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was therefore necessary, if an expedition were sent out, that it should carry all its supplies. The march led by footpaths over barren mountains, through various tribes, which had maintained their independence even under the regency. Under these circumstances, Algiers could not be made the base of operations, which could be fixed only at Bona or Stora. The beylic of Bona was therefore occupied, and general Clausel also made an incursion into the southern province of Titteri, where he passed the Atlas, and defeated the troops of the bey, on the twenty-first of November. On the twenty-second, Mediah, the ancient Lamida, was occupied, and, on the twenty-third, the bey gave in his submission. But the people were by no means subjected. The bey of Titteri was sent to France, where a pension of 12,000 francs was settled upon him; and the bey of Oran was likewise deposed, and sent to Alexandria. Still, however, the war continued. Mediah was evacuated, Oran abandoned, and it was said that the city of Algiers alone would be retained. But Southern France particularly remonstrated against the abandonment of a colony so important for commerce. General Clausel now organized a corps of irregular Arabian troops (zuaves), and determined to give the provinces of Constautine and Oran to two Tunisian princes, who should be tributary to France. But the government was dissatisfied with his measures, and, in February, 1831, declared the treaty which he had made with Tunis, to carry this plan into effect (December 18), to be null, on the ground that he had exceeded his powers. General Berthezène was also appointed to the command of the troops, although Clausel was allowed to retain the title of governor of the colony. The warlike operations were continued during the ensuing spring and summer, and several expeditions were made into the interior, to chastise hostile tribes of Arabs, Bedouins and Cabyles, or Berbers; but, on the approach of the French troops, these wild hordes would desert their villages, and disperse, and then, again collecting, hang upon their rear on their return. In October, Bona fell into the hands of the Cabyles; the colony was supported at the expense of 1,000,000 francs a month, and, instead of proving a granary for Southern France, as had been anticipated, was obliged to draw all its supplies from that country; and the government found itself compelled to support the emigrants who had settled there. In November, the popula
tion of Algiers had sunk to 20,000 souls, of whom 5000 were Jews. The French government, therefore, at length, determined to try the effect of a new organization of the administration of the colony: the military and civil authorities were intrusted to distinct officers. On the first of December, the duke of Rovigo (Savary) was accordingly appointed to the military command, and baron Pichon was placed at the head of the civil administration, as civil intendant of the colony. The whole coast, from Constantine to Oran, was subjected to the government of Algiers; and the fortifications of this city itself were to be strengthened by the erection of seven new block-houses. Thus the determination of the French government to retain permanent possession of the new colony, was no longer doubtful, and will certainly be accomplished, unless the state of affairs in Europe should compel France to recall her troops and abandon the African shore. In the beginning of 1832, the number of European colonists in Algiers was about 3000; and towards the close of January, a newspaper, in French and Arabic, was established, under the title of Moniteur Algérien. Among the numerous works to which the occupation of Algiers has given rise in France, we mention Renaudot's Tableau du Royaume et de la Ville d'Algèr (fifth edition, 1831); Fernel's Campagne d'Afrique en 1830 (second edition, 1832); Juchereau de St. Denys's Considérations statistiques, historiques, militaires, et politiques, sur la Régence d'Alger (with a map, 1831).
FREESTONE. (See Sandstone.)
FULMINATING GOLD. (See Gold.) FULMINATING POWDERS. (See Mercury, and Silver.)
FUNDI. (See Fondi.
FURNACES FOR WARMING HOUSES. (See Stoves.)
FURZE is accidentally placed before Fur Trade.
FYEN. (See Funen.)
GARTER SNAKE. (See Serpent.) GAUNTLOPE. (See Gantlope.) GAZNAVIDES. (See Persia.) GENESEE OIL. (See Bitumen.) GENLIS, madame de, died at Paris, in December, 1830, at the age of eighty-four years.
GEORGIA BARK. (See Pinkneya Pubescens.)
GEORGIUM SIDUS. (See Herschel.) GERMAINE, lord George. (See Sackville, George.)
GHOSTS. (See Visions.) GIAMSCHID. (See Jemshid.) GIOVIO, Paolo. (See Jovius.) GIRARD, Stephen. This singular individual has rendered himself a subject of public interest by his large bequests for public purposes, and deserves a place among those remarkable men who have achieved great things with small means. He was born in the French city of Bordeaux, in the year 1750, of poor parents, and seems to have received no other education than what is implied in the fact, that he learned, to read and write while a child. During his long residence in this country, at a later period of his life, he never acquired a sufficient knowledge of the English language to speak it correctly; but the native vigor of his mind supplied, in a great measure, those deficiencies which, to most others, would have been an insuperable bar to success in the world. Among the events of his early youth, he used to speak of the ridicule to which a deformity in one eye exposed him, as a source of great suffering. At the age of ten or twelve years, he went to the West Indies in the capacity of a cabin-boy, and afterwards sailed from New York in the same humble station. At this time, his deportment was highly exemplary; and the master of the vessel under whom he sailed was so much pleased with his fidelity and industry, that he soon after gave him the command of a small vessel, in which Girard made several voyages to New Orleans and other ports. His great frugality, and his success in such trifling speculations as he could then engage in, put it in his power, before a long time, to become part owner of a vessel, in which he continued to sail as master. In 1769, Girard, then only nineteen years of age, established himself in Philadelphia; and, in the course of the next year, he married Polly Lum, the pretty daughter of a calker, then in her seventeenth year, and a servant girl in his neighborhood. This marriage, however, did not prove a happy one,
owing to the asperity and violence of Girard's temper; and, at a later period, he sued for a divorce from his wife, who was confined in a lunatic hospital during the last twenty-five years of her life (1790 -1815). She bore him only one child, who died in infancy. On the breaking out of the revolutionary war, his commercial operations being interrupted, he took a little shop, and followed the trade of bottler and grocer for several years, when he again entered the West India trade; and from this time (1780) he may be considered a rich man. Though Girard was, in general, morose in his manners, and harsh in his disposition, yet he distinguished himself during the prevalence of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, in 1793, by his active benevolence in attending the sick; and on all occasions he manifested a singular readiness to afford medical advice and personal assistance to such sufferers as came under his notice, while, at the same time, he would never relieve the distresses of his friends or relations, whether of body or of the purse, by pecuniary aid. His next commercial enterprises were in the East India trade; and, as is well known, he was subsequently engaged in banking till the period of his death, in 1831. The following description of his person and manners is taken from the Biography of Stephen Girard, written by S. Simpson (Philadelphia, 1832):-Few men made so bad a first impression upon the spectator as Stephen Girard. His person was altogether unprepossessing. His humble and vulgar exterior, his cold, abstracted and taciturn habits, did not fail to excite in the mind of the superficial observer a feeling approaching to contempt. He resembled a short and square-built old sailor. His wall-eye and the contrast exhibited between his person, his habiliments and his fortune, contributed to complete a picture of the most repulsive kind. He was partially deaf in one ear, and his conversation was disfigured by a broken French dialect. He spoke, with few exceptions, only upon business; and then never said more than was necessary to the proper understanding of his subject. When excited to anger, however, especially among his dependants and workmen, his volubility of tongue, though not couched in the most refined language, was without a parallel But to compensate for these ebullitions of temper towards his inferiors, he had the art of conciliating them by the most fascinating displays of occasional good nature, which impressed them with the
most devoted readiness to serve him. His habits of attending business were extremely regular in his counting-house, and generally so in his bank. Ön discount days, he almost always entered the bank between nine and eleven o'clock in winter, and six and nine in summer. It was his custom, during the spring and summer months, to spend an hour or two every morning in a garden attached to his bank, where he employed himself in pruning his vines, nursing his fig-tree and dressing his shrubs. He was buried in a Roman Catholic burial-ground, but without any religious ceremonies. His fortune was probably the largest ever left by any individual in the U. States, and is estimated to amount to about eleven or twelve million dollars. It was disposed of in the following manner by his will:To the Pennsylvania hospital (subject to an annuity of $200 to a female slave, whom he sets free), $30,000; to the Pennsylvania institution for the deaf and dumb, $20,000; to the orphan asylum of Philadelphia, $10,000; to the controllers of the public schools of Philadelphia,$10,000; to the city corporation, to be invested, and the interest to be applied annually to the purchase of fuel for the poor, $10,000; to the society of ship-masters for the relief of listressed masters, their widows and children, $10,000; to the grand lodge of Pennsylvania, $20,000; for a school for poor white children in Passayunk, where his farm was situated, $6000; legacies to individuals, about $120,000; several annuities, amounting to about $4000; to the city of New Orleans, 1000 acres of improved land in Louisiana, and one third of 207,000 acres of unimproved land in the same state, the remaining two thirds being bequeathed to the city of Philadelphia (the value of this land is about $500,000); to the city of Philadelphia, stock in the Schuylkill navigation company, $110,000; for the erection and endowment of a college for poor white male orphans, the sum of $2,000,000, with provision that, should this amount prove insufficient, the necessary sum shall be taken from the residuary fund; to Philadelphia, for certain city improvements, to be invested and the interest annually applied, $500,000; to the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, to be applied to internal improvements by canals, $300,000; to the city of Philadelphia, all his remaining real and personal estate (no part of the former to be sold), estimated at about $8,000,000, in aid of the orphan's college, if needed, improvements of the city, and the relief of taxes.
GLASS SNAKE. (See Serpent.)
GOITRE (bronchocele); probably a corruption of the Latin guttur (throat), called by the Germans, kropf (throat); a tumor situated in front of the windpipe, and formed by the swelling of the thyroid gland. (See Windpipe.) The goitre is endemic in the valleys of the Alps, and seems to be caused principally by the heat, moisture, and stagnation of the air, produced by the narrow and winding shape of the valleys. It has also been attributed, by some, to the use of coarse and indigestible food, of water charged with lime, and obtained from the melting of snow; but this opinion is now generally abandoned. The disease is sometimes transmitted from the parent to the child, and, when it is hereditary, often exists from birth: when not so, it begins to show itself towards the age of from seven to ten years. It sometimes makes its appearance at a much later period of life, in persons who take up their residence late in regions where it is endemic. Instances of the disease have also been known in other districts; but they are not common. The habit of carrying burdens on the head, violent efforts of any sort, the indulgence of violent passions, childbirth, &c., sometimes appear to be the occasion of its developement. The causes of the goître are, for the most part, the same as those of cretinism, and it is often found to afflict the same individuals; but the diseases are not to be confounded. (See Cretinism.) The developement of the tumor is generally retarded by the prevalence of cold, dry weather, and promoted by warm and damp weather; and it sometimes disappears entirely when the patient leaves the infected district. Various remedies, both internal and external, have been recommended. Ashes of sponge, soap, alkaline and sulphurous waters, and carbonate of soda, have been employed with success. Compression, friction, fumigation, lotions of different kinds, and, in some instances, the knife, have been resorted to; but the use of the latter is dangerous.
GOMARA ISLANDS. (See Comoro.)
GRAMMARIANS. (See Rhetoricians.) GRAY MONKS. (See Vallombrosa.) GREEN SNAKE. (See Serpent.) GREENE, Christopher, a lieutenantcolonel in the American revolutionary
army, was born in 1737, in Warwick, a town of Rhode Island. When still very young, he was elected a member of the colonial legislature, from his native place, and retained his seat until the commencement of the revolution, when he was chosen a lieutenant in the Kentish guards. Subsequently, in May, 1775, he was promoted to the rank of major in "an army of observation," under the orders of his relative, general Nathaniel Greene. He was soon afterwards appointed to the command of a company in a regiment which formed a part of the army destined to act against Canada, and, at the siege of Quebec, was taken prisoner. In 1777, having been previously exchanged, he was intrusted, by Washington, with the charge of fort Mercer, on the river Delaware, commonly called Red Bank, a post of great importance, where he was attacked by a large detachment of Hessians, under colonel count Donop. He repulsed the enemy, however; and among their slain were Donop himself, and colonel Mingerode, the second in command. For this service congress voted colonel Greene an elegant sword, which, in 1786, was presented by general Knox, secretary of war, to his eldest son. In 1778, Greene was with the army under Sullivan, which, with the aid of a French fleet under D'Estaign, attempted to break up the enemy's post on Rhode Island, but failed. He then returned to headquarters, and continued to serve under the commander-in-chief, until the spring of 1781, when, having been posted on the Croton river, in advance of the army, he was surprised by a corps of refugees, and was barbarously murdered, in the fortyfifth year of his age.
GRÉGOIRE, count, died at Paris, in May, 1831.
GREGORIAN CHANT. (See Music, Sacred.)
GROSS-GLOGAU. (See Glogau.) GROSSULAR. (See Garnet.) GUANACO. (See Llama.) GUANCHES. (See Canaries.) GUERRERO was taken in arms against the government, and shot, in February, 1831.
GUILDFORD. (See North.) GUM-TREE. (See Tupelo.) GUNNERY. In the body of the work, we referred to this head the history of the different kinds of artillery which have been used among different nations. The article intended to have been inserted having been accidentally omitted, we give here the following sketch from the
article Artillery, in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. We propose, in this article, not to treat of artillery as a science, but simply to describe the several apparatuses, appointments, &c., which constitute what is commonly understood as the artillery of an army, prefacing that description by a historical sketch of the progress and successive changes which have taken place in this important branch of the military art.
In the most ancient times, when war was made with quickness and impetuosity, the use of artillery was unknown: the club and the dart were, at this time, the only instruments of attack and defence; and it was probably some time before the bow and arrow were thought of as offensive weapons As the destructive means of attack were, by the latter invention, made to operate at a distance, corresponding means of defence became necessary; and trunks of trees, interlaced with branches and supported with earth, constituted the first fortification, which was afterwards improved by substituting a wall with a parapet, for shooting arrows at the assailants. Afterwards, the walls were carried higher, and holes left in them of sufficient size only to enable the archers to discharge their arrows effectually upon an enemy. To attack, therefore, with any chance of success, some powerful engine became necessary to batter down the walls: this gave rise to the battering ram, which was probably one of the first engines of ancient artillery. To what date we are to refer the invention of this powerful machine is uncertain. We are informed, in the Second Book of Chronicles, that Uzziah, who began his reign 809 years before the Christian era, "made in Jerusalem engines, invented by cunning men, to be upon the towers and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great stones withal." It is therefore probable that the ram was at least known in those days, although we have no distinct mention of it till the time of Pericles the Athenian (409 B. C.). To oppose this powerful engine of attack, further means of defence became necessary; and the invention of ballista and catapultæ resulted probably from this necessity. But these soon became instruments not only of defence but of attack; for, in the siege of Motya (about 370 B. C.), Dionysius, after having battered down the fortification with his rams, advanced to the walls towers rolled upon wheels, whence he galled the besieged with, continual volleys of stones and darts thrown from his catanultæ
endeavor to present the reader with the description of these several machines, according to the best authorities. At the same time, it must be acknowledged that the account of many of them is so very obscure, that it may be questionable whether they are precisely such as those described by the ancient historians. The ancient artillery may be divided into three classes of machines, namely, first, those intended for projecting bodies; secondly, those for approach and demolition; thirdly, a miscellaneous class, used for various offensive operations. Of the first class, the most important are the ballista and catapultæ, which are, by some authors, confounded with each other; but, according to their etymology, ballista (from Balλw, to shoot or throw) is an engine for propelling stones, called also XoBoλos, Rεтpoßoλos, petraria, &c.; while catapulta (in Greek, Karaniλrns, from
(Ancient Universal History, vol. vi.) A number of other instances are mentioned soon after this time, in which machines of various descriptions were employed both for defence and attack, of which we may mention, in particular, the siege of Saguntum, by Hannibal (219 B. C.), in which the Saguntines prevented his soldiers from using the battering ram by a continual hurling of darts, stones, and other missiles. From this time, these warlike engines increased, both in number and in magnitude, to an almost incredible extent, of which the reader may form some idea by the inventory that different historians have given us of those found in certain cities, which had been obliged to capitulate to the enemy, and by the enumeration of those which accompanied particular armies. Thus we are informed that Titus employed, in the siege of Jerusalem, three hundred catapulta, of divers magnitudes, and forty bal-Teλrns, a spear or dart) was an instrument lista, of which the least projected stones of seventy-five pounds weight. And, when the consul Censorius marched against Carthage, and obliged the inhabitants to give up their arms, they surrendered to him two thousand machines proper for throwing darts and stones; and, afterwards, when Scipio made himself master of the same city, there were no less than one hundred and twenty catapultæ of the larger size, two hundred and eighty-one of the smaller, twentythree of the larger ballista, fifty-two of a smaller kind, and an innumerable number of scorpions of different sizes, arms, and missile weapons. Two years previous to this, Marcellus had laid siege to Syracuse, a city proverbially fatal to the armies that attacked it. Archimedes was at that time resident in the city, and, at the earnest solicitation of Hiero, king of Sicily, exerted the powers of his mind in the invention of artillery, and other warlike instruments. Marcellus had brought with him an enormous engine, mounted on eight galleys, called sambuca, which Archimedes destroyed by discharging at it single stones of enormous weight, while it was at a considerable distance from the walls. This was effected by ballista; but he also employed crows, grapples, and scorpions, by the former of which the Roman vessels were lifted out of the water by the prow, and plunged to the bottom of the
It would be useless to record the numerous other sieges which took place between this period and the invention of cannon, where these instruments were employed. We shall therefore now
employed to dart forth spears or arrows. The force of the ballista was prodigious. The stones cast from them were of enormous weight, and of any form; and, for the further annoyance of the besieged place, they would throw into it from the ballista dead bodies of men and horses, heads, and detached limbs. Athenæus mentions one of these ballista that threw a stone of three talents, namely, about three hundred and sixty pounds weight. Cæsar employed these machines not only to destroy men, but to batter down strong and high towers. We have already mentioned the machines employed by Titus against Jerusalem, some of which, Josephus states, projected stones of a hundred weight; and Archimedes is said to have cast bodies of twelve hundred pounds, by means of his ballista, against the Roman fleet, in his defence of Syracuse. A ballista may be briefly described as a strong frame-work, susceptible of easy separation, for the purpose of conveyance, and then of being rejoined in frame, having on each side a toothed wheel. The wheels have each a strong cross-piece. A strong cord, well stretched, passes several times from the cross-piece of one wheel to that of the opposite wheel, and forms thus several intersecting twists, at the centre of one of which is inserted the handle or stem of a capacious spoon. The wheels are turned by means of pinions, and the cords fastened to the cross-pieces are made to twist more and more about each other. When, by this process, the twisted cords have received a sufficient tension, the wheels and pinions are retained in their