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nington; and many factories are established within the same district.

WILMINGTON; a post-town, port of entry, and capital of New Hanover county, North Carolina, on the east side of cape Fear river, just below the confluence of the north-east and north-west branches, about thirty-five miles from the sea, ninety miles south-east of Fayetteville; lat. 34° 11 N.; lon. 78° 10′ W.; population in 1820, 2633. It contains the county buildings, two banks, and has an extensive trade. The principal part of all the exports from North Carolina are from Wilmington. The harbor admits vessels of three hundred tons; but the entrance is rendered difficult by a large shoal. Opposite the town, there are two islands, which divide the river into three streams. These afford the best rice-fields in the state. November 4, 1819, about two hundred buildings were consumed by fire. The damage was estimated at $1,000,000. WILMOT. (See Rochester.)

WILNA (Wilno); a city of Russia, capital of the government of Wilna, formerly capital of Lithuania, on the Wilia, 170 miles east of Königsberg, 350 southsouth-west of Petersburg; lon. 25° 17′ E.; lat. 54° 41' N.; population in 1826, 25,000, Jews 5000; see of a Greek archbishop and of a Catholic bishop. It has thirty-five Roman Catholic churches and convents. It is situated in a hilly country, and occupies several eminences near the river; is about four miles in circuit, built chiefly of wood, very deficient in cleanliness, and exhibits a striking contrast of wretchedness in some buildings, and gorgeousness in others. It contained a Catholic university, established in 1570, and new-modelled in 1803. In 1832, the university was suppressed, undoubtedly on account of the insurrection of Lithuania. Here is a seminary for the education of clergy of the Greek church, and one for the education of Catholic clergy, and a college of Piarists. The trade consists in the export of corn, hemp, flax, honey, wax, and other products of the surrounding country, conveyed by the Wilia and Niemen to Memel and Königsberg.

The Government of Wilna contains 25,000 square miles and 1,350,000 inhabit

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painter, was born at Pineges, in Montgomeryshire, in 1714. After receiving a classical education, he was sent to London, and placed as a pupil with an obscure portrait painter. On leaving his master he first practised in the same branch of his profession in London, but with no great success. At length he went to Italy, where he occasionally exercised his talents in studies of landscape; and at Venice meeting with Zuccarelli, that artist persuaded him to devote himself wholly to the cultivation of that department of the art in which he attained so much excellence. After staying some time at Rome and Naples, where he acquired great reputation, he returned to England in 1755, and settled in the metropolis. He had for a while much employment; but he was at length doomed to undergo indifference and neglect, and was reduced to solicit the office of librarian to the royal academy, of which he was one of the brightest ornaments. He died in May, 1782. His taste was exquisite; and whatever came from his easel bore the stamp of elegance and truth. If posthumous fame could compensate for contemporary neglect, the fate of Wilson might be considered as fortunate; for he has been ranked among the greatest artists of modern times.

WILSON, James, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Scotland about the year 1742.__His father was a respectable farmer. He studied successively at Glasgow, St. Andrews and Edinburgh, and then left Scotland for America. He arrived, in 1766, in Philadelphia, where he was first employed as a tutor in the Philadelphia college and academy, in which capacity he acquired a high reputation as a classical scholar. In a few months, however, he relinquished that occupation, and commenced the study of the law in the office of the celebrated John Dickinson. At the expiration of two years, he was admitted to the bar, and began to practise, first at Reading, and then at Carlisle. From the latter place he removed to Annapolis, and, in 1778, returned to Philadelphia, where he continued to reside during the rest of his life. He was elected, in 1775, a member of congress, and took his seat on the 10th of May. He was a uniform advocate of the declaration of independence, though he may have thought, perhaps, that the measure was brought forward prematurely: he voted in favor of it, as well on the 1st of July, in opposition to the majority of his colleagues from Penn

sylvania, as on the 4th, in conjunction with the majority. In 1777, he was superseded in congress, through the influence of party spirit; but, in 1782, he was again honored with a seat. A few months previously, he had been appointed, by the president and supreme executive council, a counsellor and agent for Pennsylvania, in the controversy between that state and Connecticut, relating to certain lands within the charter boundary of the former and which were claimed by the latter as included within her charter. The decision was in favor of Pennsylvania. In 1779, he received the appointment of advocate-general for the French government in the U. States, an office the duties of which were both arduous and delicate. He resigned it in 1781, in consequence of difficulties respecting the mode of remuneration. He continued, however, to give advice in such cases as were laid before him by the ministers and consuls of France, until 1783, when the French transmitted to him a present of ten thousand livres. In 1787, Mr. Wilson was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of the U. States, and was one of the committee who reported the draught. In the state convention of Pennsylvania, he was principally efficient in causing the constitution to be adopted. He was subsequently a member of the convention which changed the constitution of Pennsylvania, to render it conformable to that of the U. States, and, being one of the committee appointed to prepare, was intrusted with the duty of making the draught of the necessary form. In 1789, he was appointed, by general Washington, a judge of the supreme court of the U. States; and, whilst on a circuit in North Carolina, in the discharge of his functions as such, he died at Edenton, 28th of August, 1798, aged about fifty-six years. As a lawyer and judge, Mr. Wilson was eminent for talent and integrity. In private life, he was courteous, kind and hospitable. His political and legal disquisitions are extant in three volumes, and much esteemed.

WILSON, Alexander, was born at Paisley, in Scotland, in 1766. His parents were industrious people of an humble rank in life; and in his thirteenth year, young Wilson was bound apprentice to a weaver. After serving an apprenticeship of three years, and working as a journeyman weaver for about four years, during which period he had cultivated his mind by his own unaided exertions, and had

aiready given indications of poetical talent, disgusted with the confined and tedious nature of his employment, he abandoned the loom, and adopted the life of a wandering pedler. Three years were spent in this mode of life; and, in 1789, having already prepared a volume of poems for publication, he offered his muslins, and solicited subscriptions for his work at the same time. Unsuccessful in the latter object, and tired of a pedler's life, he once more returned to the loom. In 1791, he published a poem under the title of the Laurel Disputed, on the comparative merits of Allan Ramsay and Robert Fergusson, and, in 1792, his Watty and Meg, which, having appeared anonymously, was ascribed to Burns. Having soon after written a severe satire upon a person in Paisley, Wilson was thrown into prison: he was likewise looked upon with suspicion as a member of the society of the Friends of the People, who hailed the French revolution as a new morning of liberty; and, impelled by these circumstances, he determined to come out to the U. States. He arrived at Newcastle in 1794, and again resumed his former trade, but, after a while, turned school-master, acting in this capacity in several places in Pennsylvania. It was while thus engaged at Kingsess, near Philadelphia, that he became acquainted with Mr. Bartram, the naturalist, and Mr. Lawson, an engraver, whose tastes and instructions proved the occasion of calling out his own talents. He had already undertaken some long excursions for making ornithological researches, and devoted much time to the study, when he was engaged, in 1806, to assist in editing the American edition of Rees's Cyclopadia, and now began to prepare for the publication of his work on American ornithology. The first volume of this work was published in 1808, and the seventh in 1813, in which year the author died. The interval had been passed in exploring different parts of the country, for the purpose of extending his observations, collecting specimens, and watching the habits of birds in their native haunts. The eighth and ninth volumes of this great work were published in 1814, under the care of Mr. Ord, who had been the companion of several of his exploring expeditions. The ninth volume contains a notice of Wilson, by the editor. Three supplementary volumes, containing Amer ican birds not described by Wilson, have been published by Charles Lucien Bonaparte (fol, 1825-1828)

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WILSON, Sir Robert Thomas, a son of an eminent painter, was born in London, in the year 1777. After receiving an excellent education, first at Westminster, and next at Winchester, he joined (1794) the army of the duke of York, in Flanders, as a volunteer, and before the end of three years, he became a captain. He was present in all the encounters which took place at that time, while the English remained on the continent. On the 24th of April, 1794, a few days after he received his first commission, he was one of eight officers, with a small detachment of dragoons, who, by a daring attack on a formidable division of the enemy, had the good fortune to prevent Francis, emperor of Germany, from being taken prisoner. For this service, the officers were first rewarded with a medal, and subsequently with the order of Maria Theresa. During the rebellion in Ireland, he served on the staff as aid-decamp to major-general St. John, and, in 1799, went to Holland, and bore a part in all the actions which took place there. In 1800, he succeeded to a majority in Hompesch's mounted riflemen; and in the following year, he was employed in Egypt, and was present at the different actions which took place in that country. (See Egypt, Campaign in.) In 1802, after having previously given to the press a translation of Regnier's State of Egypt, he published a Historical Account of the British Expedition to Egypt, with some Important Facts relative to General Bonaparte (4to.). In the compilation of this volume, he was assisted by his brother, and by Mr. Roworth, a printer, who having copied into it some exaggerated Turkish stories, which had been printed in an obscure pamphlet at Constantinople, the book so accorded with the party-prejudices of the day, that it obtained an unprecedented circulation, and, being honored with royal patronage, became an object of public complaint from the government of France. No satisfaction being obtained, the first consul caused the counter-report of colonel Sebastiani to be published, which led to complaints from the English government; and the controversy engendered so much illblood as to be one of the causes of the subsequent war. His next literary production came out in 1804, with the title of an Inquiry into the present State of the Military Force of the British Empire, with a View to its Reorganization, in which he expresses his decided reprobation of the practice of corporal punish


ment. Sir Robert Wilson has the merit of having been one of the first to call the attention of the public to that flagrant military abuse. After having held the situation of inspecting field-officer of yeomanry in the western counties, he was once more taken into active service, and assisted at the capture of the cape of Good Hope. In 1806, he accompanied lord Hutchinson to the continent, on a secret mission to Russia, and was present in all the battles fought by the allied armies, from the battle of Pultusk to that of Friedland. After the peace of Tilsit, he was received at Petersburg, by the emperor Alexander, with marks of distinguished favor. Of the contest between France and the allied powers, he, in 1811, published a narrative, with the title of an Account of the Campaigns in Poland in 1806 and 1807, with Remarks on the Character and Composition of the Russian Army (4to.). In 1808, he was despatched to Portugal, where he formed the royal Lusitanian legion, at the head of which he was engaged in various encounters. At the action of Banos, though his corps was eventually routed, he be haved with distinguished bravery. 1812, he was sent to Russia, as British military correspondent with the allied armies, and was in the principal actions which took place till the close of the war. At the battle of Lützen, he stormed the village of Gross Görschen, and remained master of it at the close of the day. After the peace, he visited Paris; and the part which he took in rescuing Lavalette from his persecutors is well known, and remembered to his honor. (See Lavalette.) He was censured in the general orders issued by the duke of York, but was applauded by the unanimous voice of the world. In 1817, sir Robert published a Sketch of the Military and Political Power of Russia. This brought upon him a calumnious attack from the Quarterly Review, to which he replied with spirit. Sir Robert Wilson next went to Colombia, for the purpose of serving under Bolivar, but soon after returned to England, and, at the general election in 1818, was elected one of the members for the borough of Southwark. In parliament, he voted for reform and retrenchment, and warmly espoused the cause of the injured queen Caroline. This was an inexpiable crime in the eyes of the government, and an opportunity was soon found, or rather made, to punish him. His exertions to prevent bloodshed, at the queen's funeral, having been

misrepresented, the sovereign exercised the unusual prerogative of dismissing him from the army; and he was thus deprived of several thousand pounds, which his commissions had cost him. A public subscription was entered into, which amounted to several thousands, to indemnify him for his losses. Having subsequently made a visit to Paris, he was ordered by the police to quit France within three days. On the declaration of war, by France, against Spain, in 1823, sir Robert, notwithstanding British subjects were prohibited taking part with either of the belligerents, hastened to the Peninsula to join the constitutional cause. He received a post in the army of the cortes, was wounded at Corunna, and, after having witnessed the downfall of his party (see Spain), fled to Lisbon, where, however, he was forbidden to land, and, retiring to Cadiz, remained there till the capture of the city by the French. In consequence of his efforts in favor of the constitutional or revolutionary cause in Spain, the kings of Portugal and Prussia, and the emperors of Russia and Austria, deprived him of the orders which they had bestowed on him for former services. In 1826, he was reëlected member of parliament by Southwark. Having opposed the passage of the reform bill, sir Robert Wilson was thrown out in the elections of April, 1831.

WILSON, John, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, was born at Paisley, in Scotland, in 1789. He inherited a considerable sum from his father, but soon lost it in a mercantile speculation. While quite young, he ran away from his home, and served at sea as a ship-boy; and he subsequently had serious intentions of penetrating to Timbuctoo, but was prevailed upon by his friends to give up so wild a project. He was educated at Magdalen college, Oxford, and, while there, obtained, in 1806, sir Roger Newdigate's prize for the best poem on a given theme. The subject of his poem was a recommendation of the study of ancient architecture, sculpture and painting. While at Oxford, Wilson was distinguished as an excellent Greek scholar, and a powerful pugilist. On quitting the university, he went to reside on his estate near the lake of Windermere, in Westmoreland. On the death of doctor Brown, the successor of Dugald Stewart in the university of Edinburgh, Wilson became the candidate to fill the vacant office. His election was violently opposed; but he finally succeeded in obtain

ing the chair. His bearing towards his pupils is most engaging; his lectures always talented and splendid, and not unfrequently adorned by bursts of impassioned eloquence. Wilson's principal prose works are Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life; Trials of Margaret Lynsday; the Foresters, &c. The titles of his chief poems are City of the Plague; the Isle of Palms; and An Evening in Furness Abbey. As a poet, he belongs to the lake school, and possesses considerable descriptive and imaginative powers. Professor Wilson is likewise understood to be the editor of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, an extremely clever, but virulent and scurrilous publication, the ability manifested in which is but a poor set-off for its fustian, prejudice, flippancy and malignity.

WINCHESTER; an ancient city of England, in Hampshire, near the river Itchin. It is about half a mile long, from east to west, and contains nine parish churches. It was known in the time of the Romans, who made it one of their military stations. During the reign of Egbert, it became the metropolis of the kingdom, but was soon rivalled by London. Its commerce was also obstructed by various accidents; and, in the reign of Henry VIII, it received a blow, in the dissolution of monasteries and the destruction of reli gious houses; after which, Winchester contained scarcely any thing more than a shadow of its former grandeur. In the reign of Charles I, the city and castle of Winchester, which remained faithful to that monarch, were compelled to surrender to Cromwell, who destroyed the works of the castle, together with the fortifications of the city The cathedral of Winchester is one of most interesting buildings in England. The original structure, built by Saxon kings, is entirely destroyed. In the eleventh century, the cathedral was rebuilt by bishop Walkelin. The next improvement was undertaken by William de Edyngton, treasurer to Edward III, and was finished by bishop Wykeham in 1394: the eastern part was rebuilt at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The length of the cathedral is 556 feet. Next to the cathedral, in interest and antiquity, stands the college of St. Mary's, founded by Wykeham in 1387, as a nursery for his New College at Oxford. The foundation provides for a warden, ten fellows, seventy scholars, one master, three chaplains, besides many subordinate members. The buildings consist of two quadrangles, a cloister

fibrary, and a large modern school-room. The windows of the chapel are filled with stained glass; and over the altar is a picture (by Le Moine) of the Salutation. The tower, built in the fifteenth century, is remarkable for its symmetry. Over the school-room door is a bronze statue of Wykeham, cast by Cibber (1692). The ecclesiastical buildings in this city were formerly numerous, the churches and chapels alone amounting to upwards of ninety, and several having colleges and monasteries attached to them. Scarcely twelve of them now remain. Here are several meeting-houses for dissenters. Near the college are the ruins of the celebrated episcopal residence, called Wolve sey castle, destroyed by Cromwell, in 1646. Winchester castle, built by William the Conqueror, occupied the spot where the palace, erected by Charles II, now stands, and which, during the war, was converted into a barrack. The area of the castle was about 850 feet in length, north and south, and 250 in breadth. The chapel belonging to the castle has been converted into a county hall. At the east end is suspended the curiosity called Arthur's round table, which tradition has attributed to king Arthur. Near the catbedral is the Widow's college, founded by bishop Morley, for the relicts of deceased clergymen. The city contains two almshouses, and a great number of charitable bequests belong to it. In the town-hall are the city archives, the original Winchester bushel, given by king Edgar, with other measures, both for quantity and length, fixed as standards by succeeding princes, and various curious memorials of antiquity. At the west end of the town is an obelisk, having an inscription commemorative of the calamities occasioned by the plague, in 941, 1348 and 1668. Two members are sent to parliament. Winchester has very little trade. An ancient wool-combing manufactory still exists in it; and, of late years, the silk manufacture has been introduced. There is a navigable river or canal to Southampton. All the public business of Hampshire is, however, transacted here. Its cathedral and its college ensure to it the residence, also, of a considerable number of the superior clergy, with their families. Population, 9212; 113 miles N. N. E. from Southampton, and 63 S. W. from London. WINCHESTER BUSHEL; the English standard until 1826, when the imperial standard bushel was introduced. (See Measures.) The Winchester bushel is eighteen and a half inches wide and eight

inches deep, and contains 2150.42 cubic inches, while the imperial standard bushel contains 2218.40 cubic inches.-To convert Winchester bushels into imperial bushels, multiply the Winchester measure by 31, and divide by 32. The name of the old measure was derived from the circumstance that the standard measure was kept at Winchester. (q. v.)

WINCKEL, Theresa Emilia Henrietta, an artist at Dresden, born in 1784, celebrated for her copies of the productions of the best old masters, formed herself in the gallery of Dresden. (q. v.) In 1806, she visited Paris with her mother, to study the works of art accumulated there, and remained in that city two years and a half. David said that no one could equal her in copying Correggio. Her mother having lost her fortune, the daughter employed her talents for music and painting for their common support. Several of her paintings are used as altar pieces. Her letters from Paris have been published, and she has furnished contributions to periodicals, to Hasse's Pocket Encydopædia, and to the Conversations-Lexicon.

WINCKELMANN, John Joachim. This scholar, who has done so much for the criticism and history of art, and the study of antiques, was born at Stendal, in Altmark, Dec. 9, 1717, ar wa. the son of a shoemaker. Extreme poverty could not suppress his early-awakened love of study. The school-master of his native place soon became attached to him, and took him into his family. After having made considerable proficiency in Greek and Latin, he went, in 1735, to a gymnasium at Berlin, and thence on foot to Hamburg, in order to purchase some ancient classics, with money begged on the way. In 1738, he entered the university of Halle, where he lived for two years on a small stipend, and the contributions of others; but, as ancient literature and the belles-lettres interested him more than theology, he neglected the lectures, but assiduously frequented the libraries, and occupied himself with the ancients. After having been a private tutor and an usher for a number of years, during which he pursued his studies with indefatigable zeal, he applied, in 1748, to the minister, count

von Bűnau, of Nőthenitz, near Dresden, and offered his services as a librarian. The count had already a librarian, but expressed his willingness to appoint him secretary of the library, with a salary of eighty rix-dollars. He accepted the offer, and lived some years employed partly in his private studies, partly in labor

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