« PreviousContinue »
put the civic guards on an efficient footing, and to levy 12,000 men for 1832. The army was put on the war establishment, and towards the end of March, 1832, Holland and Belgium stood in a threatening posture towards each other. They remained so subsequently, as the movements of the Dutch administration did not allow the expectation of a peaceable settlement of the difficulties. The cabinet of king Leopold was changed at this time. On December 30, De Theux was made minister of the interior; Meulenaere remained minister of foreign affairs, Coghen was appointed minister of finances, and Raikem of justice. The minister at war, Brouckère, gave in his resignation on March 15, owing to the reductions made by the chamber in his budget, and other causes. Count Felix de Merode took the portfolio temporarily. The most important business of the chambers was the discussion of the budget for 1832. See above.) We only add here, that the civil list of the king was permanently settled at 1,300,000 guilders, with the use ⚫ of the royal palaces at Brussels, Antwerp and Laeken. The internal situation of the kingdom is as unfortunate as its foreign relations. The commerce of Antwerp is at present at a stand; that of Ostend has not increased. Robaulx said (March 6, 1832), in the chamber of representatives, probably with some exaggeration, that Belgian industry was in a state of total stagnation. England, he said, had sent to Holland, in the month of November alone, for five millions of such manufactured goods as formerly were obtained from Belgium. These circumstances, and the disappointment of the various parties, explain the disposition for insurrection which has appeared on several occasions. Ghent and Antwerp were declared in a state of siege for this reason. Insurrection, said the minister at war, in the session of the representatives, on January 24, 1832, is publicly recommended; attempts are made to seduce the civic guards and regular troops. It was also necessary to take measures against the Orange press; and the populace, which hates the house of Nassau, went even beyond the public authorities. The liberty of the press, guarantied by the constitution, was flagrantly violated in the case of the editor of the Messager de Gand, which caused violent debates in the chambers; and the sentence, already pronounced by a military court (February, 1832), was set aside. The little interest taken in political affairs in Belgium, since the revolu
tion, is proved, among other circumstances, by this, that at the elections of representatives in March, 1832, in Louvain, out of 1600 persons qualified to vote, only 119 appeared; in Liege, of more than 1600 electors, only 194; in Tournay, of 1200, only 371. Disobedience and resistance have often occurred among the civic guards and the soldiers. All these circumstances constantly excited the Orange party, which is numerous, and that of the republicans, to strenuous opposition.* On the 18th of April, England, France, Prussia and Austria finally exchanged ratifications of the twenty-four articles of the Belgian treaty; and, on the 5th of May, the conference, accompanied by Mr. van de Weyer, the Belgian minister, likewise exchanged ratifications with the Russian plenipotentiary. The ratification of the Russian emperor was, indeed, expressed in terms friendly to Holland, and recommended that several modifications of the treaty should be agreed to between Belgium and Holland. On the 12th of June, the conference held a long sitting, in which many of the concessions recommended by Russia to be made to Holland, were agreed upon by the whole of the five powers. At about the same time, the five powers issued a protocol, engaging themselves to prevent hostilities between the two states, and recommending them to renew negotiations with each other. The king of the Netherlands, however, in his answer to the requisitions of the conference (July), declared that, though ready to recognise the administrative, he was not willing to admit the political separation of Belgium from the Dutch provinces, but professed himself not indisposed to treat of that matter, provided his claims were acceded to. He demanded the closing of the Scheldt against
At the time when the king was elected, a particularly in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp, had paper, in which many families of rank in Belgium, shown their desire for the return of the prince of Orange, was given to lord Ponsonby, then British minister in Brussels, to be forwarded to the conference at London. This, however, he did not Smissen' openly charged him, promoted the elecdo, but, on the contrary, as general van der tion of prince Leopold. It has been said that lord Ponsonby gave this letter to Surlet de Chokier, the regent; but this has been proved to be false. The French cabinet under Laffitte by no means favored the exclusion of the house of Orange from the throne, but, on the contrary, wished this dynasty to remain in Belgium. The letter of De Potter to king Leopold, in the tribune of Paris, in which he terms the Belgic revolution precipitate and fruitless,may be considered a public confession circumstances, the king has displayed much pruof the republicans. Under these embarrassing dence, activity and spirit
me Belgians, the union of Limburg with the Dutch Netherlands, the retention of Luxemburg, and the apportionment of a larger share of the public debt to the Belgic provinces. The Belgian government rejected any idea of new terms of adjustment, and declared that, if the complete evacuation of the Belgian territory by the Dutch troops did not take place by the 20th, the siege of Maestricht would be formed on the following day. Affairs continued in this unsettled and menacing posture, when the connexion of Belgium with France was drawn closer by the marriage (August 9th) of Leopold, elected king of the Belgians, with Louisa Maria Theresa of Orleans, eldest daughter of Louis Philip, elected king of the French. This event seemed to assure Belgium of the warm and permanent support of France. The determination of the British parliament on the subject of the Russian-Dutch loan, was also announced at about this period. The question was this: At the general peace of 1815, an agreement had been made by England and the Netherlands to pay to Russia, by way of annuity, the sum of 50,000,000 florins, for her services and sacrifices in the war, the Netherlands taking upon itself this obligation, in consideration of its great accession of territory, and the acquisition of a secure frontier, and England assuming half the burden, because she retained four Dutch colonies that had been captured during the war. It was a condition of this agreement, that the annuity above mentioned should cease, provided that the possession of the Belgic provinces should be severed from the domain of the king of the Netherlands, previous to the complete liquidation of the loan. The ministerial party in parliament urged that the separation which had taken place was of a nature not contemplated in the original agreement; that it had not been effected by the interference of England; that she still retained the colonies, in consideration of retaining which, she had assumed the obligation; and that she therefore still continued responsible for her share of the debt. In these views, ministers were supported by a majority of both houses. The Dutch king still refused to accede to the treaty of November, and, although urged by the conference to open negotiations with Belgium, for the amicable adjustment of the disputed points, and although Leopold professed himself ready to consent to some reasonable modifications of that treaty, which had been ratified by all the courts of Europe, declared, neverthe
less, in a note, addressed to the conference, towards the end of September, that, relying on the support of Divine Providence, he was determined to maintain his honor, without conceding points of vital importance to his kingdom. In these measures of resistance, the Dutch king was warmly supported by the nation, which felt great confidence in its ability to defend them. His army was highly efficient, and his ships and fortresses in the best state of preparation. The Belgians were likewise discontented with the long delays which had taken place, and eager to begin hostilities. In the middle of October, it was decided by the conference that measures should be taken to compel the king of the Netherlands to submit to their terms. Prussia, in a communication transmitted, October 13, to the French ministry, declared her approbation of coercive measures, so far as they had for their object to blockade ports and coasts, but would not consent to the entrance of French troops into Belgium, unless the king of Holland should commit acts of hostility against that power. The ordinary session of the states-general of the Netherlands was opened on the 15th, by a speech from the throne, in which are these words: "I am happy in being able to state to your high mightinesses that the means of defence organized along our frontiers are on the most satisfactory footing, and that our land and sea forces merit the greatest praise for their discipline, their warlike ardor and their fidelity.
If the interest of the country should require a greater display of forces, I am prepared with all necessary means for that purpose. The provincial and communal administrations have terminated their labors relative to the levy of the militia and communal guards; our colonies are supplied with the troops and ships necessary for their defence; and our fisheries and commerce have received the requisite protection." To bring this long-protracted dispute to a close, a convention was finally concluded between France and England (October 22), requiring Belgium tc surrender Venloo, and Holland Antwerp by the 2d of November. If this requisition was not complied with by Holland at that date, it was stipulated, between the two contracting powers, that the combined fleet of France and Great Britain should blockade the Dutch ports; and, if Antwerp was not surrendered by the 12th, that a French army should erter Belgium, and begin its march towards that city on the 15th. In the preamble of this con
vention, the contracting powers express their "regrets that their majesties, the emperor of Austria, the king of Prussia, and the emperor of all the Russias, are not prepared to concur in active measures to carry the treaty into effect." The ordinary session of the Belgian chambers was opened on the 14th November. The following is an extract from the king's speech on the occasion: "After long delays, less injurious, however, to the interests of the country than might be apprehended, the moment is at last arrived when I can comply with the wishes of the chambers and the nation, by leading the powers who were guarantees of the treaty of the 15th November , to insure its execution. Those powers, having acquired the certainty that, in longer abstaining from adopting measures, they would place Belgium in the absolute necessity of doing herself justice, were unwilling to incur the risk of a general war. United by a formal convention, two of them have engaged to begin the execution of the treaty by the immediate evacuation of our territory. The fleets of France and England will fetter the commerce of Holland; and, if these means of coercion are not sufficient, in two days a French army will advance, without troubling the peace of Europe, to prove that the guarantees given are not vain words." In fact, a British order in council of the 6th had already laid an embargo on Dutch vessels in the ports of Great Britain, and, on the 10th and 11th, several divisions of the combined English and French fleet had sailed to begin the blockade of the Dutch coasts. Finally, on the 15th, marshal Gérard entered Belgium at the head of a French army, and directed his march towards Antwerp. Thus the war of the revolutions of 1830 has already begun: its issue we will not pretend to prophesy. We have merely to add that the citadel of Antwerp has a garrison of about 8000 men, is well supplied with provisions and warlike stores, and that most of the works are bomb-proof.
BELLADONNA. (See Nightshade.) BELLIARD, Augustin Daniel, count de, lieutenant-general, peer of France, and lately French minister in Brussels, distinguished as a general and diplomatist, was born in 1773, at Fontenay-le-Comte, in the Vendée, and entered the military service very early. Dumouriez soon after made him an officer of his staff. He fought at Jemappes, and was raised to the rank of lieutenant-general after the battle of Neerwinden. After Dumouriez had petrayed the convention and fled, Bel
liard was carried as a prisoner to Paris, and dismissed from the service; but he soon entered the army again as a volunteer, and was again made lieutenant-general, went, in 1796, with Bonaparte, to Italy, fought at Arcole, and was made general of brigade on the field of battle. After the occupation of Civita-Vecchia, he was sent, by Bonaparte, as minister to Naples, in order to begin negotiations. Belliard then accompanied his general to Egypt, where he distinguished himself in the battle of Alexandria, and that of the pyramids. In Upper Egypt, he went be yond the limits of the ancient Roman empire, and penetrated as far as Assyria, in a continual contest with the mamelukes and Arabs. In the battle of Heliopolis, he essentially contributed to the victory. He then attacked, with 1200 men, the Turkish forces in Damietta, which he retook. Whilst he was in Upper Egypt, he warmly aided the men of letters, who accompanied the expedition, in their scientific labors; and without his assistance the antiquities from Denderah to Philæ might have remained undiscovered. When commandant in Cairo, he was besieged by the Turks and English, and obtained a favorable capitulation by his firmness and prudence. In Egypt, he was made general of division, and, in 1801, commander of the division which had its head-quarters at Brussels. In the campaign of 1805, he participated in the victories at Ulm and Austerlitz, and fought in all the great battles in the war with Prussia. After the occupation of Madrid, he was made commandant of the city, where he suppressed the insurrection which broke out in consequence of the battle of Talavera. In 1812, he left Spain to go to Russia, and distinguished himself, particularly in the battle on the Moskwa. After the retreat, he received orders to reorganize the cavalry. At Leipsic, a cannon-ball carried away his arm. After the battle at Craone (1814), Napoleon made him commander of his cavalry and guards. After the abdication of the emperor, he received the order of St. Louis from Louis XVIII, and was made a peer and major-general of the French army, under the command of the duke de Berri. Napoleon returned from Elba, and gave him orders to hasten to king Joachim, in order to direct the operations of the Neapolitan army. The vessel which was to carry him to Naples was chased by a British ship, and obliged to return to France. The Bourbons, after their return, imprisoned him, and
placed him under the surveillance of the police, but only for a short time, for, in 1816, he was again a peer. Hardly had Louis Philip ascended the throne, when he sent Belliard to Berlin, to treat respecting the acknowledgment of the new dynasty. This mission was soon successful; for, immediately after the king of the Netherlands, England, and the emperor of Austria, had, in fact, acknowledged the king of the French, the king of Prussia did the same. During his embassy in Brussels, Belliard displayed uncommon activity he contributed more than any, other diplomatist to the foundation of the new Belgian government, and to the preservation of the city of Antwerp, when the Dutch general Chassé threatened to lay it in ruins; and, in December, 1830, he was, likewise, very active. In consequence of an order of the French government, communicated by telegraphs, he left Brussels on Tuesday, arrived in Paris on Thursday, hastened to the Tuileries, left Paris the same night, arrived on Sunday in Brussels, had an audience of king Leopold, returned to Paris, where the peers were voting on the subject of the hereditary peerage, and, at the very moment when the secretary called qut his name, opened the door in great haste, voted against the hereditary peerage, amid the laughter of his colleagues, and hastened back to Brussels. He died Jan. 27, 1832. The Belgians intend to erect him a monument.
BELLINI, Vincenzo, chapel-master at Venice, born in 1808, at Palermo, has already acquired a wide reputation. His first opera which attracted attention was Il Pirata, first represented at Milan (probably during the carnival in 1828). It pleased so much that it was soon heard in all the cities of Italy, and found its way into Germany and other countries. In December, 1832, it was represented in New York with grea applause. In this work, Bellini has chiefly imitated Rossini, yet with the independence of native genius. He treats the vocal parts according to the taste of the present Italian public, and gives, therefore, a number of colorature, fioriture, &c. ; but his vocal pieces, especially those for several voices, are composed much more judiciously than those of Rossini. Though inferior in genius to the latter, he is, also, less hasty and negligent. Besides the Pirata, he has written the following operas, which have been performed in many Italian theatres, some of them also in France and Germany :-Bianca e Ferrando; La
Straniera; Gli Capuleti e Montecchi (Ro.... meo and Juliet). In December, 1831, his latest opera, Norma (text from a French tragedy of Soumet), was performed in the Scala at Milan, but with only partial success, which, however, determines nothing respecting its merit, because in Italy, more than in any other country, secondary circumstances decide the fate of an opera.
Bengalee YeaR. (See Epoch.) BENTHAM, Jeremy, died in London, June 6, 1832.
BENTINCK. (See Portland.)
BERENGER, French deputy, the accuser of Polignac and his colleagues before the peers, is the son of a member of the con stituent assembly. He held several infe rior offices in Grenoble, and, in 1815, was elected deputy of the department of Drome. June 9, he voted against the hereditary peerage. June 22, 1815, he signed the protest, on the day when Louis XVIII entered Paris. After the dissolution of the chamber, he laid down his office of attorney-general. In 1807, he had published, in Metz, a French translation of Justinian's Novels. He now wrote, in Valence, his work De la Justice criminelle en France d'après les Lois permanents, les Lois d'Exception, et les Doctrines des Tribunaux, which was published in Paris in 1818, and is much esteemed. It displays a philosophical spirit, and a great knowledge of the subject. In 1827, he was elected deputy by the inhabitants of Valence. He was one of the commissioners appointed to conduct the impeachment of the ministers of Charles X, on which occasion he displayed, perhaps purposely, more moderation than talent. During Périer's administration, he was one of the centre between the premier and the opposition.
BERGAMOT. (See Orange.)
BICHAT, Marie François Xavier, a celebrated French physician, who, during a short career, gave an impulse to the science which he cultivated that has not yet ceased to be felt, was born at Thoirette, in the department of the Ain, Nov. 11, 1771. His father, a physician, early initiated him into the study of medicine, which the young Bichat prosecuted at Lyons and Paris, to which latter city he withdrew from the storm which agitated the former in 1793. At Paris, he studied under the direction of Desault, who treated him as a son. On the death of that distinguished surgeon (see Desault), Bichat superintended the publication of his
surgical works, and, in 1797, began to lecture upon anatomy, in connexion with experimental physiology and surgery. From this period, amidst the pressing calls of an extensive practice, he employed himself in preparing those works which have spread his reputation through Europe and America, and which have had the most beneficial influence upon the whole medical science. In the year 1800 appeared his Traité des Membranes, which passed through numerous editions, and, immediately after its publication, was translated into almost all the languages of Europe. In the same year was published his celebrated work Recherches sur la Vie et la Mort, which was followed the next year (1801) by his Anatomie Générale (4 vols., 8vo.), a complete code of modern anatomy, physiology and medicine. In the twenty-eighth year of his age, Bichat was appointed (1800) physician of the Hôtel-Dieu, in Paris, and, with the energy characteristic of true genius, began his labors in pathological anatomy. In a single winter, he opened no less than 600 bodies. He had, likewise, conceived the plan of a great work upon pathology and therapeutics; and, with this view, immediately upon commencing his duties, as physician to the Hôtel-Dieu, had begun his researches in therapeutics by experiments upon the effect of simple medicines. In the midst of this activity and usefulness, he was cut off, July 22, 1802, by a malignant putrid fever, probably the consequence of his numerous dissections. His friend and physician, Corvisart, wrote to Napoleon in these words: "Bichat has just fallen upon a field of battle which counts more than one victim: no one has done so much, or done it so well, in so short a time." Bichat is the founder of the medical theory at present received. He is the creator of general anatomy, or of the doctrine of the identity of the texture of the different organs, which is the fundamental principle of modern medicine. His Anatomie Générale has teen translated into English by doctor G. Hayward (3 vols., 8vo., Boston, 1822).
BILDERDYK died in December, 1831.
BLACK VOMIT. (See Yellow Fever.) BLACKMAIL. (See Highlands.) BLEEDING. (See Phlebotomy.) BLOMFIELD, Charles James, was, in 1824, made bishop of Chester, and, in 1828, bishop of London.
BLOOD-LETTING. (See Phlebotomy.) BLUE VITRIOL. (See Copper.) BOAR. (See Mascaret.) BOBBINET. (See Lace.) BOB-O-LINK. (See Rice-Bunting.) BODE. This celebrated astronomer died in 1826.
BOIGNE, Count, was born at Chambery, in 1751. In 1768, when seventeen years old, he left his country, and entered the French army, in which he served for five years, then went into the Russian service, was taken prisoner, at the siege of Tenedos, by the Turks, and, after his release, left the Russian army. From 1778 to 1782, he served in the forces of the East India company, and fought against Hyder Ali. Being neglected as a foreigner, he took service with the rajah of Jaypur. He led, in 1784, to Mahajee Scindiah, the celebrated prince of the Mahrattas, two battalions, disciplined in the European manner, and was of the greatest service to this prince during his campaigns against the Mongols and Rajpoots. From 1788 to 1790, he was engaged in commerce at Lucknow ; but, at the invitation of Scindiah, he put himself again at the head of an army of that prince, and routed his enemies entirely. The prince heaped honors and riches on him. For the support of the army organized by him, he had the government of the country between Muttra and Delhi, which yielded an annual revenue of five millions and a half rupees (two millions and a half dollars), of which he was allowed to retain two per cent., besides his salary, which amounted to 6000 rupees a month. The army organized by him, consisted, in 1793, of 22,000 infantry and 3000 cavalry. After the death of Scindiah, in 1794, Boigne also served his grand-nephew; but, in 1795, the state of his health obliged him to leave India. He went to England, whither he had remitted his fortune, and thence to his own country. He settled, in 1799, at Chambery, where he did much good in a variety of ways, spending three millions and a half for charitable or benevolent purposes, as the founding of hospitals for the aged and sick, and for travellers, the construction of roads, streets, &c., also for scientific and ornamental purposes. The king of Sardinia made him count; the king of France