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Pike, and Troute, and diverse kinds of other Fresh fish. Written in Latin by JANUS DUBRAVIUS, and translated into English at the speciale request of GEORGE CHURCHEY, Fellow of Lion's Inne, the 9th of February, 1599. Imprinted at London, by William White, dwelling in Cow Lane. 1599."

The publisher prefixes


Rede over, then judge,
Condemn not befere:
VVith judgment just reiect,
Or els embrace my love.
Mine authour vvas the first
And last, as I suppose,
That ever did assay

These secrets to disclose.

If ought be thought avvry,

And seeme to thee unsounde,
VVith penne I pray amende,

And not vvith tongue confounde.

Walton quotes from this book three times, but had it more often in his eye when treating of the habits of fish. Dubravius does not speak of angling; for, though in his "5 or laste acte of his Booke of Fishing, more merrie and pleasant than the others," he gives the title," Of the times of Fishing and the Instruments," he tells us only of nets. Treating of "troutes," he says; "According to the minde of Ausonius, I doe call Saler that fish which is commonly called Trutta, or Troute. Ausonius, in his Booke De Mosella, paynteth the Troute in his cullers after this sort:

The purple trout on every side,
Hath starrish strakes along to glide.'

And thus much he sayth, to make a difference betweene Troutes, because there is another Troute, which has in his side litele starres as an ensign or token of his nobilitie :

but they be somewhat blackish, which you Germans call Aeschinius. Both these kindes are called Salares Troutes, a Saltatu, of leaping, because they leape on high; but in especiale the purple troute, which easily will leape over high hedges or dammes" (v. 10).

JANNS (John) DUBRAVIUS (Dubran) SCALA was born at Pilsen in Bohemia, was made Bishop of Ormutz in Moravia, and afterwards sent as Ambassador into Sicily. He was President of the court which tried the Rebels at Smalcald. Besides his book De Piscinis et Piscium qui in eis aluntur naturis, he wrote a valuable history of Bohemia in xxxiii. books, 1575. He died not long afterwards, with great reputation for piety and learning.

The English translation of his work on Fish and Fishponds is very rare, it never having been reprinted. It is

in black letter..

In the year after the above appeared, " Certaine Experiments concerning Fish and Frvite, practised by JOHN TAVERNER, Gentleman, and by him published for the benefit of others. London. Printed for William Ponsonby. 1600." Small quarto. The author, in his preface, declares himself to have taken his intention to publish his own experiments from the publication by Churchey of Dubravius. He is altogether occupied by Fish in ponds, and says nothing of angling. The book has never been reprinted, and is extremely rare. Mr. Haworth's sold for £2,1s. My copy is bound up with Dubravius, and the two seem generally to have been companions. It is in black letter.

In 1613 there appeared a poem of a hundred and fifty Spenserian stanzas with the title: "Secrets of Angling, teaching the choicest Tooles, Baytes, and Seasons for taking of any Fish in pond or river, familiarly practised and opened in three bookes, by J. D., Esqr., London." 12mo. On the title is a wood-cut, representing two men, one with a sphere at the end of his angle and a label,

"Hold hook and line,

Then all is mine;"

the other with a fish:

"Well fare the pleasure

That brings such treasure."

Beloe says: "Perhaps there is not, in the circle of English literature, a rarer book than this-Sir John Hawkins confessed that he could never get a sight of it." (Anecd. of Lit., vol. ii., p. 64.) There is a copy in the Bodleian Library. It has these commendatory verses:


"In skills that all do seek, but few do find,
Both gain and game (like sun and moon do shine),
Then th' Art of Fishing thus is of that kind;

The angler taketh both with hook and line,

And as with lines both these he takes; this takes

With many a line, well-made both ears and hearts,
And by this skill the skil-lesse skilful makes:
The corpes whereof dissected so he parts,
Upon a humble subject never lay

More proud, yet plainer lives the plain to lead,
This plainer Art with pleasure to survey,

To purchase it with profit by that DEED,
Who thinks this skills too low than for the high.
This angler read, and they'll be mine thereby."

Jo. Daves.

A second edition, "augmented with many approved experiments, by W. LAWSON,"* appeared in 1652. It has at

The address "to the Reader," by "W. Lawson," is so neatly written, and the book so rare, that we are tempted to give it: "It may seeme in me presumption to adde this little comment to the werke of so worthy an author. But Mr. Harrison, the stationer's, request and desire to give his country satisfaction must be satisfied, and in it myselfe excused. What mine observations are, I refer to censure: assuredly, the truth stands in so well-grounded experience, that, but my haste, nothing can do them injury. What to me is doubtfull, I have, as I can, explained; what wants in my judgment, I have supplied as the time would suffer; what I passę by, I approve. The authour, by verse, hath expressed much learning, and by

the end some few recipes and rules, one of which is signed R. R., and the last bids us: "Pray to God with your hearte to blesse your lawfull exercise." This edition is also rare in the extreme. A copy, though expensively bound, but having the date cut off, cost Mr. Haworth ten guineas; another sold at his sale for £4; and one with frontispiece at Mr. Symond Higg's sale for £12. Lauson's edition was reprinted in the Censuria Literaria, 8vo., Lond., 1811. A hundred copies were taken off separately "for Robert Triphook," one of which is now before me. This is the work quoted by Walton, b. I., i., where he says: "Will you hear the wish of another angler, and the commendation of his happy life, which he also sings in verse? viz., Jo. Daves, Esqr.:

"Let me live harmlessly,' &c."

It is also the basis of Gervase Markham's Treatise on Angling, in his Country Contentments (2d edit., 1613), as he says in his title: "It was written in rime, and now for the better understanding of the reader put into prose, and adorned and enlarged." R(obert) H(owlett), in his Angler's Sure Guide, p. 241, cites a verse of it, "O world's deceit," &c., as from Dr. Donne, "his elegie or mournful ditty in his Secrets of Angling."

The true author was JOHN DENNYS, Esqr., Lord of the Manor of Owlbury-sur Montem, Gloucestershire, 1572– 1608. His mother was a Davers or Danvers, and the Jo. Daves who wrote the commendatory verses, was probably a relation of his, as that was the old way of spelling the name, according to Leland. (Itin., vol. iii., 115.) Walton

his Answer to the Objection shewn himselfe to have been vertuous. The subject itselfe is honest, and pleasant, and sometimes profitable. Use it, and give God all glory. Amen."

Supposed by some (but without good reason) to have been Walton's honest R. Roe. It is R. B. in the first edition.

might very well have made a mistake, as he was quoting from memory, the verses he gives varying from those in the book; but a record of the Stationer's Company is more to be trusted, and there is on their book (March 23d, 1612) an entry of this very work as by JOHN DENNYS, Esqr. Though, as must be the case with a didactic poem on such a subject, the information is neither very clearly nor correctly given, it deserved to be a favorite of Walton's, from the beauty of its verses, a good specimen of which he has given. Here is another:

"There look whereas that poplar gray doth grow,

Hard by the same when one doth closely stand,
And with the winde his hooke and bait doth throw
Amid the stream with slender hazell wand,
Whereas he sees the dace themselves do show,
His eye is quick, and ready is his hand;
And when the fish doth rise to catch the baite,
He presently doth strike, and takes her straight.

"O world's deceit! how are we thrall'd by thee,
That doest thy gall in sweetest pleasures hide!
When most we think in happiest state to be,
Then do we soonest into dangers slide.
Behold the fish that even now was free,
Unto the deadly hooke how he is tide:
So vaine delights allure us to the snare,
Wherein unawares we fast entangled are."

The poem is divided into three books. The First, containing, 1. The antiquity of angling, with the art of fishing, and of fishing in general. 2. The lawfulness, pleasure, and profit thereof, with all objections answered against it. 3. To know the seasons and times to provide the tooles, and how to choose the best, and the manner how to make them fit to take each several fish.-The Second, 1. The angler's experience how to use his tools and baits to make profit by his game. 2. What fish is not taken with angle and what is: and what is best for health. 3. In what Waters and Rivers to find each fish.-The Third, 1. The

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