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twelve virtues and qualities* which ought to be in every angler. 2. What weather, seasons, and time of year is best and worst, and what hours of the day is best for sport. 3. To know each fish's haunt, and the times to take them.

In 1614 Gervase Markham† (a gentleman and scholar, skilled in various languages, who served as Captain under Charles I.) published, though not with his name, "The Pleasures of Princes, or Good Men's Recreations, containing a Discourse of the General Art of Fishing with an Angle," &c. ; which discourse he reprinted in the 2d edition of his Country Contentments, or the Husbandman's Recreations. 1618. This is the treatise already spoken of as having been turned into prose from Dennys' Secrets of Angling. Walton evidently was familiar with Markham's book. On the margin of the page in the first edition of the Complete Angler, when he speaks of the antiquity of angling, he put J. Da. (Secrets of Angling) and Jer. Mar. (Gervase Markham), "whose opinion," he says, "he likes better."

There are some good passages in Markham's treatise; as this: "Since all are now become the sonnes of Pleasure, and every good is measured by the delight which it produceth, what worke unto men can be more thankfull then the Discourse of that pleasure which is most comely, most honest, and giveth the most liberty to Divine meditation? and that, without all question, is the art of angling, which having ever beene most hurtlessly necessary, hath become the Sporte or Recreation of God's Saints, of most holy Fathers, and of many worthy and reverend Divines,

These are, faith, hope, love, patience, humility, courage, liberality, knowledge, placability, thankfulness to God, endurance, memory.

† He reprinted the Book of St. Albans in 1595 under the title of The Gentleman's Academy, or the Book of St. Alban's. Besides several works on Husbandry, Horsemanship, Military Discipline, Housewifery, &c, he wrote a tragedy, Herod and Antipater.

both dead and at this time breathing." Again: "In this Art of Angling there is no such evill, no such sinful violence, for the greatest thing it coveteth is for much labour a little Fish, hardly so much as will satisfie Nature in a reasonable stomache; for the angler must intice, not command his reward, and that which is worth millions to his contentment, another may buy for a groate in a market. His deceit worketh not upon men, but upon those Creatures whom it is lawful to beguile for our honest recreations or needful uses, and for al rage and fury, it must be so great a stranger to this civill pastime, that if it come but within view or speculation thereof, is no more to be esteemed a Pleasure, for every proper good thereof in the very instant faileth; shewing unto all men that will undergoe any delight therein, that it was first invented, taught, and shall be for ever maintained by patience only. And yet I may not say onely Patience, for her other three sisters have likewise a commanding power in this exercise, for Justice directeth and appointeth out those places where men may with liberty use their sport, and neyther doe injury to their neighbours, nor incurre the censure of incivility. Temperance layeth down the measure of the action, and moderateth desire in such good proportion, that no Excesse is found in the overflow of their affection. Lastly, Fortitude inableth the minde to undergoe the travaile and exchange of Weathers with a delightful ease, and not to despaire with a little expence of time, but to persevere with a constant imagination in the end to obtaine both pleasure and satisfaction." Again, speaking of the angler's qualities, he says: "The first and most especial whereof is, that a skilfull angler ought to bee a general Scholler, and seen in all the Liberal Sciences; as a Grammarian, to know how either to write in discourse of his Art in true and fitting terms, either without affectation or rudeness. He should have sweetness of speech to persuade and intice others to delight in an exercise so

much laudable. He should have strength of arguments to defend and maintaine his profession against Envy or Slander. He would not be unskilful in Musicke, that whensoever eyther Melancholy, heavinesse of his thought, or the perturbations of his own fancies stirreth up sadnesse in him, he may remove the same with some godly Hymne or Antheme, of which David gives him ample examples.

Then he must be liberall, and not working only for his own belly, as if it could never be satisfied; but he must with much cheerfulness bestow the fruits of his skill among his honest neighbours, who, being partners of his gaine, will doubly renownne his triumph, and that is ever a pleasing reward to virtue."

Markham taught little that was new in his day, less that can teach an angler of any experience now; but there is among his directions this, that some who are not without some practice, may profitably learn from: "Touching the angler's apparel (for it is a respect as necessary as any other thatsoever), it would by no means be garish, lightcoloured, or shining. For whatsoever with a glittering hew reflecteth upon the water, immediately it frighteth the fish, and maketh them fly from his presence, no hunger being able to tempt them to bite when their eye is offended; and of all creatures there is none more sharpe-sighted than fishes are. Let, then, your apparel be plain and comely, of a darke colour, as Russet, Tawney, or such like, close to your body, without any new-fashioned slashes or hanging sleeves." Nothing can be more absurd than for one to attempt catching trout plying a rod glittering with bright varnish or burnished metal joints, a light-colored coat flying loose, and a yellow straw hat on his head. Such fish as he will get are beneath a true angler's notice. The best clothing is of dark-green plaid (the color of the grass and trees), a cap of the same, or, if the sun be too powerful, a slouching hat of dark (not black) felt, which will better protect the head and face; while the rod should be

carefully lacquered so as to show nothing that glitters, for the fish will see the rod, and him that holds it, when he cannot see them.

The only other book which preceded Walton is: "The Art of ANGLING, wherein are discovered many rare secrets, very necessary to be known by all that delight in that recreation. Written by THOMAS BARKER, an ancient Practitioner of the said Art. London: Printed by R. H., and are to be sold by OLIVER FLETCHER, near the SevenStars, at the West end of St. Paul's. Anno Dom., 1651,” duo. (Reprinted by Burns for Gordon, London: 1820.) Another edition in 4to., Lond., 1653, without the author's name, subjoined to the "Countryman's Recreations," 4to., Lond. (Reprinted in large 8vo., by Inchbold and Gawtress, Lond.) He published it, somewhat altered and improved in 1657 (with only a new title-page as a second edition two years later) under the title: "Barker's DELIGHT; or the Art of Angling, wherein are discovered,” &c., "both for the catching of the Fish and the dressing thereof. The Second Edition much enlarged. By THOMAS BARKER," &c., as before. "Eccles. 3, i., ii. : 'There is a time and season to every purpose under heaven. Everything is beautiful in his time.' London: Printed by G. S., for RICHARD MARRIOTT, and are to be sold at his shop in St. Dunstan's Church-Yard, Fleet Street." (Reprinted by Burns, 1820.) All we know of Barker is from his own preface; from which we learn that he was a native of Bracemeale, Salop, and had practised angling for three-score years. Walton calls him a gentleman; but he seems to have been a master-cook, for he says he "learned cooking for forty years; having been admitted into most of the Ambassadors' kitchens, and do wait on them till (1657) at the Lord Protector's charge, and am paid duly for it." In the latter part of his life he resided in Henry the Seventh's gifts (an alms-house), the next door to the Gate-house in Westminster. His style is

very awkward, and his book of not much interest, except as to the mode of cooking fish at that time. This is his opening: "Reader, I will complement and put a case to you. I met with a man, and upon our discourse he fell out with me; this man having a good weapon, having neither wit, stomack, nor skill; I say, this man may come home by Totnam-high-cross (Weeping-cross in his revised copy) and cause the Clark to tole his knell: It is the very like case with the Gentleman Angler that goeth to the River for his pleasure; this Angler hath neither judgement, knowledge, nor experience: he may come home lightladen at his pleasure." He seems, however, to have won some hearts, for to the second publication are prefixed seven commendations in verse, three of which are in Latin, though they all are rather in praise of his cookery. At the close of his second book he tells us that the best hooks of all sorts are to be had of CHARLES KIRBY (so early was that name made immortal); and he adds a postscript to tell his patron, Lord Montague, that he had just discovered salmon roe to be what Williamson (a century and a half after him) calls "a most lovely bait for trout and salmon."

This is the Barker from whom Walton says (chap. v.) he derived his principal knowledge of fly-fishing, in which he himself was no adept. In the first edition of his Angler (chap. iv.) Walton writes: "I find that Mr. Thomas Barker (a Gentleman who has spent much time and money in angling) deal so judicially and freely in a litele book of his of Angling, and especially of making and angling with a flye for trout, that I will give you his very directions without much variation." This, in his fifth edition, he altered thus: "I shall next give you some other directions for flie-fishing, such as are given by Mr. Thomas Barker," &c. Sir John Hawkins strangely overlooked the passage in the first edition, and seems not to have known of Barker's first publication in 1651, but only that of 1659, a few years after the publication of Walton's book." He


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