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tree. The flowers are inconspicuous, and are disposed in aments. (Further information is given in the article Myrtle-Wax.) WAX PAINTING. (See Encaustic Painting.)
home. Being desirous of serving his country in a military capacity, to which his natural bent was strong, he retired from civil employment in September, 1775, and raised a company of volunteers, of WAX, SEALING. (See Sealing-Wax.) which he was unanimously elected coloWAYNE, Anthony, a distinguished gen- nel. In January of the ensuing year, he eral in the American army, was born in was appointed, by congress, colonel of the township of Easttown, Chester county, one of the regiments which they had rePennsylvania, Jan. 1, 1745. His father solved to raise in Pennsylvania, and, at was a farmer of great respectability, and the opening of the campaign, received orpassed a long life of usefulness to his ders to join the army under general Lee, country, having frequently occupied a at New York. Thence he proceeded with seat in the provincial legislature, and re- his regiment to Canada, and shared in the peatedly distinguished himself in expedi- unsuccessful attack upon the enemy at tions against the Indians. His grandfa- Three Rivers (conducted by general ther was a warm friend of liberal princi- Thompson), on which occasion he was ples, and commanded a squadron of dra- wounded, and distinguished himself for goons, under king William, at the mem- his bravery and good conduct in uniting orable battle of the Boyne. He emigrated and bringing off the broken troops. After to America in 1722. The subject of this the retreat from Canada, and the departure sketch received a good education, though, of Gates to join Washington's army, he for some time after his entrance into school, was intrusted, by general Schuyler, with he spent much more time in planning and the command of the fortresses of Ticonexecuting military amusements, than at his deroga and mount Independence. Feb. books; but, in consequence of a threat of 21, 1777, he was promoted, by congress, his father to consign him to the drudgery to the rank of brigadier-general. He conof the farm, he applied himself assiduous- tinued in command of Ticonderoga and ly to study, and, in mathematics, attained its dependencies until the month of May, great proficiency. After leaving the Phila- when, in consequence of his earnest sodelphia academy, at eighteen years of age, licitations, he was allowed to join the he took up his residence in his native main army, under Washington, in New county, and commenced the business of Jersey, where he was immediately placed a surveyor, in which he acquired great at the head of a brigade, which he made reputation and success, devoting also a every exertion to bring into the field in portion of his time to practical astronomy the highest state of discipline. After the and engineering. On these subjects he British retreated from New Jersey, the left manuscripts, which have obtained high commander-in-chief complimented him commendation from adequate judges. He on his bravery and good conduct. As soon. likewise filled some county offices, and as the object of the next movement of sir took a very active part in the preparation William Howe was developed, genera' for the struggle which resulted in the Wayne, in pursuance of the directions of independence of these United States. Washington, left his brigade under the He was one of the provincial deputies, next in command, and proceeded to Cheswho, early in the year 1774, were chosen ter, in Pennsylvania, to arrange the miliby the different counties of Pennsylvania tia who were to rendezvous there. to take into consideration the alarming the battle of Brandywine (Sept. 11, 1777), state of affairs between Great Britain and he commanded a division stationed at her colonies, and report concerning it; Chad's ford, for the purpose of resisting and a member of the Pennsylvania con- the passage of the column under Knypvention, which shortly afterwards assem- hausen. He maintained the contest with bled at Philadelphia, and excited power- the utmost gallantry until near sunset, ful emulation in the other colonies. In when, at length, overpowered by numbers, the same year, he was chosen a represen- and perceiving the enemy, who had detative of Chester county, in the provincial feated the right column of the American legislature, and, in the summer of 1775, army, approaching his flank and rear, he was appointed a member of the commit- was compelled to retreat. A few days af tee of safety, to whom the duty apper- terwards (on the 16th), Washington deter tained of calling into actual service the asso- mined to try the fate ather battlé; ciators (as they were termed), and provid- and, both armies being red in Goshen ing for the defence of the province against township, Chester cour nothe road invasion from abroad and insurrection at leading from Philade a to Lancaster,
the action was commenced with great spirit by Wayne, who led the advance. It was soon arrested, however, by a violent storm, which rendered it impossible to keep the field. On the 20th, Wayne, in pursuance of the orders of the commander-in-chief, to move forward upon the enemy, and endeavor to cut off his baggage, took an excellent position, with 1500 troops, including militia, a mile south of the Warren tavern, and three miles in rear of the left wing of the British army, whence, after being reinforced, it was his intention to march and attack the enemy's rear when they decamped. He made every arrangement to prevent a surprise; but the British, having received full intelligence of his movement, from traitors, and being faithfully piloted by them, contrived to attack him unawares, with superior numbers, and obliged him to retreat after an obstinate resistance; but his troops formed again at a small distance. This affair having caused some to attach blame to him, he demanded and obtained a court-martial, by whom it was unanimously decided that he had done "every thing that could be expected from an active, brave and vigilant officer, under the orders which he then had ;" and he was therefore acquitted "with the highest honor." At the battle of Germantown, he evinced his wonted valor, leading his division into the thickest of the fight, and, in covering the retreat, he used every exertion which bravery and prudence could dictate. His horse was killed under him within a few yards of the enemy's front, and he received two slight wounds, in the foot and in the hand. During a large portion of this campaign of 1777, owing to a combination of circumstances, he performed alone the duty of three general officers. About the middle of February, 1778, when the army was in winter-quarters at Valley Forge, and suffering miserably from the want of provisions, he was detached with a body of troops to New Jersey, in order to secure the cattle on the eastern banks of the Delaware, and to destroy the forage which could not be removed, lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy. This was a most hazardous and arduous enterprise, within the limits of the enemy's lines, and in a district of country subject to his control whenever he chose to exert it but he cheerfully proceeded to execute the orders of the commander-in-chief, and literally carried on a winter campaign beyond the reach of any aid. After several skirmishes with the enemy, in all of which he was successful, he succeeded in
sending to camp several hundred head of fine cattle, many excellent horses suited for cavalry service, and also in securing a quantity of forage, and destroying much more, for the whole of which, to the wellaffected, he executed certificates in due form. He returned to the army about the middle of March, and, with his officers and soldiers, received the thanks of the commander-in-chief. In all councils of
war, general Wayne was distinguished for supporting the most energetic and decisive measures. In that which was held before the battle of Monmouth, he and general Cadwallader were the only two of the seventeen general officers who were in favor of fighting. This engagement added to his reputation, his ardor and resolution having been so conspicuous that Washington mentioned him with particular distinction in his official report to congress. In 1779, Washington, having formed a corps of light infantry, composed of a select body of troops from the different regiments of the army, appointed general Wayne to its command. In July of this year, he was intrusted, by the commander-in-chief, with the execution of a design which he had formed for attacking the strong post of Stony Point, on the Hudson river. For the details of his success in carrying the fort (on the 15th of July) by a night assault, and making the garrison prisoners with bayonets alone, without firing a single gun, we must refer to the history of the times. In the attack, he was struck by a musket ball on the forehead, which grazed the skull nearly two inches in length, just under the hair. He fell, but instantly rose on one knee, exclaiming, "Forward, my brave fellows, forward!" then, in a suppressed voice, said to his aids, "Assist me if mortally wounded, I will die in the fort." They did so, and the three entered amongst the foremost troops. The wound fortunately proved slight. The thanks of congress, and a gold medal emblematic of the action, were presented to Wayne for his "brave, prudent and soldierly conduct." At the end of the year 1779, the corps of light infantry was dissolved; and, soon afterwards, general Wayne resumed his command in the Pennsylvania line. During the campaign of 1780, he was constantly actively employed; and, in that of 1781, which ended in the capture of Cornwallis and the British forces a Yorktown, he bore a conspicuous par. He was sent by Washington to take command of the forces in Georgia, where the enemy were making formidable progress.
After some sanguinary encounters, he accomplished the establishment of security and order, and was presented by the legislature of the state with a valuable farm for his services. Peace soon after followed, when he retired to private life. In 1789, he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention, and an advocate of the present constitution of the U. States. In 1792, he was appointed by Washington the successor of general St. Clair in the command of the army engaged against the Indians on the western frontier. It was at first supposed that his ardor would render him an unfit opponent of a foe remarkable for caution. He soon, however, proved the incorrectness of this idea. He established admirable discipline among his troops, and by his wise and prudent measures in preparing for an engagement, and the skill and bravery with which he fought and gained the battle of Aug. 20, 1794, near the river Miami of the Lakes, he brought the war to a completely successful termination. In 1795, he concluded a definitive treaty of peace with the Indians. General Wayne died in December, 1796.
WEANING (of the child from its mother's breast). The mother's milk is necessary for the new-born infant; but, after a certain period, the cutting of the teeth shows the capacity and the need which the child has of receiving other sustenance. This takes place before the end of the first year. The age of twelve months, therefore, may be regarded as about the proper period for weaning. With children who are healthy, and cut their teeth early, it may take place still sooner: with weak, sickly children, it must be delayed longer, and never should be attempted during sickness or dentition. It is best for both mother and child to bring it about gradually. By so doing, the secretion of milk in the former is gradually diminished; and those complaints which arise from sudden weaning are prevented; while the child is gradually accustomed to other kinds of sustenance, and the restlessness and want of sleep, which are so troublesome in sudden weaning, are avoided. The child remains healthy and well nourished. For this, it is only necessary, that the mother should give the breast to the child less frequently, and offer it proper kinds of nourishment oftener, than before. These must be, both during the weaning and some time after it, very light of digestion, and more fluid than solid: in particular, they should have no stimulating
qualities, and none that will tend to create acidity, or produce other marked changes in the organic functions.
WEAPONS. (See Arms.)
WEAR; to cause a ship to change her course from one board to the other, by turning her stern to the wind. (See Ship.) WEARMOUTH, BISHOP's, and MONK WEARMOUTH. (See Sunderland.)
WEASEL (mustela); a natural group of carnivorous quadrupeds, recognised by the slender, elongated form of the body, and the shortness of the legs. The activity of these animals is astonishing; and their flexibility is such that they are enabled to pass through extremely narrow apertures. They run with great rapidity; and the form of their nails also permits their climbing on trees. Notwithstanding their small size, they are the most sanguinary of all beasts of prey, and seem rather to seek the blood than the flesh of their victims. They will leap upon the necks of animals even larger than themselves, and never quit their hold till satiated. Many are extremely destructive to poultry, and, when they gain access to them, commence an indiscriminate slaughter. They are nocturnal and solitary animals. Some of them take up their residence in the vicinity of habitations; others pass their lives altogether in the forests; and others, again, frequent the borders of streams. Their anatomical structure corresponds, in every respect, with their habits and disposition. The canines are long and pointed: the other teeth have cutting edges, and bear a general resemblance to those of the dog. The whiskers are long and coarse. The ears are small and rounded. There are five toes on each foot. The neck is almost as large as the head. The fur is usually composed of two sorts of hairs. The skins of such as inhabit northern climates are in great demand, and form one of the principal objects of the fur trade.-The European pole-cat (M. putorius) is fifteen or eighteen inches in length from the nose to the origin of the tail. The general color is blackish-brown, paler on the sides, with white spots on the head. It lives in the vicinity of farm-houses, and is very destructive to poultry, rabbits, &c. It emits a strong and very disagreeable odor, but not at all comparable to that of the skunk, to which animal the same name is sometimes applied in the U. States.-The ferret (M. furo) is perhaps only a variety. The color is yellowish, or sometimes white, with the eyes red.
It is only
known in the domesticated state, and is employed to drive rabbits out of their burrows. According to Strabo, it was brought originally from Africa.-The ermine (M. erminea) is about nine inches in length from the nose to the base of the tail; and the latter measures about four inches. In summer, the color is chestnut-brown above, and yellowish-white beneath; and, in this state, the animal is sometimes called the stoat; but, in winter, it is entirely pure white, with the exception of, the tip of the tail, which is black at all seasons. It is fond of wild and rocky situations, and is found in all the extreme northern parts of the globe, and in this country even as far south as our Northern and Middle States. The winter skins form a well-known article of commerce. It is very abundant in the vicinity of Hudson's bay. The true weasel (M. vulgaris) is only about six inches in length to the base of the tail, and the tail an inch and a half. The upper parts of the body, as well as the tail, are clear brown, and the under parts generally white. It is found in the temperate parts of the eastern continent, and frequents the vicinity of habitations. The mink (M. lutreola) is entirely of a deep-brown, except a white spot on the lower lip, which sometimes extends in a straight line to the middle of the throat. This animal lives in the vicinity of water-courses, and feeds on frogs, fish, &c. in short, in habits and appearance, it strongly resembles the otter in miniature. The membrane which connects the toes is remarkable for its extent, which structure renders the animal better adapted for an aquatic life: accordingly, the mink swims and dives with great facility, and can remain under water for a considerable length of time. It does not, however, confine itself strictly to the water, but sometimes invades the poultry yards, when it commits as great ravages as any of the tribe. It is found throughout North America, from Carolina to Hudson's bay, and is also common in the north of Europe and Siberia.-The pine martin (M. martes) is nearly as large as a cat. The color is a brilliant fulvous brown, inclining to blackish on the limbs and tail, with a large yellowish patch on the throat. It lives only in the depths of the forest, ascending trees to surprise birds and squirrels, and often occupying the nest of the latter for the purpose of bringing forth its young. It is found in the northern parts of both continents, and in this country as far south as the Northern and Middle States. A vast amount of the skins are
annually collected in Canada. The fur is used in manufacturing hats, and is most generally preferred for ornamenting and increasing the warmth of winter dresses. -The European martin (M. foina) is distinguished from the preceding by a large patch of white on the throat. It appears to be confined to the eastern continent.The fisher, or pekan (M. Canadensis), is readily distinguished by its larger size, being from twenty-four to thirty inches long, exclusive of the tail, which measures from thirteen to seventeen inches. The general color is brown, with some of the hairs grayish at the extremities. The name is an improper one, for it by no means frequents the vicinity of water, but preys on small quadrupeds, birds and their eggs, &c.: indeed, its mode of life is similar, in every respect, to that of the pine martin. It is peculiar to North America, and is found from Pennsylvania to the sixty-second parallel of latitude.—The sable (M. zibellina). All the preceding species have naked tubercles on the soles of the feet, but, in the sable, these parts are entirely covered with hair. The general color of the fur is brown, more or less brilliant, with the inferior parts of the throat and neck grayish. It lives in the same manner as the pine martin, in the depths of the forest, and inhabits all the northern parts of Europe and Asia. This is the most celebrated of the tribe, not only on account of the richness of the fur, but from the horrors of the chase, carried on in the depth of winter, among mountains covered with ice, and in the deepest snows, in the coldest and most desolate regions to which man has yet penetrated. It was the search for sables which led to the discovery of Eastern Siberia. Their skins form a considerable article of commerce with the Russians.-M. huro of F. Cuvier is a species from Canada, having the fur almost as fine as that of the sable, and the soles of the feet covered with hair in a similar manner, but of a pale yellowish-brown color, with the feet and tail darker. Little is known of this animal, or of the district which it inhabits. A specimen was obtained by Lewis and Clarke, during their journey to the Pacific, and is now deposited in the Philadelphia museum. According to Pallas, skins of the sable are common among the furs sent from the extreme north-western point of America to the inhabitants of the opposite angle of Asia.
WEAVING, the art of producing cloth, by the combination of flexible fibres, is performed upon a frame called a loom, the
invention of which is attributed to the Egyptians. It has, however, received many modifications and great improvements in modern times, and is differently constructed, according to the nature of the texture to be produced. The art of weaving by the power of steam or water seems to have been invented, or, at least, first successfully carried into operation, in Scotland, in 1801; and such is the improved state of the process at present, that one girl attends two looms. This mode of weaving, however, could never have succeeded, and, indeed, must long ago have been abandoned, if the process for dressing the web before it is put into the loom had not been devised: this rendered the stoppage of the work from time to time-which made it impossible for one person to attend to more than one loomunnecessary. The following account of the processes of dressing and weaving is from Bigelow's Technology (2d ed., Boston, 1832.)—“ Dressing. As the threads which constitute the warp are liable to much friction in the process of weaving, they are subjected to an operation called dressing, the object of which is to increase their strength and smoothness, by agglu-' tinating their fibres together. To this end, they are pressed between rollers impregnated with mucilage made of starch, or some gelatinous material, and immediately afterwards brought in contact with brushes, which pass repeatedly over thein, so as to lay down the fibres in one direction, and remove the superfluous mucilage from them. They are then dried by a series of revolving fans, or by steam cylinders, and are ready for the loom. Weaving. Woven textures derive their strength from the same force of lateral adhesion, which retains the twisted fibres of each thread in their situations. The manner in which these textures are formed is readily understood. On inspecting a piece of plain cloth, it is found to consist of two distinct sets of threads running perpendicularly to each other. Of these, the longitudinal threads constitute the warp, while the transverse threads are called the woof, weft, or filling, and consist of a single thread passing backwards and forwards. In weaving with the common loom, the warp is wound upon a cylindrical beam or roller. From this the thread passes through a harness, composed of movable parts, called the heddles, of which there are two or more, consisting of a series of vertical strings, connected to frames, and having loops through which the warp passes. When the hed
dles consist of more than one set of strings, the sets are called leaves. Each of these heddles receives its portion of the alternate threads of the warp, so that, when they are moved reciprocally up and down, the relative position of the alternate threads of the warp is reversed. Each time that the warp is opened by the separating of its alternate threads, a shuttle, containing the woof, is thrown across it, and the thread of woof is immediately driven into its place by a frame called a lay, furnished with thin reeds or wires, laced among the warp like the teeth of a comb. The woven piece, as fast as it is completed, is wound up on a second beam opposite to the first. Power looms driven by water or steam, although a late invention, are now universally introduced into manufactories of cotton and wool. As the motions of the loom are chiefly of a reciprocating kind, they are produced, in some looms, by the agency of cranks, and in others by cams or wipers, acting upon weights or springs.-Twilling. In the mode of plain weaving last described, it will be observed that every thread of the warp crosses at every thread of the woof, and vice versa. In articles which are twilled, or tweeled, this is not the case; for, in this manufacture, only the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, &c., threads cross each other to form the texture. In the coarsest kinds, every third thread is crossed; but, in finer fabrics, the intervals are less frequent, and, in some very fine twilled silks, the crossing does not take place till the sixteenth interval. A loom invented in this country, by Mr. Batchelder, of Lowell, has been applied to the weaving of twilled goods by water-power. Twilled fabrics are thicker than plain ones when of the same fineness, and more flexible when of the same thickness. They are also more susceptible of ornamental variations. Jeans, dimoties, serges, &c., are specimens of this kind of texture.
Double Weaving. In this species of weaving, the fabric is composed of two webs, each of which consists of a separate warp and a separate woof. The two, however, are interwoven at intervals, so as to produce various figures. The junction of the two webs is formed by passing them at intervals through each other, so that each particular part of both is sometimes above and sometimes below. follows that, when different colors are employed, as in carpeting, the figure is the same on both sides, but the color is reversed. The weaving of double cloths, is commonly performed by a complicated machine, called a draw-loom, in which the