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simple contrivance of a rope; the ends of which being spliced together, it is fixed to a wheel and gudgeon in the water, and to a windlass at the top of the well, when the latter being turned with an ordinary degree of velocity, the water adheres to the ascending part of the rope until it arrives at the top; it is then thrown off and collected by means of a semi-circular cap, which incloses the inner wheel of the windlass: and this cap having a spout on one side of it, the water is conducted into any vessel that may be placed to receive it.

The Guard Chamber contains a small magazine of arms, curiously disposed. The pillars of the door, opening into the dining-room, are composed of pikes, on the top of which are two coats of mail, said to be those of John, King of France, and David, King of Scotland, who were prisoners here: they are both inlaid with gold; the former with fleurs de lis, and the latter with thistles. The tapestry of the dining-room is disposed in six compartments, and represents the history of Hero and Leander. The bedchamber is also hung with tapestry, which is wrought with gold and silver: the principal subject is the story of Auroclotus, king of Phrygia, and his three daughters weeping to death, by the side of the Helicon. The other rooms do not merit particular notice.

The summit of the building presents a view of great extent, and replete with variety and beauty. The windings of the Thames through a wide extent of country, the blended succession of towns and villages, open cultivated country and embowered mansion, with the scenery of the Forest, forms a circumjacent landscape, a panorama, at once beautiful and magnificent, which no pencil could delineate or language describe. The names of the following counties, which are visible from the top of the Tower, are inscribed on a board, and are twelve in number: Middlesex, Essex, Hertford, Bucks, Berks, Oxford, Wilts, Hants, Surry, Sussex, Kent, and Bedford. On a clear day, the dome of


St. Paul's may be distinguished. The royal standard is displayed on the summit of the Tower when the King is at Windsor, and also on state holidays. The flag is fourteen yards long, and eight broad.

The entrance to the royal apartments has been very much improved, by command of his Majesty, and under the direction of Mr. Wyatt. Previous to the alteration, it consisted of an elegant modern stair-case, the ceiling and sides of which were painted by Sir James Thornhill, in the reigns of Queen Anne and George the First. Behind this, was a back stair-case, which was not without its decorations. These two stair-cases have now been removed, and in the space which they occupied has been erected another, in a style admirably suited to the character of the structure to which it serves as a very superb entrance. It consists of two flights of steps, thirty-four in number, without a turning, and is surrounded by a gallery, twenty-feet in length in the front, and forty-seven feet on each side. The height is ninety nine feet; the external building having been raised about twenty feet, exclusive of the lantern, which is of an octagonal shape, forming, on the outside, an embattled tower. The angles of the ceiling are embellished with various devices, judiciously assorted to the place. The balustrade is composed of bronzed iron, with brass bases and capitals. This stair-case was begun in the year 1800, and finished in 1804. The Queen's Guard Room is the first apartment into which the visitor is conducted, in which the arms are arranged in a variety of tasteful devices. The ceiling represents the Queen consort of Charles the Second, in the character of Britannia, with her attributes; and decorated with allegorical embellishments. Over the chimney is the portrait of Prince George, of Denmark, on horseback, by Dahl, and views of shipping, by Vandervelde.

The Queen's Presence Chamber.-The same illustrious personage is made to dignify the ceiling, attended by Religion, the Cardinal Virtues, &c. Three of the Cartoons of Raphael, lately removed to Hampton Court, occupied the wall

of this room. The portraits which remain are, two Princesses of Brunswick, painted in 1609. The Duke Albert, of Saxony, by Rubens. Charles the First, his Queen, and two Children. James the First, and Charles the First, on horseback, by Vandyck. In this room are two silver chandeliers, brought from Hanover.

The Queen's Audience Chamber.-The ceiling represents Britannia in the person of Queen Catherine again, with another selection of attributes, &c. and richly-gilded decorations. The chandeliers and glasses are very magnificent. The portraits are, those of Frederick-Henry, Prince of Orange; Prince Rupert, and William, Prince of Orange; all by Honthorst. Ann, Duchess of York, by Sir P. Lely. James the First's Queen, by Van Somer. Queen of Charles the First, by Vandyck; and a Landscape, by Zucarelli.

The Ball Room.-Charles the Second is represented on the ceiling in the act of giving peace to Europe; accompanied with a variety of ingenious allegory. Four large glasses, in massive silver frames, with correspondent silver tables and chandeliers, distinguish this apartment. The portraits consist of the Duke of Hamilton, by Hanneman. The Earl of Pembroke, who was Lord Chamberlain to James the First, by Vansomer. The Countess of Carlisle, Madame de St. Croix, and the Duchess of Richmond; by Vandyck. The latter is a very beautiful picture, in which her Grace is represented in the character of St. Agnes. Her present Majesty, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of York; by Ramsay. The Princesses Mary, Sophia, and Amelia; by Copley. St. John, after Corregio; and a large Landscape, by Zucarelli.

The Queen's Drawing-Room.-The subject of its ceiling is the Assembly of the Gods, and the following paintings embellish it.-A large landscape, with the figures of Pharaoh's daughter, and Moses in the bulrushes; and six smaller ones, by Zucarelli; a Magdalen, by Sir P. Lely; Earl of Surry, by Holbein; De Bray, the painter, and his family, in the characters of Anthony and Cleopatra, by him


self; Killigrew and Carew, by Vandyck; and, from the pencil of the same great artist, the interesting portrait of Lady Venetia Digby, the wife of Sir Kenelm Digby.

The Queen's State Bedchamber.-This room has been lately enlarged to twice its former length, as is discoverable by the painted ceiling, the old part of which still remains, and is a representation of the story of Endymion and Diana. The subject of the new part is Jupiter presenting the bow to the same goddess, and is painted by Rigaud. The prin cipal paintings are, a Madona and Child, after Vandyck; Titian and a Senator of Venice, by Titian; an Holy Family, by the same; Queen of James I. by Jansen; two views near Rome, by Bamboccio; Princess Mary, by Sir P. Lely; St. John, after Corregio; John, Duke of Marlborough, by Dahl.

The King's Closet.-This room has been enlarged, with new decorations by Wyatt. It is hung with scarlet cloth, enriched with a gold border. The paintings are very numerous in this apartment, and some of them of the first class. Among them are St. Sebastian, by Guido; the Angel ap pearing to the Shepherds, by N. Poussin; two small Holy Families, by Titian; an old woman watering flowers, by G. Douw; the celebrated picture of the Misers, by Quintin Matsys; Nymphs and Satyrs, by Albano; a landscape, by Breughel; a head, by Raphael; the Last Supper, a sketch, by Rubens; a head, by Parmegiano; Peter delivered from prison, by Steenwick; Martin Luther, and Edward VI. by Holbein; a woman reading, by Corregio; milking the goat, by Berghem; two heads, by Denner, &c. &c.

The King's Dressing-Room.-The subject of the ceiling is Jupiter and Danae. The hangings are the same as those in the last-mentioned room. The principal paintings that furnish this apartment, are two heads, by Holbein; a Madona, by Carlo Dolci; ditto, by Guido; Holy Family, the school of Raphael; Madona and child, by Guercino; St. Catherine, by Guido; Jacob and his family, by F. Lauri; a Christ, a Magdalen, and Herodias' daughter, by Carlo Dolci; a portrait, said to be that of the Countess of Desmond, by Rem

brandt; two landscapes, by Wouvermans; a head, by L. da Vinci; Silence, by Annibal Caracci; James, Duke of York, by Russel; Charles the First's Queen, Vandyck, &c. &c.

The King's old State Bedchamber.—The ceiling displays Charles II. in the robes of the Garter, seated on a throne, with the four quarters of the globe paying him obeisance. The hangings are of crimson, with gilded mouldings. The bed has been some time removed. The paintings are, Charles II. when a boy, by Vandyck; the Duke of Savoy, by Moore; Charles the First's children, by Vandyck: the Emperor Charles V. by Titian; the Duke of York, his Majesty's brother, by Dance; and George II. by Shackleton.

The King's Drawing-Room.-This ceiling represents an other flattering allegorical picture of Charles II. descriptive of his restoration. This room has been lately fitted up with great elegance. The pictures are, an Holy Family, and a battle piece, by Rubens; Venus adorned by the Graces, and Perseus and Andromeda, by Guido; the converted Chinese, the finest picture of the master, by Sir Godfrey Kneller; the vision of Augustus, by Pietro di Cortona; Christ before Pilate, by Schiavoni; the Wise Men's Offering, by Luca Giordano.

The King's State Bedchamber.-The Banquet of the Gods is the subject of the ceiling; and in several parts of the coving, we will not say with the best taste, is represented a great variety of fish and fowl. The carving of this room has been removed to Hampton Court: it was by Gibbon, who was never exceeded in this branch of art. Hangings of scarlet cloth supply its place. The paintings which embellish it are, a fine piece of still life, by Kalf; Mary Queen of Scots, by Janette; Samson betrayed by the Philistines, by Vandyck; Anne, Duchess of York, and Mary, Duchess of York, by Sir P. Lely; a preceptor and his pupil, by Bassan; the apotheosis of the Princes Octavius and Alfred, by West; and a philosopher, by Spagnolet.

The King's Audience Chamber.-The subject of the ceiling is an allegorical representation of the re-establishment of

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