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swords, to break through even unto the king of Edom; but they could not. Then he took his eldest son, that should have reigned in his stead, and offered him for a burnt-offering upon the wall." (2 Kings iii, 27.) Again, it is said that Balak, king of Moab, consulting Balaam, the son of Beor of Mesopotamia, and calling on him to come and curse his enemies, exclaimed, "Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before the high God? Shall I come before him with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgressions, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?" (Micah vi, 7.) We read that Hamilcar, on receiving similar intelligence, attended with alarming circumstances, immediately seized on a boy, and offered him for a sacrifice to the deity Kronus; while, for an opposite reason, after Hannibal had gained the battles of Ticinus and Trebia, it was proposed in the senate to sacrifice his infant son. On the occasion of an enemy being at the gates of Carthage, Diodorus relates, that two hundred children of the most distinguished citizens were offered up to the sanguinary deities to avert the danger. We read also, though with more uncertainty of the fact, that the Grecian soothsayers recommended the sacrifice of Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, to Diana. In descending to a more modern period of history, Hacon, king of Norway, offered his son to Odin to obtain a victory over his enemy Harold; and Harold, the son of Gunild, sacrificed two of his children to his idols, to obtain a tempest for the dispersion of a hostile fleet. The modern Peruvians are said to have sacrificed their first-born to redeem their own lives when in a state of sickness, as Aune, king of Sweden, in older times, sought to purchase a prolongation of his with the blood of nine sons. It was with them as with the Israelites "Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils, and shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan." (Psalm cvi, 37.) Infanticide may, therefore, be traced to a feeling of shame on the part of the parent, which she has not fortitude to bear; to necessitous circumstances; to the pursuit of pleasure; and to the influence of superstition. We cannot affirm, however, that such are exclusively its sources; but it is not probable that many others will be disclosed.

INFLAMMATION; a disease characterized

by heat, pain, redness, attended with more or less of tumefaction and fever. Inflam mation is divided into two species, viz phlegmonous and erysipelatous. Besides this division, inflammation is either acute or chronic, local or general, simple or complicated with other diseases. 1. Phlegmonous inflammation is known by its bright red color, tension, heat, and a circumscribed, throbbing, painful tumefaction of the part, tending to suppuration. Phlegmon is generally used to denote an inflammatory tumor, situated in the skin or cellular membrane. When the same disease affects the viscera, it is usually called phlegmonous inflammation. 2. Erysipelatous inflammation is considered as an inflammation of a dull red color, vanishing upon pressure, spreading unequally, with a burning pain, the tumor scarcely perceptible, ending in vesicles, or desquamation. This species of inflammation admits of a division inte erythema, when there is merely an affection of the skin, with very little of the whole system; and erysipelas, when there is general affection of the system. Phlegmonous inflammation terminates in resolution, suppuration, gangrene, and scirrhus, or induration. Resolution is known to be about to take place when the symptoms gradually abate; suppuration, when the inflammation does not readily yield to proper remedies, the throbbing increases, the tumor points externally, and rigors come on. Gangrene is about to take place when the pain abates, the pulse sinks, and cold perspirations come on. Scirrhus, or induration, is known by the inflammation continuing a longer time than usual; the tumefaction continues, and a considerable hardness remains. This kind of tumor gives little or no pain, and, when it takes place, it is usually the sequel of inflammation affecting glandular parts. It sometimes, however, is accompanied with lancinating pains, ulcerates, and becomes cancerous. Erythematous inflammation terminates in resolution, suppuration, or gangrene. The symptoms of inflamination are accounted for in the following way:-The redness arises from the dilatation of the small vessels, which become sufficiently large to admit the red particles in large quantities; it appears also to occur, in some cases, from the generation of new vessels. The swelling is caused by the dilatation of the vessels, the pletho ric state of the arteries and veins, the exudation of coagulable lymph into the cellular membrane, and the interruption of absorption. In regard to the augmentation of heat, as the thermometer denotes

very little increase of temperature, it appears to be accounted for from the increased sensibility of the nerves, which convey false impressions to the sensorium. The pain is occasioned by a deviation from the natural state of the parts, and the unusual condition into which the nerves are thrown. The throbbing depends on the action of the arteries. Blood taken from a person laboring under active inflammation, exhibits a yellowish-white crust on the surface: this is denominated the buffy, coriaceous, or inflammatory coat. This consists of a layer of coagulable lymph, almost destitute of red particles. Blood, in this state, is always termed sizy. The occasional and exciting causes of inflammation are very numerous: they, however, may generally be classed under external violence, produced either by mechanical or chemical irritation, changes of temperature, and stimulating foods. Fever often seems to be a remote cause; the inflammation thus produced is generally considered as critical. Spontaneous inflammation sometimes occurs when no perceptible cause can be assigned for its production. Scrofula and syphilis may be considered as exciting causes of inflammation. The proximate cause has been the subject of much dispute. At the present period, it is generally considered to be a morbid dilatation, and increased action of such arteries as lead and are distributed to the inflamed part. Inflammation of the Eyes. (See Ophthalmia.)


Inflammation of the Intestines. Enteritis.) INFLECTION OF LIGHT. (See Optics.) INFUSORY ANIMALS. (See Microscop

rcal Animals.)

ISERINE. (See Titanium.) ·

ISKIUDAR. (See Scutari.) ISTACHAR. (See Estachar.) IULUS. (See Ascanius.) IVORY BLACK. (See Carbon.)


JASPER, sergeant; a revolutionary soldier, whose merits have given him a distinction seldom attained by individuals of his rank in life. At the commencement of the revolutionary war, he enlisted in the second South Carolina regiment of infantry, commanded by colonel Moultrie. He distinguished himself, in a particular manner, at the attack which was made upon fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's island, June 28, 1776. In the warmest

part of that contest, the flag-staff was severed by a cannon ball, and the flag fell to the bottom of the ditch, on the outside of the works. This accident was considered, by the anxious inhabitants of Charleston, as putting an end to the contest by striking the American flag to the enemy. The moment Jasper saw that the flag had fallen, he jumped from one of the embrasures, tied the colors to a spunge-staff, and replanted them on the parapet, where he supported them until another flag-staff was procured. The subsequent activity and enterprise of this patriot induced colonel Moultrie to give him a sort of roving commission, to go and come at pleasure. He was privileged to select such men from the regiment as he should choose to accompany him in his enterprises. His parties consisted, generally, of five or six; and he often returned with prisoners before Moultrie was apprized of his absence. Jasper was distinguished for his humane treatment of the enemies who fell into his power. By his sagacity and enterprise, he often succeeded in the capture of those who were lying in ambush for him. He entered the British lines, and remained several days in Savannah in disguise, and, after informing himself of their strength and intentions, returned to the American camp. A remarkable instance of his bravery and humanity is recorded by the biographer of general Marion. A Mr. Jones, an American by birth, was captured by the British, and confined in irons, for deserting the royal cause after he had taken the oath of allegiance. The distress of his wife, at the prospect of the fate which awaited him, made such an impression on Jasper, and a companion of his, sergeant Newton, that they determined to make an effort for his rescue. The departure of Jones, and several others, all in irons, to Savannah for trial, under a guard, consisting of a sergeant, corporal, and eight men, was ordered. With in two miles of Savannah, about thirty yards from the main road, is a spring of fine water, surrounded by a deep and thick underwood, where travellers often halt to refresh themselves. Jasper and his companion considered this spot as the most favorable for their enterprise. They accordingly passed the guard, and concealed themselves near the spring. When the enemy came up, they halted, and only two of the guard remained with the prisoners; while the others leaned their guns against trees in a careless manner and went to the spring. Jasper and Newton sprung from their place of conceal

ment, seized two of the muskets, and shot the sentinels. The possession of all the arms placed the enemy in their power, and compelled them to surrender. The irons were taken off, and arms put into the hands of those who had been prisoners; and the whole party arrived at Purysburg the next morning, and joined the American camp. Subsequent to the gallant defence at Sullivan's island, colonel Moultrie's regiment was presented with a stand of colors by Mrs. Elliot. During the assault against Savannah, two officers had been killed, and one wounded, endeavoring to plant these colors upon the enemy's parapet. Just before the retreat was ordered, Jasper attempted to replace them upon the works, and, while he was in the act, received a mortal wound, and fell into the ditch. When the retreat was ordered, he succeeded in bringing them off. Commemorative of the gallant deeds of this brave man, his name has been given to one of the counties of Georgia. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. (See Artichoke.)

JETSAM. (See Flotsam.)

tise until November or December, 1780. He was then arrested by order of the British commander, and carried to St. Augustine, in violation of the articles of capitulation entered into at the surrender of Charleston, in the previous May. On the following July, he was released on a general exchange of prisoners, effected by general Greene, and soon afterwards sailed to Philadelphia. Here, again, he prosecuted his profession, and soon obtained considerable practice. In the course of a few months, he was appointed a delegate to congress, by the legislature of Georgia, and continued in that capacity until December, 1782, when he returned to Savannah, on its evacuation by the British. He had been previously elected a member of the general assembly of the state, and, at their meeting, in January, 1783, was chosen their speaker. During the session, which was one of considerable commotion, he was wounded in the head by a broadsword, whilst advising the leaders of a mob to disperse, who were attacking the house of one of the members. the adjournment of the legislature, doctor Jones went to Charleston, where he was induced to resume his medical practice, by the solicitations of many of his former patients. In 1788, he again returned to Savannah, where he resided during the rest of his life, actively engaged in the labors of his profession. In 1798, he was chosen president of the convention at Louisville, which amended the constitution of the state. He died on the 9th of January, 1805.

JONES, Noble Wimberley, distinguished in the medical and political annals of Georgia, was born near London, about the year 1723 or 1724. His father, who was a physician, accompanied general Oglethorpe to the colony of Georgia, in 1733; and, as no means of instruction could be procured there at that time, he educated his son himself, and, in 1748, associated him in his professional occupations-a connexion which lasted until 1756. At the commencement of the dissensions between Great Britain and the colonies, doctor N. W. Jones took an early and conspicuous stand in favor of the latter, and held a correspondence with doctor Franklin, then the agent of Georgia in England, on the subject of their grievances. He was among the first of those who associated for the purpose of sending delegates to a general congress at Philadelphia, and would have gone himself as one, had it not been for the entreaties of his father, then the treasurer of the province, and a member of the Council, who was far advanced in years. He was, however, chosen speaker of the provincial legislature; and at every new election, consequent upon the frequent dissolutions by the governor of the house of commons, he was returned, and elected to that office. When Savannah fell under the power of the British, in December, 1778, doctor Jones removed to Charleston, where he continued to prac

JOUSTS. (See Tournament.)



KAIMES, LORD. (See Home, Henry.) KANTSCHU. (See Cossacks.) KATY-DID. (See Locust.) KESWICK, LAKE OF. Water.)

(See Derwent

KILLDEER. (See Plover.)
KILOGRAMME. (See Gramme.)
KIMOLI. (See Argentiera.)
KING-BIRD. (See Fly-Catcher.)

KING'S EVIL; the name formerly given to the scrofula, in consequence of its being supposed that the kings of England and France possessed the power of curing that disease by the touch. (See Scrofula, in the body of the work.) The English and French have each contended that this power was first exercised by their respective monarchs; the French

asserting that St. Louis was first endowed with it, and the English that it was possessed by Edward the Confessor. In the reign of Charles II, the practice of touching for the cure of the scrofula seems to have reached its greatest height in England; and such were the crowds that flocked to him, that he is said to have touched more than six thousand persons in one year after his restoration. The demands upon the king's time were so great, that he found it necessary to have the patients examined by his surgeons, for the purpose of determining if those who presented themselves were really sufferers. Those who were decided to be proper objects of compassion, received tickets of admission to the royal presence, and were touched by the king on one of the days of healing, either at Whitehall or Windsor.

KINGSTON. (See Hull.)
KITE. (See Hawk.)
KNISTENAUX. (See Crees.)
KUMISS. (See Horse.)


LA PLATA. (See Chuquisaca.)


LACE MADE BY CATERPILLARS ; most extraordinary and ingenious species of manufacture, which has been contrived by an officer of engineers residing in the city of Munich. It consists of lace and veils, with open patterns in them, made entirely by caterpillars. The following is the mode of proceeding adopted :-Having made a paste of the leaves of the plant, on which the species of caterpillar he employs feeds, he spreads it thinly over a stone, or other flat substance, of the required size. He then, with a camel-hair pencil, dipped in olive-oil, draws the pattern he wishes the insects to leave open. This stone is then placed in an inclined position; and a considerable number of the caterpillars are placed at the bottom. A peculiar species is chosen, which spins a strong web; and the animals commence at the bottom, eating and spinning their way up to the top, carefully avoiding every part touched by the oil, but devouring every other part of the paste. The extreme lightness of these veils, combined with some strength, is truly surprising. One of them, measuring twenty-six and a half inches by seventeen inches, weighed only 1.51 grains-a degree of lightness which will appear more strongly by con

trast with other fabrics. One square yard of the substance of which these veils are made, weighs four grains and one third; whilst one square yard of silk gauze weighs one hundred and thirty-seven grains, and one square yard of the finest patent net weighs two hundred and sixty-two grains and a half.

LACHSA. (See Arabia.)

LADING, BILL OF. (See Bill of Lading.) LAGAN. (See Flotsam.) LALLY-TOLLENDAL, the marquis of died at Paris, in March, 1830.

LAMARQUE, general, died at Paris, in May, 1832. Some account of his recent course will be found in the article France, in this Appendix.

LANCASTRIAN SCHOOLS. (See Mutual Instruction.)

LANFRANC is accidentally placed before Land.


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(See Schlan

(See Roman Lan

guage and Literature.) LAUDANUM. (See Opium.)

LAURA; a sort of hermitage. (See Anachorets.)

LAWYERS. (See Advocates, Attorney, and Barrister.)

LEAP YEAR. (See Epoch, and Year.) LEE, Samuel, is a remarkable instance of what may be accomplished by the steady direction of talent to one object. The only education he received was that of a village school, where nothing more than reading, writing and arithmetic was taught. He quitted this school at twelve years of age, to learn the trade of a carpenter and builder; and it was not till years after this, that he conceived the idea of learning foreign languages. He taught himself to read and write in Latin, in Greek, and in Hebrew. He also taught himself the Chaldee, the Syriac, and the Samaritan languages, unaided by any instructer, or by any literary companion, and uninfluenced by the hope either of profit or of praise. Mr. Lee's earnings were, at this time, barely sufficient to the poorest maintenance; yet he spared from this pittance enough to purchase such grammars as could be met with upon the common book-stalls; and, when he had read through a volume, procured in a similar manner, be was forced to pay it away again as part of the price of the next book he wished to purchase. He had to pass from bodily fatigue to mental exertion; for he omitted none of the hours appropriated to manual labor: he retired regularly to rest at ten o'clock at night: he suffered, dur

ing this time, from a complaint in his eyes; and, of the inadequate leisure thus left him, part even of that was dedicated to what may be deemed accomplishment; for he acquired, among other things, a knowledge of music. When he exchanged his trade for the superintendence of a charity school, his hours were not much more at his own disposal. It was at this time that doctor Jonathan Scott furnished him with an Arabic grammar; and he had then, for the first time in his life, the pleasure of conversing upon the study in which he was engaged. To this circumstance, and the wonderful proficiency of Mr. Lee (for in a few months he was capable of reading, writing and composing, both in Arabic and Persian), we may attribute Mr. Lee's subsequent engagement with the church missionary society, his admission at Queen's college, Cambridge, and his ordination as a minister of the established church. When he entered at Cambridge, he was unacquainted with the mathematics, but, in one fortnight, qualified himself to attend a class which had gone through several books in Euclid, and soon after discovered an error in a Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry, usually bound up with Simpson's Euclid, the fourteenth proposition of which he disproved. Mr. Lee's chief attention, however, has been turned to theological and philological pursuits; and he has made great progress in translating the Scriptures into various Oriental languages. In 1819, he was appointed Arabic professor to the university of Cambridge.

LESLIE, sir John, died in November, 1832, having been knighted a few months previous to his death.

LIFE-BUOY. The life-buoy, now commonly used in the British navy, is the invention of lieutenant Coots, of the royal navy. It consists of two hollow copper vessels connected together, each about as large as an ordinary sized pillow, and of buoyancy and capacity sufficient to support one man standing upon them. Should there be more than one person requiring support, they can lay hold of rope beckets, fitted to the buoy, and so sustain themselves. Between the two copper vessels, there stands up a hollow pole, or mast, into which is inserted, from below, an iron rod, whose lower extremity is loaded with lead, in such a manner that, when the buoy is let go, the iron slips down to a certain extent, lengthens the lever, and enables the lead at the end to act as ballast. By this means the mast is kept upright, and the buoy prevented 41


from upsetting. The weight at the end of the rod is arranged so as to afford secure footing for two persons, should that number reach it; and there are, also, as was said before, large rope beckets, through which others can thrust their head and shoulders, till assistance is rendered. At the top of the mast is fixed a port-fire, calculated to burn about twenty minutes, or half an hour: this is ignited, most ingeniously, by the same process which lets the buoy fall into the water; so that a man, falling overboard at night, is directed to the buoy by the blaze on the top of its pole or mast, and the boat sent to rescue him also knows in what direction to pull. The method by which this excellent invention is attached to the ship, and dropped into the water in a single instant, is, perhaps, not the least ingenious part of the contrivance. The buoy is generally fixed amid-ships, over the stern, where it is held securely in its place by being strung, or threaded, as it were, on two strong perpendicular rods, fixed to the tafferel, and inserted in holes piercing the frame work of the buoy. The apparatus is kept in its place by what is called a slipstopper, a sort of catch-bolt, or detent, which can be unlocked at pleasure by merely pulling a trigger: upon withdrawing the stopper, the whole machine slips along the rods, and falls at once into the ship's wake. The trigger, which unlocks the slip-stopper, is furnished with a lanyard, passing through a hole in the stern, and having, at its inner end, a large knob, marked "LIFE-BUOY:" this alone is used in the day-time. Close at hand is another wooden knob, marked "Lock," fastened to the end of a line fixed to the trigger of a gun-lock primed with powder, and so arranged that, when the line is pulled, the port-fire is instantly ignited; while, at the same moment, the life-buoy descends, and floats merrily away, blazing like a light-house. The gunner, who has charge of the life-buoy lock, sees it freshly and carefully primed every evening at quarters, of which he makes a report to the captain. In the morning, the priming is taken out, and the lock uncocked. During the night, a man is always stationed at this part of the ship; and every half hour, when the bell strikes, he calls out, "Life-Buoy!" to show that he is awake and at his post, exactly in the same manner as the look-out men abaft, on the beam and forward, call out, "Starboard quarter!" "Starboard gangway!" "Starboard bow!" and so on, completely round the ship, to prove that they are not nap

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