of Gruffydd ab Cynan says, the long-wished-for time had arrived, and Gruffydd, embarking in the fleet which he had prepared, set sail, furrowing the sea in his voyage to Wales. He made for the port of Abermenai, in that part of Cambria which was called Venedotia (Gwynedd), whose government had at that time been unjustly and tyrannically seized upon by Trahaiarn, son of Caradoc, and Cynric, son of Rhiwallon, Prince of Powys. Here he was joined by the forces of the sons of Merwydd, who had fled from the threats of the inhabitants of Powys to an asylum in Celennog, together with sixty chosen men whom Robert, lord of Rhuddlan, had sent to his aid, with forty men of Mona, into Llŷn, that they might fight against the usurper, Cynric ab Rhiwallon.1 Having found him there, trusting in his security, and little recking the fate about to fall upon him, they slew him and the greater part of his forces. This took place in 1079, the very year in which Owain Bendew is stated

1 Modern writers have endeavoured to make two persons named Rhiwallon; but it is evident from the Life of Gruffydd ab Cynan that Cynric ab Rhiwallon was the son of Rhiwallon, Prince of Powys, and younger brother of Bleddyn ab Cynvyn.

to have become Prince of Tegeingl; the elder brother regaining his rightful kingdom, and placing his younger brother in a responsible position as lord or prince of Tegeingl, and chief of the peers of his kingdom of Gwynedd.

The family of Edwin of Tegeingl were among the most powerful persons of the kingdom of Gwynedd, and in order to conciliate them, and join them to himself, King Gruffydd married Angharad, daughter of Owain ab Edwin; which nearly proved fatal to him, for Owain, remembering the loss sustained by his family, and desirous of greater possessions and dignity, treacherously invited the Earls of Shrewsbury and Chester to invade North Wales, and take King Gruffydd prisoner. In this, however, he was fortunately unsuccessful, and only obtained for himself a temporary dignity in Anglesey, given by the English, and the lasting disgrace of being henceforward called " Owain Vradwr" (Owen the Traitor). The Gwentian Chronicle tells us that in 1111 King Gruffydd confirmed to Earl Hugh his men and lands in Tegeingl, Rhyvoniog, and Mona, so that nothing could be done against him ever after.

There was a connection also between the family of Owain and that of Cynfyn, the former having married Ewerydda, the daughter of the latter. The Brut y Tywysogion, under the date 1113, says Einion ab Cadwgan ab Bleddyn and Gruffydd ab Meredydd ab Bleddyn joined together to make an attack upon the castle of Uchtryd ab Edwin, who was cousin to King Bleddyn, for Iweryd, the mother of Owain and Uchtryd, the sons of Edwin King of Tegeingl, and Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, were sister and brother by the same father, but not by the same mother, as Angharad, daughter of Meredydd ab Owain, was the mother of Bleddyn, and Cynvyn ab Gwerystan was father of both. And the castle...... was at Cymmer, in Meirionydd.

Let us recapitulate what has been said. A comparison of dates and pedigrees proves that the pedigree

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usually attached to Ednowain Bendew (whose true name, we find, is Owain Bendew), has been attributed to him by a mistake either of a genealogist or copyist reading Cynan Veiniad for Cynan ab Avandred, probably in the abbreviated form, Cyn. Vd., and referring this Cynan to the house of Powys. We find, further, from Guttyn Owen, that Cynan ab Iago is also called, from his mother, Cynan ab A vandred; so that Owain Bendew was the younger brother of King Gruffydd ab Cynan of the house of Gwynedd; and this coincides with history, and furnishes a competent reason for the position of chief of the peers of North Wales, which he held. In this way history, reason, and the incidental evidence of the genealogists themselves, concur in showing who Owain Bendew, the chief of the peers of Wales, was, and the difficulties arising from the pedigree which has been erroneously attributed to him disappear. His descendants were allied, in the earlier generations, with the chief families in Wales, and held their estates in Flintshire, through Norman times, per baroniam. In the fourth generation from Owain, the head of the family allied himself with the eminent Norman family of Pulford of Pulford in Cheshire, and their great-grandson, Ithel, became Archdeacon of Tegeingl.

It has been previously observed that our genealogists have frequently confused persons bearing the same name, and an examination of the pedigree of the descendants of Owen Bendew would, perhaps, cause some hesitation as to his living at so early a period as 1079-1140. His grandson Madoc (or, as some say, son) married Arddyn, daughter of Bradwain, lord of Dolgelley, whose son, we have seen above, was living in 1194. We may, therefore, presume this to be about the date at which Madoc or Edwal flourished, and this corresponds with the date of an alliance two generations lower, namely that of Ririd ab Iorwerth with Tibot, daughter of Sir Robert Pulford of Pulford in Cheshire. A reference to Sir George Sitwell's History

5TH SER. VOL. VIII.

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of the Barons of Pulford shows conclusively that Robert de Pulford was only enfeoffed in the Castle, etc., of Pulford by Ralph, son of Simon de Ormesby or de Pulford, in the year 1240; and he was the first Robert de Pulford; so that his daughter, and probably her husband also, must have lived from about 1240 to 1300. These dates are taken from original deeds, and we are, therefore, compelled to accept them; and not only so, but they agree with subsequent dates in the pedigree.

Now, supposing Ririd to be married in 1240 or somewhat later, and his great-grandfather or great-greatgrandfather to be of full age in 1079-80, that gives us one hundred and sixty years for the two, or three, intervening generations; that is eighty, or fifty-three, years each, a period never reached by any subsequent three generations in the pedigree. We should rather expect, judging from average generations, that there would be five rather than three, and that Owain Bendew would be living from about 1130 to 1200. The history of Tegeingl would seem to point in the same direction, for we find King Gruffydd ab Cynan, who died in 1136, and his son, Prince Owain Gwynedd, who died in 1169, both marrying into the line of Edwin of Tegeingl, which they would scarcely have done unless that family had been very powerful; and we are told that they had come to an agreement with the Normans.

In 1166 Prince Owain Gwynedd, with his brother, Cadwaladr, and the Lord Rhys of South Wales, took the Castles of Rhuddlan and Prestatyn, which had belonged to the English, and so virtually reduced Tegeingl to his sway.

In many of his wars Prince Owain Gwynedd was assisted by his son Cynan, who was a great warrior. In 1144 this Cynan had ravaged Aberteivi; in 1146 he took the Castle of Cynvael from his uncle Cadwaladr ; in 1156 he, with his brother David, defeated Henry II in the Wood of Cennadlog; but died in 1174, leaving four sons, Rhodri, Owain (who united against their uncle David in 1194), Gruffydd (who became a monk

in 1200), and Meredydd, lord of Lleyn, whom Prince Llywelyn ab Iorwerth deprived both of that lordship and also of that of Meirionydd. Meredydd then fled to Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys, who gave him Rhiwhiraeth, Neuadd Wen, Llysin, and Coed Talog.

It is not necessary to follow their descendants further; but we have here a curious instance of the way in which persons of similar name have been confused by the genealogists, since this Meredydd ab Cynan of Coed Talog is in Harl. MS. 1977 and other places made a son of Cynan ab Iago or Avandred, and brother of Gruffydd, King of Wales. As this has taken place with one brother, there would be no difficulty in his brother Owain having shared the same fate, and they were both connected with Tegeingl and Merioneth. On the other hand, however, if we place Owain Bendew, the Chief of the Noble Tribes, as contemporary with his brother, King Gruffydd, who died in 1136, and also with Meredydd, Prince of Powys, who died in 1133, and Henry I of England, who died in 1135, we find the subsequent five or six generations remarkably even as to dates.

Robert, son of Iorwerth ap Ririd ab Iorwerth ab Madoc ab Idwal ab Owain Bendew, was living, though probably a young man, in 1339, and his brother Gwyn in 1313, when their names appear in deeds. He married Adles, whose father, Ithel Vychan of Mostyn, died in 1300, and by her was father of Ithel, Archdeacon of Tegeingl, whom Pennant mentions as living in 1375 and 1393; and of Cynric, who continued the line. The Archdeacon was probably an old man in 1393, and his great-great nephew died in 1493, just a century later. This great-great nephew, John, was the grantee of Henry VII, to one of whose "benevolences" he subscribed at Chilton, and is referred to in the Llyfr Silin as a man of mark and importance.

The Archdeacon's brother Cynric, we are informed by Hengwrt MS. 96, went to live at Caerwys, and having married a descendant of Prince Dafydd, so

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