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places by the application of a pall or rachet. This done, the stem, which has waxed cord coiled closely about it to give it additional strength, is brought down to the horizontal position by means of a windlass, and retained there by another pall or detent. In this state of things, the body which it is intended to throw from the ballista, is placed in the cavity of the spoon. At a given word, the detent is struck away with a mallet, and the stem, obeying the enormous elastic force which now acts upon it, remounts, and discharges the projectile with great impetu osity. At the moment of the discharge, the stem strikes against the frame at a point where, to soften down the shock, a thick horse-hair cushion is placed. The machines called by the Romans tormentum were only varieties of the ballista, and served to project stones and other ponderous masses. According to Vitruvius, the cords employed in these machines were made sometimes of hair, at others of the bowels of animals, prepared like our catgut. All were not twisted by the same process, but sometimes by means of a windlass, at others by toothed wheels. The ultimate effects, however, were the same in all cases. Of the Catapulta. These, as we have before observed, were employed in throwing darts or arrows, which, it is said, were sometimes poisoned, and at others set on fire. A catapulta of the smaller kind consists merely of an immense bow of elastic wicker work, placed on a suitable. carriage, and having its upper part drawn down by the force of several men applied to a strong rope. Several arrows are lodged upon a suitable frame, and at different elevations. The tightened cord being set at liberty by drawing out a pin, the bent surface, recovering itself by its natural elasticity, advances to its original vertical position, and thus drives before it all the arrows with considerable velocity. This kind of catapulta is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, as being employed at the siege of Cyprus. Catapultæ of the larger kind were much inore powerful, and were used to shoot darts and arrows of great length and weight. It is not unaptly assimilated to a broken bow, although there is this difference, that, in the latter, the elastic force resides in the bow itself, whereas here, as in the ballista, the elastic force is in the twisted cords, between which the two arms are inserted, not vertically, as in the stem of the ballista, but horizontally. At the extremity of the two arms is attached a strong rope. The twisted cords receive

their tension by means of wheel work, and are kept at the requisite twist by means of detents, as in the ballista. The arms are also strengthened by ligatures of waxed cord, as in the latter machine. The impulsive energy of these machines far exceeds the ideas we should form of them from their description. It is said that Montfaucon possessed a small model of a catapulta only five inches in length, which projected its dart to the distance of four hundred feet; and Folard, the learned editor of Polybius, had a model only a foot in each dimension, which propelled its dart with such force as to cause it to enter and remain in hard freestone at the distance of thirteen hundred feet. Cæsar also relates that, at the siege of Marseilles, the besieged propelled, from the top of their walls, beams of twelve feet long, armed at one end by pointed iron heads, which pierced four ranks of stout hurdles, and then stuck firmly into the earth.-Of the Scorpion. This is another of the propelling machines of the ancients, and is probably of anterior date to those we have been describing, being far inferior to them in its action, although still a very powerful engine. The propelling power was produced by the descent of the weight placed at the shorter arm of the machine, which raising the longer arm, the stone was delivered from the sling attached to it with a very considerable force; but, as we have stated above, by a very inferior one to that produced by the twisted cord in the ballista and catapulta. It is needless to add that the stone being discharged, the long arm was drawn down by manual strength, and the machine recharged by another stone. This is by some authors called a fundiballe. The arcoballista is a smaller propelling apparatus, which might be worked by one man. It is little more than a fixed bow, with a simple mechanical contrivance for bringing back the line. The above are the principal machines which the ancients possessed for distant means of annoyance. It still remains for us to describe those employed on a near ap proach to an enemy's works for the dem olition of the same, and the opposing en gines of the besieged.-Machines of Ap proach and Demolition. Of the Battering Ram. The ancients employed two different machines of this kind, an account of which will be found under the head Bat tering Ram.-Movable Towers, Tortoises, &c. The movable towers employed by the ancients in their sieges, and which they called helepoles, were often of an

astonishing magnitude. Vegetius de scribes them as being formed of strong planks. To preserve them from risk of fire thrown from the walls of the besieg-. ed place, they were covered with raw hides, or with pieces of woven horse-hair. Their height was proportional to the dimensions of their bases, which were sometimes thirty feet square, and their height forty or fifty feet. Sometimes their height was still greater, that they might be above the walls, and even above the stone towers of the city. They were supported upon several small wheels, by means of which they might be moved from place to place, notwithstanding their enormous size and weight. It was generally reckoned that the besieged place was in imminent danger whenever the besiegers had succeeded in placing one of these near the walls. The helepolis was supplied with ladders, by which to mount from stage to stage; and each stage presented its particular means of attack. In the lower one, there was commonly a ram; and the middle stage, or a higher one, was furnished with a bridge, made of mutually-intersecting levers, which could be easily projected out, and thereby form a communication between the tower and the wall. Sometimes baskets, fixed to projecting levers, carried men, who were let down upon the wall. On the upper stages were soldiers armed with halberts, and archers, who continually played upon the besieged. Vitruvius states that the weight of the helepolis brought against Rhodes by Demetrius weighed 260,000 pounds, and that to man and manoeuvre it, employed 3400 soldiers.-The tortoise was a kind of moving sheet, used to defend the assailants in their advance upon the place. These were also of great magnitude. One of those employed by Cæsar, at the siege of Marseilles, was sixty feet long, and served to cover the space between the helepolis and the city wall. In some instances, a long rank of these was placed end to end, and served as a complete protection to the soldiers. They were covered, as we have already said, with raw hides, or with moistened horsehair, to protect them from the fire of the besieged.-Miscellaneous Machines. Of Crows (corvi) and Cranes. As, in the application of the engines last described, it was necessary for the besiegers to approach close under the walls of the besieged city, it was natural that the latter should attempt a means of annoyance, or defence against their enemy, which inight counteract their efforts. This prob

ably gave rise to the machines we are about to describe, which were of different kinds, some being used in sieges, and others in engagements at sea. The description we have of these engines, and of the effects produced by them, is scarcely credible. Plutarch informs us that, when Marcellus had advanced his galleys close under the walls of Syracuse, Archimedes directed against them enormous machines, which, being projected forward,. there were let down suddenly from them large beams, from which were suspended long vertical arms of rope, terminated with grappling hooks, which, laying hold of the vessels, and rapidly elevating them, by the operation of counter weights, upset and sunk them to the bottom of the sea, or, after raising them by their prows, and setting them as it were on their poops, plunged them end wise into the water. Others, it is said, he swung round towards the shore by the application of his cranes, and, after whirling them in the air, dashed them to pieces on the rocks beneath. Although it is impossible not to suspect some degree of exaggeration in these statements, yet we cannot, at the same time, doubt that very powerful means of this kind were employed in this celebrated siege, in which Archimedes, the prince of Grecian mathematicians, performed an important part, and where he at length fell beneath the sword of one of the soldiers of the conqueror. The telleno was a machine employed for raising a few soldiers higher than the top of the enemy's wall, to ascertain what was going on within them, and sometimes for taking possession of them, and thus facilitating the escalade. In the former instance, it was formed by a great pile driven into the ground, which served as a fulcrum to a long lever, which was placed across it and balanced. At one of its extremities was a light wooden or wicker case, capable of holding a certain number of men, who, when the opposite end was drawn down by cords, were raised so as to be enabled to look over the walls, or to mount upon them. Others were mounted on carriages.--Of modern Artillery. At what time gunpowder was first employed for the purposes of war, is very uncertain; but it is pretty evident that cannon were in use very early in the fourteenth century; but they were, of course, of the rudest and most uncultivat ed character. (See Gunpowder.) Their first denomination was bombarde, from Boußos, or bombo et ardore, on account of the great noise produced by the discharge

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constructed, we are not informed. Notwithstanding the improvements thus introduced in the formation of cannon, yet they were still, from a mistaken idea of the necessity of great length, exceedingly large and unwieldy. Louis XII had one cast at Tours which carried, a ball of one hundred pounds. One of these extraordinary cannon was taken at the siege of Dien, in 1546, by don John de Castro, and was very lately preserved in the castle of St. Julian de Barra, near Lisbon. The length of it is twenty feet and seven inches; its diameter, in the middle, is six feet and three inches; and it threw a ball of one hundred pounds. There is a Hindoostan inscription upon it, which says it was made À. D. 1400. Although, during the sixteenth century, the size of cannon was considerably diminished, and a more tasteful form given to their exterior, still some few were made of what we now consider a prodigious magnitude, highly ornamented, and bearing a variety of mottoes, and dignified with names of various import. (See Cannon.)—Artillery for the Field. This was formerly divided into three classes, namely, battalion guns, artillery of the park, and horse artillery. The battalion guns included all the light pieces attached to regiments of the line, which they accompanied in all their ma

In the early use of these machines, they were employed like those they supplanted, and which we have described, in throwing enormous stones. They were therefore of, immense calibre; and, as the means of boring iron masses of such magnitude were then wanted, they were necessarily formed of iron bars, fitted together lengthwise, and confined by strong hoops of iron. Sometimes the bars were soldered together; but, still, the hoops could not be dispensed with. There are some specimens of these early cannon preserved as curiosities in the repository and royal arsenal at Woolwich. All the ancient cannon are unnecessarily long and clumsy; and we may easily imagine that their carriages and appointments were equally heavy and unmanageable. We are informed, indeed, by Guicciardini, in the first book of his history, that so cumbrous and unmanageable were the cannon in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, that they could only be discharged at considerable intervals, namely, two or three times in a day; so that the besieged had sufficient time to repair, at their leisure, the damage which they had sustained; and it not unfrequently happened that the pieces burst, and thus did more injury to those who employed them than to those they were intended to annoy. In 1453, when Mahomet II battered the walls of Constantinœuvres, to cover and support them. In nople, he is said to have used bombards the English service, there were two six which projected masses of twelve hundred pounders attached to each battalion. pounds weight; and even during the late wars, the Turks employed enormous stone mortars to protect the passage of The French had two four-pounders.

the Dardanelles. To trace, however, the various changes that have taken place in the construction, management, &c., of these arms, would far exceed the limits of this article. We must pass, therefore, from these early applications of cannon to the purposes of bombardment, to the time when they began to be employed in the open field, at which period they must have undergone considerable changes and improvements. The English appear to have been the first to employ cannon in the field; and, as early as 1346, at the celebrated battle of Cressy, five of them were placed on a small hill near that village, and which are said to have greatly contributed to the attainment of that victory. Cannon, however, were not cast in England till some time in the sixteenth century, namely, brass cannon about the year 1535, and those of iron in 1547. We read, indeed, of brass guns of a much earlier date; but whether they were formed of bars, or in what other way they were

VOL. XII.

40

The Danes
The Austrians
The Prussians

66

Per Battalion.

66

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two three-pounders. three six-pounders.

66

S six pounders, two first line.

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three-pounders second line. two three-pounders.

The Hanoverians
This practice is, however, now discontin
ued in the British service; and, in lieu of
battalion guns, the artillery is formed inte
brigades of foot, and troops of horse artil
lery, the former being attached to the
infantry, and the latter to the cavalry
This change has taken place on the sup-
position that the condensed fire of these
brigades and troops produces a much
greater effect than could be expected from
the divided action of battalion guns. The
brigades of foot artillery have either five
medium twelve-pounders, and a heavy
five and a half inch howitzer; five nine-
pounders, and a heavy five and a half inch
howitzer; five long six-pounders. with a
heavy five and a half inch howitzer; five

and, indeed, no rule can be made to apply
generally to all cases.-The artillery for
the defence of a garrison is very similar
to that employed in the siege.
GYMNOTUS ELECTRICUS.

H.

(See Elec

HADRIAN. (See Adrian.)
HALCYON. (See Kingfisher.)
HALEP. (See Aleppo.)

HALIFAX, MARQUIS OF. (See Saville,
George.)

HARDWICKE, LORD. (See Yorke, Philip.)
HARRIER. (See Hound.)

HARVEST FLY. (See Locust.)
HARVEST MOON. (See Moon.)
HAUBERK. (See Mail, Coat of
HAUGWITZ, Count, died at Vienna in
February, 1832.

light six-pounders, with a light five and a
half inch howitzer; or six three-pounders,
when acting in a mountainous country.
The nine-pounders, however, were much
in use in the late campaigns, as they an-
swered better to the French eight-pound-trical Eel.)
ers, to which they were generally opposed.
-Horse Artillery. A troop of horse artil
lery in the British service has generally
five light six-pounders, and one light five
and a half inch howitzer. The French
have commonly eight-pounders, and a
six-inch howitzer attached to their troops
of horse artillery.-Park of Artillery.
This, in addition to the requisite propor-
tion of light guns, to replace such as may
be disabled or taken, contains some ord-
nance of a heavier calibre; but the nature
and quantity of it depend on particular
circumstances. These are eighteen-pound-
ers, twelve-pounders, and eight-inch how-
itzers, for the purpose of forming batteries
of position; defending entrenched posts;
breaking down bridges; dislodging an
enemy from temporary works, or old cas-
tles, fortified in order to impede the march
of an army for a short time, &c. These
do not always follow an army in all its
movements; but still they are generally
so placed that they may be brought up in
a short time when circumstances require
it. The park also should contain spare
carriages, stores and ammunition for every
description of ordnance to be employed;
a ponton or boat equipage, and a mova-
ble magazine in wagons or carts for in-
fantry and cavalry. Artillery for a Siege.
This of course contains, besides a number
of pieces of the kind we have been de-
scribing, a quantity of heavy ordnance,
the particular number of which, however,
depends upon circumstances; but the
proportion of the different kinds is gener-
ally something like the following, namely:
The number of heavy guns being deter-
mined upon, the number of

Mortars (8-in. to 13-in.), about one third.
Small mortars, 66
about one fourth.
Heavy howitzers, " about one eighth.
The following are the numbers and cali-
bre of the ordnance demanded for the
siege of Lisle, by the late sir William
Congreve :-

6 twenty-four-pounders.
28 ten-inch mortars.
8 eight-inch mortars.

20 five and a half inch mortars.

'These numbers, it will be perceived, do not exactly agree with the above rule;

HAUSER, Kaspar. On the twenty-sixth of May, 1828, a youth of about sixteen or seventeen years of age, who was unable to speak, and seemed almost incapable of walking or standing, was found in the streets of Nuremberg, by one of the citizens of that place. In his hand was a letter addressed to the captain of one of the cavalry companies there. He was entirely ignorant of the uses of different objects, had little or no command over his hands and feet, and, when spoken to, he understood nothing that was said to him, and only replied by a few words of unintelligible gibberish. As he appeared hungry and thirsty, food and drink were brought to him; but, on tasting a bit of meat that was offered to him, he rejected it with signs of disgust, which were repeated on his taking a few drops of beer into his mouth. On a pen being put into his hand, he wrote, in plain letters, Kaspar Hauser. The letter, which we have before mentioned, was dated "Bavarian Frontiers, place nameless:" its purport was, that the boy had been left with the writer, who was a poor laborer, in October, 1812, and who, not knowing his house, without allowing him to stir out parents, had brought him up in his of it. A note, accompanying this letter, contained these words: "His father was one of the light cavalry: send him, when he is seventeen years old, to Nuremberg, for his father was stationed there. He was born April 30, 1812. I am a poor girl, and cannot support him: his father is dead." The lad was about four feet nine inches in height, well formed, and

stout; his countenance destitute of expression, and his eyes staring and heavy; his hands delicately formed, and his feet did not appear to have been subjected to the usual pressure of shoes. His dress was chiefly old and coarse, but his jacket had the appearance of a frock coat, with the skirts cut off, and his pantaloons were of a finer quality than those worn by peasants. The anatomy of his legs, as appeared by a subsequent examination, presented some singular deviations from the common formation. At Nuremberg, he was treated with kindness, and was gradually taught the use of language. July 11, he was visited by Von Feuerbach (q. v.), from whose pamphlet Kaspar Hauser, Beispiel eines Verbrechens am Seelenleben des Menschen (of which a translation has been published in Boston, 1832), we have extracted the contents of this article. Hauser was not then able to give an intelligible account of himself; but he was soon after removed to the house of a school-master in the place, where he gradually acquired the knowledge of things and of language. In the summer of 1829, he was able to give, in writing, his recollections of events previous to his "coming into the world at Nuremberg," as he expressed himself. It had already been mentioned that he was preparing such an account, when, in the month of October, he was found lying in the cellar, covered with blood, and with a gash on his head, which, when he had recovered from the effect of the wound, he said had been inflicted by a black man; but no clew to this affair has yet been discovered. The account of himself above alluded to, as given by Feuerbach, is, that he had always been confined in a dark hole, in which he had always sat upright, and had never seen any person or thing, nor heard any sound; but when he awoke from sleep, he used to find a loaf of bread and a pitcher of water by him. The man who came to him had, however, not long before removing him, placed some paper before him, put a pencil in his hand, and taught him to make certain characters, which he afterwards amused himself with copying, without attaching any signification to them. Finally, the man had carried him out of his prison; but he appeared to have little acquaintance with any thing that happened after that event, till he was left in Nuremberg. Such is the singular story related concerning Kaspar Hauser, of which the reader will find further details in the work already mentioned.

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HEN. (See Cock.)

In

HERTOGENBOSCH. (See Bois-le-Duc.) HESPERIA. (See Italy.) HIGUMENI. (See Abbots.) HINNOM. (See Tophet.) HOAR FROST. (See Freezing.) HOBART, John Henry, doctor of divinity, late bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church in the state of New York, was born at Philadelphia, on the fourteenth of September, 1775. After receiving an elementary education in that city, at the Episcopal academy, and in the college, he entered the university of Princeton, at the age of fifteen, where he graduated in 1793, with the first honors of his class, and, for several years, discharged the duties of a tutor. In 1798, he was admitted to holy orders in Philadelphia, by bishop White, who had previously directed his theological studies. He then entered upon his ecclesiastical duties, and officiated successively at Oxford and Lower Dublin, in the county of Philadelphia; at New Brunswick, New Jersey: and at Hampstead, Long Island. 1800, he was appointed assistant minister of Trinity church, in the city of New York, and, in 1811, he was consecrated bishop of the New York diocese. The duties of this office he continued to discharge, with unremitting zeal, until the period of his death, which occurred on the twelfth of September, 1830, at Auburn, Cayuga county, New York, in the fiftyfifth year of his age. Bishop Hobart was a man of an energetic spirit, and great activity, and an able and learned divine The Episcopal church is indebted to him for various compilations-the Companion for the Altar; Companion for the Festivals and Fasts of the Protestant Episco pal Church; the Clergyman's Companion; Companion for the Book of Common Prayer; Collection of Essays on Episcopacy; the Christian's Manual of Faith and Devotion. His original works are the Apology for Apostolic Order, and two volumes of sermons, besides numerous sermons and tracts published in a separate form. Much of his time, during five years, was spent in editing and greatly enlarging D'Oyly and Mant's Com mentary on the Scriptures. The two volumes of sermons were published u

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